LDO

Report
Linear Dropout Regulator based Power
Distribution Design under Worst Loading
Amirali Shayan, Xiang Hu
Christopher Pan
Wenjian Yu
Huawei
Tsinghua University
Chung-Kuan Cheng
University of California San Diego
Agenda
 Introduction and Motivation
 LDO based PDN Design under Worst Loading
 Worst case current synthesis
 Poles/Zeros based Methodology
 Experimental Results and Trade offs
 Conclusion Remarks
Page  2
Introduction
 LDO design will enable:
– Localized on die regulation
– Relax off chip impedance
– Power saving
– Finer grain power management
 LDO design challenges
– Power consumption
– Area of the power MOSFET
– Stability of the feedback loop
– Physical design
Page  3
LDO based PDN Optimization under Worst Loading
Virtually eliminate 1st and 2nd droops
Original
Optimize Package
With LDO
|z|
VR
RPCB
RPCB
RPKG
RPKG
LDO
RDIE
TR
RDIE
TR
Power saving
opportunity
Integrated On-die LDO Shortens the PDN loop
Freq
Bulk
caps
VRM
MB
caps
Die
LDO
Package
Motherboard
Adv #1: Better dynamic power management through reduced response time
Adv #2: Maintain low package cost while provide adequate power delivery
Page  4
LDO-PDN Model of Design (1)
Operation region of the power MOSFET depends on the Vds=Vext-Vout
comparison with (Vgs-Vth).
In our analysis, power MOSFET is in the linear region.
Page  5
LDO-PDN (2) – Model Approximation
On Chip
Off Chip
Rpar
Lpar
n2
Vout
n3
Ron LDO
Cext
Rdie
Iload
Ron 
P
LDO
Z
1
I
 I
closed  loop
Rext
Cint
Cdie
Page  6
n4
bias
bias
 Vdd
(f)
ext
Z
open  loop
(f)
1  Gain
op  amp
Proposed Flow for Worst Case Loading LDO Optimization
LDO model
PDN model
Zclose loop(f)
Poles/Zeros
LDO PDN
Step Response
Worst Stimuli
Max Voltage
Drop
Optimization
Page  7
Optimum
PLDO / Con chip
Problem Formulation
Minimize
Subject
V
to
(t )  F { I
1
max
P
LDO
step load
( s )  Z ( s )}
 P
0
C C
on chip
|| I
( t ) ||  I
0
load step
C
1
peak
 P = LDO Power
 C = Decoupling Capacitor
 P0 = Power limit
 I peak = Peak loading current of functional block
 Vmax = Worst voltage drop based on rogue wave
 Z LDO-PDN = impedance profile of ldo-pdn
Page  8
LDO-PDN Output Impedance
z(s) 
0.009(s  2.0011)(s  0.0107  0 . 0156 i )
(s  1.8177)(s  0.0125  0.0142i)
 impedance zero =
– Z1=-2.0011 x 1e9
– Z4,5= -0.0107 ± 0.0156i × 1e9
 impedance pole =
– p1=-1.8177
– p4,5= -0.0125 ± 0.0142i × 1e9
 Impedance k= 0.0091
Page  9
Step Response of the LDO-PDN
V (s) 
1
k
Z (s) 
s
k 
1
2
k 
2
s p
1
k
1
s p
1
1
2
1
3
p ( p  p )( p  p )
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
3
p ( p  p )( p  p )
2
2
1
2
3
1
Page  10
3
2
3
3
p ( p  p )( p  p )
3
4
s p
3
3
1
3
  0 . 1011
 0 . 0002  0 . 1396 i  A  Bi
3
( p  z )( p  z )( p  z )
4
2
k
3
( p  z )( p  z )( p  z )
3

3
3
1
k 

2
( p  z )( p  z )( p  z )
2
k 
k
3
p p p
1

s
zz z
1
1
2
 0 . 0002  0 . 1396 i  A  Bi
Analytical Worst Step Response
V (t )  k  k e
1
  0 . 0125  10
  0 . 014  10
v
t
V
 t
9
9
 0  t  2 . 12  10
9
0
t is samll
v
t
 2 e [ A cos(  t )  B sin(  t )]
p1t
2
0 t 
k
t is l arg e
k k e
wc
1
2
p1t 0
1

[arctan(
)  k ]
0 . 0017
 t
 2 Ae
0 . 003

0  2  A cos(  t )  B sin(  t ) e
k
k


arctan( 0 . 002 / 0 . 001 )
1
.

