slides - The University of Nottingham

Report
Introduction to Safe Working for
Scientific Research Workers and
Post Graduate Students
Sarah Watson
Assistant Safety Officer
University Safety Officer. Ext 13301
http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/safety/docs/SB-PG-Safety.ppt
Complete the attendance sheets that will circulate
PRINT NAME
SIGN
SCHOOL & DIVISION
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Programme
1.
Safety - Why bother ?
2.
General Precautions
3.
Specific Hazards
4.
Emergency Procedures
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Safety – why bother?
•Legal Duty
•Moral Duty
•££££££££
•Reputation
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Legal Duties upon the University
Duties towards employees AND people
affected by undertaking (students/visitors):
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Workplace – access, egress, circulation
Equipment, tools, substances
Procedures
Training and supervision
Welfare - toilets, washing facilities
So far as is reasonably practicable
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A lot of legislation applies to research at
the University – just a few examples……
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General
First aid
Fire
Noise
Lead
Asbestos
Highly flammable liq
Ionising Radiations
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COSHH
Genetic modification
Electricity
Pressure systems
Work equipment
PPE
Manual Handling
(DSE) Computers
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University Organisation
C o u n c il
V ic e
C h a n c e llo r
C h ie f F in a n c ia l O f f ic e r
H ead O f
S c h o o l/A d m in
S e c t io n
U n iv e r s it y
S a f e t y O f f ic e r
H ead of
D iv is io n
S c h o o l/S e c t io n
S a f e t y O f f ic e r s
S e c t io n
L eaders
I n d iv id u a ls
R e s p o n s ib ility
A d v ic e
In fo rm a tio n
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Responsibilities
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PIs / Academic Supervisors
Identify hazards & risks
Written procedures
Ensure effective supervision & training to full competency
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Demonstrators (employees - paid!)
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Understand the practical
Know the hazards/precautions
Be ready to intervene
Action in case of accidents
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Responsibilities
INDIVIDUALS – whether staff or student so that
includes YOU
- Work safely
- Follow instructions & rules
- Don’t endanger others
- Don’t misuse safety equipment
- Report problems /unsafe situations /incidents
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£££££££££££££££££££££££££££££££££££££££
WHEN SOMETHING GOES WRONG!
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Chemistry, UoN - Incompatible Chemicals in Waste Solvent
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Postgraduates Incidents
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Typically 30 - 40 accidents reported each
year
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50% handling sharps
Others
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chemical exposure
slips and knocks
hot/cold contact
animals
manual handling
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General Lab / Workshop Safety
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Risk Assessment
Training Needs / Competency
Specific Hazards
Miscellaneous
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Glassware Safety
Housekeeping
Late Working
Unattended Experiments
Emergency Procedures
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Risk Assessment
Legal Requirement
“Hi, I’m David and I’m
Carried out before work starts
invincible”
 Identify hazards
 Look at controls in place
 Evaluate the risk (likelihood)
 What improvements are needed?
Incorporate precautions in SOPs
See School Procedures
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Risk Assessment
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HAZARD
– the potential of something to cause harm
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RISK
– the likelihood of an event occurring which
will allow the hazard to occur
Think of an activity outside of the University
1.
List the hazards
2.
List the control measures that reduce the risk
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Training vs Competence
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Attending training is one thing, being competent to carry out an
activity is another.
