Intro 7

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Chapter 8 Section 1
I can: describe the movement of
Americans out West
Growth of the Mining Industry
• The growing industries in the East needed the
West’s rich deposits of gold, silver, and
copper.
• These deposits brought settlers to the West’s
mountain states.
• Prospectors used simple equipment like
picks, shovels, and pans: placer mining.
(pages 286–288)
Growth of the Mining Industry
• Corporations dug deep beneath the surface
to mine the deposits of ore known as quartz
mining.
• In 1859 prospector Henry Comstock staked a
claim for a silver mine in Six-Mile Canyon,
Nevada.
(cont.)
• This caused Virginia City, Nevada, to go from
an outpost to a boomtown almost overnight.
(pages 286–288)
Growth of the Mining Industry
(cont.)
• Several years later, the mines ran
out of silver and the boomtown became a
ghost town.
• The cycle of boom and bust was repeated
throughout the mountainous West.
• During boom times, crime was a serious
problem.
• Vigilance committees formed to track
down and punish wrongdoers.
(pages 286–288)
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Growth of the Mining Industry
(cont.)
• Mining helped the growth of Colorado, the
Dakota Territory, and Montana.
• Mining in Colorado spurred the building of
railroads through the Rocky Mountains.
• Denver became the supply point for the
mining areas and the second largest city in
the West after San Francisco.
Deadwood, SD
(pages 286–288)
Growth of the Mining Industry
(cont.)
How did the mining industry affect towns and
cities in the West?
Mining caused a cycle of boom and bust–from
boomtown to ghost town. During booms, crime
was a serious problem. Vigilance committees
formed to track down and punish wrongdoers.
The mining industry in Colorado led to the
building of railroads through the Rocky
Mountains. Denver became the supply point for
the mining areas and the second largest city in
the West.
(pages 286–288)
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Ranching and Cattle Drives
• After the Civil War, many Americans began
building large cattle ranches on the Great
Plains.
• The Texas longhorn was a breed of cattle that
could survive the harsh climate of the plains.
• The cattle ranching industry grew in part
because of the open range–vast areas of
grasslands owned by the federal government.
(pages 288–291)
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Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
• After the Civil War, beef prices soared.
• This made it worthwhile to round up the
longhorns.
• The first long drive in 1866 across the Great
Plains to the railroad in Sedalia, Missouri.
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Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
• The major route for moving cattle was the
Chisholm Trail that went from Texas to
Abilene, Kansas.
• A long drive began with the spring roundup
to collect cattle from the open range.
• The cattle were divided and branded.
• Then cowboys moved the herds of cattle
along the trails to the rail lines.
(pages 288–291)
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Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
• Most cowboys were former Confederate
army soldiers, a few were Hispanic, and many
were African American.
• The long cattle drives ended when the open
range was largely fenced off with barbed
wire.
• Investors from the East and from Britain put
money into the cattle business, causing an
oversupply of animals on the market.
(pages 288–291)
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Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
• Prices for cattle greatly dropped.
• Many ranchers went bankrupt.
(pages 288–291)
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Ranching and Cattle Drives (cont.)
How did the invention and use of barbed wire
affect the cattle industry?
The long cattle drives and open grazing ended
when the open range was largely fenced off
with barbed wire.
(pages 288–291)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
__
E 1.
__
B 2.
__
A 3.
D 4.
__
C 5.
__
a stray calf with no identifying
symbol
method of extracting minerals
involving digging beneath the
surface
method of extracting mineral
ore by hand using simple tools,
like picks, shovels, and pans
driving cattle long distances to a
railroad depot for fast transport
and great profit
vast areas of grassland owned by
the federal government
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A. placer mining
B. quartz mining
C.
open range
D. long drive
E.
maverick
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
List the factors that contributed to
the rise of the cattle industry.
Factors include emergence of the longhorn breed, higher
beef prices,
and railroad transportation.
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Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Explain how cattle ranching shifted
from open range to an organized business operation.
Barbed wire eliminated long drives,
and the cowboy became a ranch hand.
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Reviewing Themes
Economic Factors What two developments in the late
1800s led
to the decline of the cattle business?
An oversupply of cattle drove down prices, and the winter of
1886 to 1887 killed a large number of cattle.