1 e
 1 . 2048
Page  11




“Rogue Wave” Phenomenon
 Worst-case noise response: The maximum noise is formed when a long
and slow oscillation followed by a short and fast oscillation.
 Rogue wave: In oceanography, a large wave is formed when a long and
slow wave hits a sudden quick wave.
High-frequency oscillation corresponds to the resonance of the 1st stage
0.04
0.03
Voltage (V)
0.02
0.01
0
-0.01
-0.02
-0.03
Page  12
0
0.5
Low-frequency oscillation corresponds to the resonance of the 2nd stage
1
Time (sec)
1.5
2
x 10
-6
Ideal Worst-Case PDN Noise
 Problem formulation I
m ax v ( t )
s.t.
0  i(t)  b
 PDN noise:
t
v (t ) 
 h ( )i ( t   ) d 
0
h ( ): P D N im pulse response
 Worst-case current [Xiang ’09]:
i ( t   )  b for h ( )  0
i ( t   )  0 for h ( )  0
Zero current transition time. Unrealistic!
Page  13
Rogue Wave based Current Vector Synthesis
Vector based Current
Activity
Impedance of the
PDN
Partition
Impulse
Response
FFT based
convolution
Max partition
Synthesized
Synthesized
Synthesized
Stimuli
Stimuli
Stimuli
Max Voltage Drop
Sign
Off
Page  14
14
Algorithm for Vector-based Rogue Wave Generation
for i = 0 to N-window_size
Begin
sum each current peak of current pattern(i, i+window_size - 1)
End
sorted_list_des = sorting the sum of the intervals of current peak descending
sorted_list_asc = sorting the sum of the intervals of current peak ascending
//here is for worst-case calculating
for i = 0 to N-window_size and i is increased by window_size //N is
the size of impulse_reseponse
if impulse_response(i) > 0
current_list = sorted_list_des
else
current_list = sorted_list_asc
End
for j = 0 to M - window_size + 1
//M is the size of current pattern
idx_current = current_list(j)
tmp_val = convolution of impulse_response(i, i + window_size - 1) and
current_pattern(idx_current, idx_current + window_size -1)
if tmp_val > max_val
max_val = tmp_val
max_current(i, i+window_size -1) = current_pattern(idx_current,
idx_current + window_size - 1)
else
break
end
end //end of for j
end //end of for i
Complexity of algorithm = N log( m )
N= Impulse response size
m= Current windows size
Page  15
2
Vector-based Synthetic Rogue Wave
Page  16
Rogue-wave Synthesis Resolution Window Sensitivity to Vmax
For the rest of analysis, window resolution = 3nsec is chosen.
Page  17
Vmax LDO-PDN Voltage Drop (Overshoot)
Overshoot is a main concern for:
Reliability of devices
Hold margins
Page  18
Vmin LDO-PDN Voltage Drop (Undershoot)
undershoot is a main concern for:
Functional failures
Page  19
Optimum Configuration:
Optimal Decap = 350pF
Optimal Power= 20uW
Noise = ~10mV
Conclusion and Summary
 Introduced a design flow for worst case loading based on LDO poles and
zeros.
 Proposed an optimization based on the step response and rogue wave in
LDO system.
 Analyzed LDO power and decap area trade off in the LDO based system.
 Experimental result show the target voltage drop budget will be met under
worst loading with optimum LDO power and decoupling value.
Page  20

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