The Enlightenment The Enlightenment Belief in the supremacy of reason over pleasure; conviction that humans could perfect society through the application of the intellect to human affairs Science takes its place for the first time The Philosophes Thinkers who advocated reason Paris: center of the movement Search for universal laws in human affairs Scorned superstition, Christianity: Voltaire Encyclopedia--All human knowledge: Diderot Deism: God created universe to operate rationally Rousseau Most popular of the Enlightenment Natural goodness of humans; value of freedom and equality Respect for humans in nature: Native Am. Concept of “general will” Flaws in society and institution cause social injustice Rococo Style Softer, more delicate style than Baroque Rocaille: shell-like decoration used in gardens. Art as happy, witty, frivolous, playful The Salons Social gathering: dining, entertainment, conversation Wealthy women Mme. Geoffrin: Rousseau, Diderot Helped finance Encyclopedia Discussion of ideas and events The Art of Rococo Watteau: Gersaint’s Signboard Fragonard’s The Swing Vigee-Lebrun: Self-Portrait with Her Daughter (Friend of Marie-Antoinette) Mozart and Opera Independent musician: no patron Began at age 6. Composed more than 600 works: 20 operas and 41 symphonies Joseph II of Austria sponsored him Balance of music and drama in opera The Marriage of Figaro; Don Giovanni; The Magic Flute The Bourgeois Response Figaro based on a French play. Condemned aristocratic privilege Middle class gained influence Art reflected their moral attitudes The Bourgeois Style in Painting Greuze: The Bride of the Village Chardin: Boy Spinning Top Middle class values The Rise of the Novel Epistolary novels Novels of manners: Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility The Neoclassical Style Style of the later eighteenth century that imitated the art of ancient Greece and Rome Neoclassical Architecture The Petit Trianon, Versailles Influence of Palladio Thomas Jefferson: Ambassador to France Monticello in Virginia Neoclassical Painting Jacques-Louis David: Oath of the Horatii 1784: Painting embodied leading principles of neoclassicism: didactic purpose, purity of form, and deep passion restrained by good taste. Revolt against rococo David involved in French Revolution Lictors Bearing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons : Civic duty higher than love The Classical Symphony Order, proportion, harmony Haydn: Symphony--4 movements--sonata form( three-part structure still used today) Mozart: ability to create effortless transitions between sections and build symmetrical structure for his music The Age of Satire Aims to improve society by humorous criticism Attacks on social ills Jonathan Swift A Modest Proposal recommended that poor Irish children be butchered, roasted and served for Sunday dinners. It would reduce population and provide income. Gulliver’s Travels Horses put humans to shame. Mocked humans as Yahoos Not convinced of human decency Satire and Society in Art Hogarth’s Marriage a la Mode mocks social climbers and marriage for money Gainsborough: Mr. and Mrs. Andrews: Vanity of England’s aristocrats Voltaire Opposed evils of religious bigotry and political oppression Candide makes fun of optimists Cultivate your own garden: reject philosophical solutions; cultivate himself, work hard and seek a comfortable and reasonable life.