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Critical Thinking
Evaluating How did the mining industry contribute to the
development of the West?
People moved west, towns sprung up, and railroads
expanded.
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Analyzing Visuals
Examining Maps Study the map detailing the western
mining country and cattle trails on page 289 of your
textbook. Then create your own thematic map detailing
either the cattle country or the mining country.
Maps will vary.
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Close
Describe the ways new technology
changed open-range ranching.
Click the Speaker button
to listen to the audio again.
Chapter 8 Section 2
I can: explain the living conditions
for settlers of the Great Plains
Geography of the Plains
• The Great Plains region extends westward to
the Rocky Mountains from 100th meridian
• Rainfall on the Great Plains averages less
than 20 inches per year.
• Trees only grow naturally along rivers and
streams and on hilltops.
• Huge herds of buffalo once grazed on the
prairie grasses of the Great Plains.
(pages 292–293)
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Geography of the Plains (cont.)
• Major Stephen Long explored the Great
Plains with an army expedition in 1819.
• He called it the “Great American Desert”
(pages 292–293)
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North Dakota Sod Home 1895
Early 1900’s Sod Home
Nebraska Sod Home 1886
Two Story Sod House
Geography of the Plains (cont.)
What is the geography of the Great Plains?
The Great Plains region extends westward to
the Rocky Mountains from around the 100th
meridian–an imaginary line running north and
south from the central Dakotas through western
Texas. Rainfall averages less than 20 inches per
year. Trees only grow naturally along rivers and
streams and on hilltops.
(pages 292–293)
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The Beginnings of Settlement
• Railroad companies sold land along the rail
lines at low prices and provided credit.
• The federal government helped settle the
Great Plains by passing the Homestead Act in
1862.
• For $10, a settler could file for a homestead,
or a tract of public land available for
settlement.
(page 293)
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The Beginnings of Settlement (cont.)
• The homesteader could get up to 160 acres
of public land
• Settlers on the Plains found life very difficult.
• Summer temperatures soaring over 100°F
and winters with blizzards and extreme cold.
• Prairie fires and swarms of grasshoppers
were a danger and a threat.
(page 293)
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The Beginnings of Settlement (cont.)
How did the railroads and the federal government
help settle the Great Plains?
Railroads provided easy access to the Great Plains.
Railroad companies sold land along the rail lines at
low prices and provided credit. The federal
government passed the Homestead Act in 1862. For
$10, a settler could file for a homestead. The
homesteader could get up to 160 acres of public
land and could receive title of it after living there
five years.
(page 293)
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The Wheat Belt
• Many inventions and new farming methods
made farming on the Great Plains very
profitable.
• dry farming method–planting seeds deep
in the ground where there was enough
moisture for them to grow.
• Farmers on the Great Plains used newly
designed steel plows, seed drills, reapers,
and threshing machines.
(pages 294–295)
The Wheat Belt (cont.)
• These machines made dry farming possible.
• Farmers could work large tracts of land
with the machines.
• Farmers who plowed the soil on the Great
Plains were called sodbusters.
• Many of them lost their homesteads
because of drought, wind erosion, and
overuse of the land.
(pages 294–295)
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The Wheat Belt (cont.)
• New technology, such as the mechanical
reapers and binders and threshing machines,
made farming more profitable.
• The innovations were also well suited for
harvesting wheat, which could withstand
drought better
Mechanical Reaper
Threshing Machine
The Wheat Belt (cont.)
• Bonanza farms, were much larger than singlefamily farms and covered up to 50,000 acres.
• These farms often brought the owners large
profits.
• Several events caused Great Plains farmers to
fall on hard times.
• 1880’s a prolonged drought forced many to
leave, 1890’s a glut of wheat caused prices to
drop severely.
(pages 294–295)
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The Wheat Belt (cont.)
Why did much of the Great Plains region
become the Wheat Belt?
Wheat withstood drought better than other
crops, so it became the most important crop on
the Great Plains. Wheat farmers from
Minnesota and other Midwestern states moved
to the Great Plains in large numbers to take
advantage of the inexpensive land and the new
farming technology.
(pages 294–295)
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Closing the Frontier
• April 22, 1889, over 10,000 people raced to
stake claims in new territory that later
became Oklahoma.
