TROPICAL RAINFORESTS Holly Jack Nate Ryan Z. Botany Botanist- Jack Taxonomy Species in the World Species in Peru Species in the Peruvian Amazon Peru vs. World (Percent) Peruvian Amazon vs. Peru (Percent) Amphibians 5,125 403 262 8% 65% Birds 9,672 1,816 806 19% 54% Flowering Plants 263,537 17,144 7,372 7% 43% Ferns 10,000 1,000 700 10% 70% Mammals 4,629 462 293 10% 63% Butterflies 16,000 3,366 2,500 21% 74% Fish 8,411 900 697 11% 77% Reptiles 7,855 395 180 5% 46% Medicinal Plants in the Peruvian Amazon: Local Name English Name Uses Abuta Velvet Leaf Fever, diabetes, Malaria, menstrual cramps ulcers, etc.. Local Name English Name Uses Ajo Garlie Flu, colds, high blood pressure Local Name English Name Uses Amasisa Swamp Imorteli Skin infection, fever and cold Banana Plant Orchid Coffee Brazil Nut Tree Poinsettia Cacao Rubber Tree Heliconia Sapodilla Bromeliad CLIMATE The Peruvian Amazon is a rainy, humid and warm! May to October tends to be cooler and there is less precipitation during this season. From November to April, there is a chance for heavier rains and warmer temperatures. About 80% of rainfall occurs during these months. Rain can last for hours, or even days without stopping. Average high temperatures and low temperatures are from 62 degrees up to 93 degrees during the day. The low land sections of the Peruvian Amazon can receive approximately two meters of rain annually and have temperatures ranging between 79 degrees at night to 90 degrees during the day. Year around, occasionally cold fronts can bring temperatures down to a low of 45 degrees. BOTANY: SOURCES Δ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tropical_rainforest Δ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peruvian_Amazon Δ http://www.leslietaylor.net/rainforest/rainforest.ht ml Δ http://www.ecorazzi.com/2012/02/08/ten-amazingrainforest-plants/ Zoology Zoologist- Holly WHAT ARE SOME ABIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST? Abiotic - Characterized by the absence of life Such as… Sunlight Rain Overall climate *the creatures that live in the rainforest have adapted to these certain environmental details. If it were to change, it would have an impact on the health of the ecosystem* In the rainforest, the non-living factors that have an impact on the creatures living there would obviously be rainfall, temperature, wind etc. Animals always interact with their environment in order to survive. Every second of every day animals are fighting for their lives. Looking for food, building a shelter and things like that. They have to be familiar with their surroundings in order to do these things. The weather of the habitat has an impact on what they are able to do for their families and themselves. WHAT ARE SOME BIOTIC FACTORS AFFECTING THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST? Biotic - A living thing (plant or animal) that influences or affects an ecosystem Sunlight and shade can affect how some plants grow- below the trees in the rainforest, you might not find much plant life, but in other areas, you might find more species than others. There are certain plants that can invade other’s roots and infest one area. There is a certain kind of plant that was brought here to America by foreigners that grows up trees and wraps around them and suffocates the tree to death. There are also all the animals that feed on only plants (herbivores) and others that eat plants and meat (omnivores). Then, there are always carnivorous plants that feed on insect or larger ones might feed on small animals, but they are particularly rare. HERBIVORES OF THE RAINFORESTS: Gorillas Spider monkeys Asian Elephant Capybara Okapi CARNIVORES OF THE RAINFOREST: Python Wood ants Tigers Jaguars Pumas Leopards The giant ant eater OMNIVORES OF THE RAINFOREST: Two-toed sloth Orangutan Chimpanzee Toucan The gorilla mainly lives in Africa by the equator. They are almost completely herbivores- they do eat insects. Their diet consists of: leaves, shoots, stems, roots, bark and insects. Mountain Gorillas have to adapt to higher altitudes. The capybara is a rodent that lives in the rainforest by the amazon. They are semi-aquatic which means they have adapted to life in the water. Like rabbits, capybaras practice coprophogy. Coprophagy is an adaptation that helps this animals to get the most nourishment from their food since it passes through their digestive tract twice. The okapi is an animal that is related to the zebra, but however is more closely related to the giraffe. The okapi is a herbivore that lives in the rainforests in Africa. They use their tongue to eat leaves off plants in the forest. They