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You should have evidence of both training and achieving
competence
– Some schools use postgraduate supervisory requirements form (PSRF) personal to you and confirms what supervision you require
– Keep a record of all
• External courses
• University courses
• Lab-specific training (procedures and/or equipment)
– Records should show who has trained you and when
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Accidents and First Aid
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Report all incidents whether injuries or illhealth (to your line manager/safety officer)
Know how to call a first aider
Know how to call for an ambulance
– 8888 or 0115 9518888
It may be you, it may be a friend, it may be nothing to
do with the work – know how to help
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Fire Safety – What you should know
• Evacuation Procedure
• Call point location
• Escape route(s)
• Assembly point
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Fire Procedure
If you discover a fire
– Raise the alarm
– Dial 8888 (0115 951 8888)
– Leave the building by nearest exit
• Close doors and windows behind you
• Report to assembly point
– Only use extinguisher if:
• Small, contained fire
• Confident
• Clear exit route
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Fire Procedure
On hearing alarm
- leave building by nearest exit
- closing doors/widows
- go to assembly
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Notify if known false alarm – 8888
(Mobile 0115 9518888)
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Fire Extinguishers
Water –
all red
Foam –
cream
band
Dry
Powder –
blue band
CO 2
black
band
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Typical Hazards in the Research
Environment
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substances
– toxic/ carcinogens
– flammable
– biological material
– allergens
noise
vibration
radiation
electricity
machinery
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pressure systems
display screen equip
manual handling
mech. handling
transport
falls, falling objects
slips, trips
fire
Lasers
nanoparticles
The following slides give a summary of the key precautions expected
to be in place. Further detail, specific to your research, must be
obtained locally
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Substances related hazards
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Chemicals
Flammables
Carcinogens
Nanoparticles
Poisons
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Hazardous Substances
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Chemicals
Biological Agents
Dusts
Gases
COSHH – Control of Substances
Hazardous to Health
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COSHH Regulations
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Look at the nature of hazard - harm that can be
caused
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Properties [toxicity, flammability]
Quantity to be used
Form (solid, liquid, gas)
Duration and frequency of use
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Routes of exposure
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Exposure Routes - how can harm be caused
– Inhalation
– Ingestion
– Skin Contact/penetration• Absorption,
• Sharps
• Defective skin barrier
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Hazardous property
Example
Irritant, Harmful,
Ammonia,
Sensitising
Glutaraldehyde, isocyanates,
animal allergens, latex
Toxic/carcinogenic, Mutagenic, Acrylamide, MNU, EthBr,
Teratogenic
cytotoxic drugs
Corrosive
String acids & bases
Infectious
Bacteria, virus
Flammable
Alcohol, acetone
Explosive
Hexane, hydrogen
Oxidising
Potassium permanganate,
Hydrogen peroxide
Ecotoxic
Mercury
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Workplace Exposure Limits
•Set for some hazardous substances
•Must not be exceeded
•Limits given in ppm and mg/m3
•Time averaged concentration in air
•Long term (8 hours)
•Short term (15 minutes) - STEL
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Examples of Substances with WELs
[mg/m3]
8hr
[mg/m3]
15mins
Formaldehyde
Acrylamide
Benzene
Bromine
2.5
0.3
1.0
0.66
2.5
2
Methanol
Toluene
Xylene
266
191
220
333
574
441
Acetone
1210
3620
If substance does not have WEL it does not mean it is safe - check
MSDS/seek advice
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COSHH Assessment
Decide on control measures
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Eliminate or substitute, justify use.
Engineering - contain, extract (FCs/MSCs)
Personal protection
Training, supervision
Health surveillance/screening/vaccination
Other considerations
- Storage
- Transport
- Disposal
- Emergencies – leaks, spills
- Nanoparticles
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Nanoparticles
One or more external dimensions in the order of 100 nm or less ie:
< 0.1 micrometre / micron
MSDS for micron-sized particles of a substance does not necessarily
apply to nanoparticles – we MUST take the precautionary approach
and avoid exposure
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Fume Cupboards
A means of containing or extracting hazardous
fumes/vapours/aerosols away from the operator, to be
safely discharged to the atmosphere.
SAFE WORKING
• Check it is working
• Position of Equipment
• Safe working area
• Control air movement /external forces
• Avoid heat sources
• Minimise sash opening
• Unattended experiments – leave information
• Clean after use!