• In 1890 the Census Bureau reported that the
frontier was closing.
• This concerned people who believed the
frontier provided them with a new start
(page 295)
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Closing the Frontier
• Many settlers in the Great Plains did make a
fresh start.
• They adapted to the environment by getting
water from deep wells and getting supplies
that railroads had shipped.
(page 295)
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Starting Line
The Race
Closing the Frontier (cont.)
Why was the Census Bureau’s report of 1890
disturbing to some people?
The news that the frontier was closing
concerned those who believed that the frontier
offered a place for Americans to make a fresh
start.
(page 295)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
__
A 1.
method of acquiring a piece of
U.S. public land by living on and
cultivating it
__
C 2.
a name given to Great Plains
farmers
__
D 3.
a large, highly-profitable wheat
farm
__
B 4.
a way of farming dry land in
which seeds are planted deep in
the ground where there is some
moisture
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A. homestead
B. dry farming
C.
sodbuster
D. bonanza farm
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Explain why the Great Plains was not suitable for
homesteading.
Geography and climate made the Great Plains not suitable
for homesteading.
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Reviewing Themes
Science and Technology How did the need for new farming
techniques on the Great Plains result in technological
innovations in agriculture?
Mechanical reapers, binders, and threshing machines
were all created
to help farmers harvest large tracts
of farmland quickly.
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Critical Thinking
Analyzing What factors contributed
to the making of the Wheat Belt in the Great Plains and
then to troubled times for wheat farmers in the 1890s?
The Homestead Act and new farming techniques and
equipment helped develop the Wheat Belt. Good harvests
and world competition caused
a glut that caused prices to drop.
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Analyzing Visuals
Examining Photographs Study the photograph of farmers
using binding machines in western Wisconsin on page 293 of
your textbook. Based on the terrain and the type of work they
needed to do, what other types of technology would have
helped farmers on the Plains?
Possible answer: Windmills would have helped by supplying
power and irrigation.
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Close
Study commercial farming in the Plains.
Chapter 8 Section 3
I can: discuss the impact that
westward expansion had on Native
Americans
Guide to Reading
Main Idea
The settlement of the West dramatically changed the way of life of the
Plains Indians.
Key Terms and Names
•
nomad
•
annuity
•
Little Crow
•
Indian Peace Commission
•
George A. Custer
•
Ghost Dance
•
assimilate
•
allotment
•
Dawes Act
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Click the Speaker button
to listen to the audio again.
Culture of the Plains Indians
• Most Native Americans of the Great Plains
were nomads who moved from place to
place in search of food.
• They followed the herds of buffalo.
• They lived in extended family networks and
had a close relationship with nature.
(pages 297–298)
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Culture of the Plains Indians (cont.)
• They were divided into bands with a
governing council.
• Most Native American groups practiced a
belief in the spiritual power of the natural
world.
(pages 297–298)
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Culture of the Plains Indians (cont.)
What was the culture of the Great
Plains Indians?
Some Native Americans of the Great Plains lived in
communities and farmed and hunted. Most Native
Americans of the Great Plains were nomads who
followed herds of buffalo. Native American groups
lived in extended family networks and had a close
relationship with nature. They were divided into
bands with a governing council. They practiced a
religion based on a belief in the spiritual power of
the natural world.
(pages 297–298)
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Cultures Under Pressure
• Native Americans had been under pressure
for years from advancing white settlement.
• The Dakota Sioux agreed to live on a small
reservation in Minnesota, in exchange for
annuities paid by the federal government to
the reservation dwellers.
• The annuities were very small and often
taken from them by American traders.
(pages 298–300)
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Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
• In 1862 Congress delayed payments of the
annuities.
• Some Sioux began starving.
• Chief Little Crow asked traders to give his
people food on credit, which was denied
• The Dakota began an uprising that led to
the deaths of hundreds of settlers.
(pages 298–300)
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Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
• The U.S. army sent patrols into the northern
Great Plains to prevent further uprisings
• The Lakota Sioux were nomads who
feared losing their hunting grounds.
• In December 1866, Chief Red Cloud’s
forces defeated a U.S. army detachment in
Montana in what is called Fetterman’s
Massacre.
(pages 298–300)
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Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
• In the 1860s, tensions between the Cheyenne
and Arapaho Native Americans and the
miners in Colorado increased.