learn about their environment more as they live there, they know where to get food and are familiar with their surroundings. The giant anteater has a diet that consists of ants, termites and other insects. They have to adapt to their surrounding just like every other animal and most likely had a mother to train or prepare them for adulthood so they could be successful predators and fend for themselves. Tigers are the largest species of cat living in the rainforest. Currently, they are facing the threat of extinction due to poaching and habitat loss. Because of this, their species is having to live on less than normal and sometimes, to the extreme, have to move to a whole new environment. In these new places, they have to find food and shelter for their families and themselves. Jaguars can swim and fish- they tend to hunt mostly at night. They prey on frogs, fish, turtles, small rodents, deer and caiman (a small tropical/American crocodilian species). A jaguar’s diet is vast, so they shouldn’t have much trouble finding food. They were taught by their mother to swim and hunt so they could be successful predators. A two-toed sloth moves extremely slow, so they have developed a particular trait that has enabled them to survive on a low calorie diet. This diet allows them to spend most of their time living in the trees which is up off the ground and away from predators. Their diet consists of leaves, fruits, slow-moving animals and bird eggs. Orangutans are an endangered species due to poaching and habitat loss. They mostly live in the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Like many endangered animals, they are constantly having to immigrate and adapt to new habitats. Chimpanzees live in social communities of several animals. They can adapt to African rainforests. They generally eat fruit and plants, but they also enjoy eggs, insects and meat including carrion (scavenging for already killed prey) and smaller monkeys. PRIMARY SECONDARY DECOMPOSER TERMITES FUNGI ANTS DECOMPOSERS EAT DEAD, ORGANIC MATTER TERMITES Termites make nests in the rainforests trees and they eat the dead wood of the tree to help it grow. They are also eaten by frogs, birds and giant anteaters. FUNGI Fungi helps break down dead plants, releasing nutrients that help living plants grow. ANTS Ants eat decaying animal flesh and fungi. *Fun Fact* Ants grow their own fungi in underground gardens! SOURCES Abiotic/Biotic Features: http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/rainforest.html http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm http://www2.needham.k12.ma.us/nhs/cur/Bio96_97/P3/TropicalRF/cgdb3.html http://www.reference.com/motif/science/abiotic-factors-affecting-the-tropical-rainforest http://www.slideshare.net/CarrieUnderwood/the-environment-the-abiotic-and-biotic-interaction Watch this: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RiBP1FiNRCw Animals: http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/gorilla/habitat-&-distribution.htm http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/troprain.htm http://books.google.com/books?id=SOuIwf9ctK0C&pg=PA2965&lpg=PA2965&dq=are+wood+ants+carnivores &source=bl&ots=ydbgD9vwQ6&sig=Uz_qG0LFPFESlG_Qh1aTqaZJ0o&hl=en&sa=X&ei=BuhRUajnK4WNygHyvYHYBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepag e&q=are%20wood%20ants%20carnivores&f=false http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/birds/Allaboutbirds.html http://www.ehow.com/info_8167770_animals-carnivores-tropical-rainforest.html http://www.ehow.com/info_8082290_types-tropical-rain-forest-herbivores.html http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/chimpanzee/ http://addiesrainforest.weebly.com/decomposers.html Meteorology Meteorologist- Nate TEMPERATURES Temperatures range from 68-93°F HUMIDITY Average humidity is between 77-88% SUNSHINE/DAYLIGHT TOTALS The Tropical Rainforests regularly receive about 12 hours of daylight year round. WIND SPEEDS In the Tropical Rainforest, average wind speeds vary from 35-50 kilometers per hour. There are roughly two dry months during the year the Amazon Rainforests and most others receive most rain during fall and spring The rain in the Rainforest is mainly about 260 cubic inches per year Geography Geographer- Ryan Z. GEOGRAPHY The rain forest covers 6% if the world it is located in Central America, The Amazon, Africa, southern Asia, and Australia. Many people live in the rain forest. When farmers run out of land they cut down trees in the rain forest. By the year 2000 about 6.57 billion cubic feet of the rainforests where cut down. There are a lot of trees and it is very hilly.