•Animated demonstration (3 minutes):
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4AHxLnByts
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THE GOOD
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THE BAD
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THE UGLY
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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Last resort not first line of defense
Lab Coats
- must be worn in lab, remove
before entering offices/clean areas
Hand
Protection
- gloves - correct type for the work
Eye/ face
Protection
- glasses, goggles, visors – depending
on hazard
Respiratory
Protection
- half masks, full masks, powered
hoods
- fit critical to protection
Foot
Protection
- no open toe/canvas shoes in
labs/risk areas. Safety footwear
depending on hazards
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Flammable Liquids
Flash Point – temp to form a flammable atmosphere
Precautions
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avoid vapour release
never store with acids/oxidising agent
stoppered labelled containers
minimum quantities on bench < 500ml
store in solvent cupboard [50l max per room]
enclosed carriers for Winchesters
spark-proof fridges
beware of - static build up on large scale decanting
- flammable atmospheres /heavy vapours
– know spillage procedure - clear up immediately
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Cryogenic Liquids
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HAZARD: Asphyxiation
– <18% O2 (spills > 143ml LN/m3 : 1:700)
– confined spaces, DO NOT TRAVEL IN LIFT
HAZARD: Cold Burns
– eye protection - goggles/visors/specs
– hands - non absorbent insulated gloves eg leather. Sleeves
over ends/securely banded.
– Feet - closed shoes, trousers over
– tongs/forceps
Ice Plug formation
Oxygen enrichment
Exploding vials
Transport - NOT BY ROAD - very hazardous
– Use cardice
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Electricity
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HAZARD: Electrocution - 50V AC can KILL;
Fire
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Need to consider:
– design, construction, maintenance
– earthing, fusing, isolation, insulation
– live working [special precautions]
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Periodic inspection/testing - usually annual - sticker
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User visual checks (plugs, cable & socket, evidence of
overheating, casing)
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Report all defects
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Repairs only by authorised persons
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Work Equipment
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HAZARD: entanglement, entrapment, being
struck by, electrocution, hot/cold contact
Fit for purpose
Maintained
Dangerous parts guarded
CE marked
Certificates of conformity
Design in-house subject to approval
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Pressure Systems compressed gases, autoclaves
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HAZARD: Explosion as a result of sudden,
uncontrolled release of stored energy
Consider sources of stored energy
– Steam (at any pressure)
– Gas or vapours > 0.5 bar
• Boilers, autoclaves, air receivers, reactors
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Requirements
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Design/construction
Safe operating limits
Written scheme for examinations (externally carried out)
Written operating instructions
Annual inspection against written scheme
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Lasers & Ionising Radiation
HAZARD: Radiation exposure;
Lasers: eye or skin damage
resulting from exposure to
Class 3B or 4 laser beam
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Separate Training
Local rules for safe use
Medical/Health
questionnaire
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Noise
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HAZARD: Permanent hearing loss
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Control Levels
– <85 dB(A) - negligible risk
– 85 - 90 dB(A) - small risk
• inform of risk & HP available on request
– >90 dB(A) - high risk
• control at source
• compulsory hearing protection
• audiometry
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Ultra-Violet Sources [280nm - 400nm]
Examples:
Transilluminators, gel docs, hand held lamps
Biocidal lamps, Mercury vapour lamps [uv spec]
HAZARD:
Sunburn, cancer, eye damage
Safety precautions
•Interlocks/enclosure
•UV opaque shielding
•UV opaque visor
•Cover exposed skin
•Restrict access to area
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Latex Allergy
HAZARD: can cause skin/respiratory sensitisation.
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1% of population may react.
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Likely to affect those with history of asthma, dermatitis,
eczema, hayfever
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Seek advice from Occ Health if skin/resp symptoms
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Use latex alternatives & powder free gloves
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Explosion in a Microwave Oven
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Heating 300 ml media in 1
litre Duran bottle.
Cap swelled and sealed
bottle which then exploded.
Debris hurled 3m across lab
- unoccupied!!!
Use foam or Kim Wipe neck
inserts.
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Miscellaneous
HAZARD: Falls, Cuts, Slips, Trips
 Working at height
 Glassware Safety
 Housekeeping
 Lone working
 Late Working / Out of hours
Working
 Unattended Experiments
 Lifting Equipment
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Computers
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HAZARD: Muscular skeletal problems - back,
neck, shoulders; “Repetitive Strain Injury” –
wrists, hands, fingers
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Workstation setup – adjust chair to suit, keep
keyboard and mouse close
Work routine – plan for regular breaks in computer
work
Ask for assessment
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Summary
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Risk Assess your work
Check University standards that apply
Ensure your supervisor knows what your work
involves
Avoid lone working for all but low risk tasks
Take the appropriate precautions
Question anything you are uncertain about
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