• Bands of Native Americans attacked wagon
trains and ranches in Colorado.
• The territorial governor ordered the Native
Americans to peacefully surrender at Fort
Lyon.
(pages 298–300)
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Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
• Instead of negotiating peace with the
Cheyenne, the U.S. army attacked them in
what has become known as the Sand Creek
Massacre.
• In 1867 Indian Peace Commission, which
proposed creating two large reservations on
the Plains.
• The Bureau of Indian Affairs would run the
reservations.
(pages 298–300)
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Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
• The U.S. army would deal with any groups
that did not report to or remain on the
reservations.
• This plan was doomed to failure.
• Signing treaties did not ensure that
the government or Native Americans
would abide by their terms.
(pages 298–300)
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Cultures Under Pressure (cont.)
What events led to the formation of the Indian
Peace Commission?
Fetterman’s Massacre, the Sand Creek
Massacre, and several other conflicts between
Native Americans of the Plains and white
settlers and the U.S. army convinced Congress
to create the Indian Peace Commission.
(pages 298–300)
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The Last Native American Wars
• By the 1870s, buffalo were rapidly
disappearing.
• By 1889 very few buffalo remained.
• The buffalo were killed by migrants crossing
the Great Plains, professional buffalo
hunters, and sharpshooters hired by
railroads
(pages 301–302)
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The Last Native American Wars
(cont.)
• Many Native Americans left their
reservations to hunt buffalo on the
open plains.
• When American settlers violated the treaties,
the Native Americans saw no reason to abide
by them.
• In 1876 the U.S. government sent troops after
the Lakota near the Bighorn Mountains.
(pages 301–302)
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The Last Native American Wars
(cont.)
• George A. Custer, commander of
the Seventh Cavalry attacked the Lakota and
Cheyenne warriors camped at the Little
Bighorn River.
• The Native Americans killed all the soldiers.
(pages 301–302)
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The Last Native American Wars
(cont.)
• The Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph, refused
to move to a reservation in Idaho in 1877.
• They fled, but later were forced to surrender
and move to Oklahoma.
• In 1890, the Lakota were ordered by a
government agent to stop the Ghost Dance–a
ritual that was celebrating the hope that the
whites would disappear, the buffalo would
return, and Native Americans would reunite
with their ancestors.
(pages 301–302)
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The Last Native American Wars
(cont.)
• The dancers fled the reservation and were
chased by the U.S. troops to Wounded Knee
Creek.
• Many Lakota were killed.
• This was the final Native American
resistance to federal authority.
(pages 301–302)
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The Last Native American Wars
(cont.)
Why did many Native Americans leave their
reservations?
They preferred hunting buffalo on the open
Plains, so they joined others who had left the
reservations. Many Native Americans saw no
reason to abide by treaties that were violated
by the whites.
(pages 301–302)
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Assimilation
• Some Americans had opposed the treatment
of Native Americans.
• Some people thought Native Americans could
assimilate, or be absorbed into American
society as landowners and citizens.
(page 302)
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Assimilation (cont.)
• This included breaking up reservations into
individual allotments, where Native
Americans would live in families and support
themselves.
• This became the policy when Congress passed
the Dawes Act in 1887.
• The Dawes Act was a failure.
• Few Native Americans had the training
or enthusiasm for farming or ranching.
(page 302)
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Assimilation (cont.)
• Most allotments were too small to make a
profit
• Few Native Americans were willing or able to
adopt the American settlers’ lifestyles in
place of their own culture.
(page 302)
Assimilation (cont.)
Why was the idea of assimilation of the Native
Americans a failure?
Few Native Americans had the training or
enthusiasm for farming or ranching. They found
the allotments too small to be profitable. Few
Native Americans were willing or able to adopt
the American settlers’ lifestyles in place of their
own culture.
(page 302)
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Checking for Understanding
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
__
A 1.
a person who moves from place
to place, usually in search of
food or grazing land
__
C 2.
to absorb a group into the
culture of a larger population
__
D 3.
a plot of land assigned to an
individual or family for
cultivation
B 4.
__
money paid by contract on
regular intervals
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A. nomad
B. annuity
C.
assimilate
D. allotment
Checking for Understanding (cont.)
Analyze how Native Americans responded to land lost due
to white settlement of the Great Plains.
Native Americans attacked wagon trains and ranches, and
they killed settlers
and soldiers.
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Reviewing Themes
Individual Action How did Chief Joseph resist the
government’s attempts to move the Nez Perce to
reservations?
Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce fled 1,300 miles before
surrendering.
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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Why do you think the government’s policy of
assimilation
of Native Americans was a failure?
After the buffalo herds were wiped out, Native Americans
were unwilling or unable to live like American settlers.
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Analyzing Visuals
Analyzing Maps Examine the map of battle sites and
reservations on page 300 of your textbook. Then, from the
point of view of a historian, explain the actions taken
against Native Americans within the historical context of
the time.
Answers will vary.
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Close
Summarize problems caused by attempts
to assimilate Native Americans.
End of
Reviewing Key Terms
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
__
H 1.
money paid by contract on
regular intervals
A.
placer mining
B.
quartz mining
method of extracting minerals
involving digging beneath the
surface
C.
open range
D.
maverick
a stray calf with no identifying
symbol
E.
dry farming
F.
sodbuster
__
I 4.
to absorb a group into the
culture of a larger population
G.
bonanza farm
__
E 5.
a way of farming dry land in
which seeds are planted deep in
the ground where there is some
moisture
H.
annuity
I.
assimilate
J.
allotment
__
B 2.
__
D 3.
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Reviewing Key Terms (cont.)
Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the
left.
__
F 6.
__
A 7.
__ 8.
G
__ 9.
J
a name given to Great Plains
farmers
A.
placer mining
B.
quartz mining
method of extracting mineral
ore by hand using simple tools,
like picks, shovels, and pans
C.
open range
D.
maverick
a large, highly-profitable wheat
farm
E.
dry farming
F.
sodbuster
a plot of land assigned to an
individual family for cultivation
G.
bonanza farm
H.
annuity
I.
assimilate
J.
allotment
__ 10. vast areas of grassland owned by
the federal government
C
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Reviewing Key Facts
What led to the start of boomtowns,
and what caused their decline?
The discovery of copper, gold, or silver led to the start of
boomtowns. When
a lode played out, mines closed
and the towns’ economies collapsed.
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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
What new invention finally brought an end to the open
range on the Great Plains?
Barbed wire brought an end to the open range.
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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
How did the railroads boost the settlement of the West?
Railroad companies sold land along rail lines at low
prices, provided credit to prospective settlers, and
advertised the benefits of booking passage to the
Plains.
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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
Why was wheat a suitable crop to grow on the Great
Plains?
Wheat could be cultivated using
dry farming.
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Reviewing Key Facts (cont.)
What events brought the way of life
of the Plains Indians to an end?
White settlers moving west, railroad construction, the
widespread slaughter
of buffalo, and wars brought the Plains Indians’ way of life to
an end.
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Critical Thinking
Analyzing Themes: Economic Factors Do you think that
people moved to and settled in the West primarily for
economic reasons? Why or why not?
Many did move for the hope of riches; others for adventure,
freedom, or a
fresh start.
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Critical Thinking (cont.)
Drawing Conclusions Why do you think that so many
people were willing
to give up their homes and move to mining towns and
homesteads in the West?
Many settlers thought that they could prosper in the West.
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Geography and History
The graph below shows Native American population from1850 to
1900. Study the graph and answer the questions on the following
slides.
Chapter
Geography and History (cont.)
Interpreting Graphs What does
the graph indicate about Native
American populations between
1850 and 1900?
The populations declined
steadily.
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Chapter
Geography and History (cont.)
Understanding Cause and Effect
What factor caused the Native
American populations to decline
sharply between 1880 and 1890?
Native Americans suffered high
casualty rates in conflicts with
white settlers.
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Chapter
Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question.
Which of the following factors provided an incentive for people
to try to farm the Great Plains?
A Long cattle drives
B Barbed wire
C The Homestead Act
D Placer mining
Test-Taking Tip When you are not sure of an answer, it can be
helpful to use the process of elimination. Eliminate the answers
that you know are incorrect. For instance, long cattle drives had to
do with ranching, not farming. Therefore, you can eliminate
answer A.
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Chapter
How the West was Lost
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Chapter

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