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General Physics I: Day 5 Circular Motion and Relative Velocity (kinda) 2 The diagram below shows two successive positions of a particle; it’s a segment of a full motion diagram. Which of the acceleration vectors best represents the acceleration between ti and tf? Projectile Motion 3 Projectiles: Objects acted on only by gravity, free to move horizontally as well as vertically. Keys to analyzing projectile motion: • Each component of motion is independent! You must separate horizontal and vertical. • Treat each component with the equations for constant acceleration. • Always ignore air resistance unless specifically directed otherwise. Projectile Motion: y-component Just like 1D free-fall motion… a y g 9.8 m s 2 • Time in the air is determined by the vertical • = 0 at the apex of the motion. • Helpful symmetry! Same height → same • Horizontal and vertical components share one piece of information: time! 4 Projectile Motion: x-component In the x-direction there is no acceleration. ax So, of course, horizontal velocity does not change! v f ,x vi ,x 5 Warm-Up: Cannonballs! 6 Two cannonballs, A and B, are fired from level ground with identical speeds, but with A fired at a larger angle relative to the ground than B. What can you say about the hang A > B → ~83% times of the two cannonballs? B > A → ~8% A = B → ~8% What can you say about how far the two cannonball travel? A > B → ~25% B > A → ~33% A = B → ~8% Depends → ~33% Warm-Up: Cannonballs! “A.) A will spend more time in the air due to the increased angle it was fired at, while B will hit the ground quicker because it was fired closer to the ground. B.) A will go further while B will travel a shorter distance.” 7 Warm-Up: Cannonballs! 8 “A. with cannonball A shot at a larger angle than B, its height will be much higher than B so it will have a longer hang time. B. as stated in part a, cannonball A was fired at a larger angle so the cannonball will not travel as far as cannonball B. The height of A will be much higher than B, but because the angle of cannonball B is smaller, it will be able to travel father than A.” 1st part right, but not the 2nd (very common) Warm-Up: Cannonballs! 9 “The angle of the launch affects the distance. A ball shot at 88 degrees and one at 2 degrees will both not go very far compared with one shot at 60 degrees.” “b. A 45 degree angle is the optimal angle when firing the cannonballs to reach the maximum distance (when all other variables are constant). The question does not specify the angles at which either A or B were fired at so I can't determine which one would travel farther but it would be whichever one was fired at an angle closest to 45 degrees above the ground.” Warm-Up: Cannonballs! 10 Use extremes (a.k.a “limiting cases”) when tackling things like this: • What if A is fired at 89° and B is fired at 50°? • What if A is fired at 30° and B is fired at 1°? (angles relative to the horizontal) Warm-Up: Cannonballs! 11 Two cannonballs, A and B, are fired from level ground with identical speeds, but with A fired at a larger angle relative to the ground than B. What can you say about the hang A > B → ~83% times of the two cannonballs? B > A → ~8% A = B → ~8% What can you say about how far the two cannonball travel? A > B → ~25% B > A → ~33% A = B → ~8% Depends → ~33% 12 A battleship simultaneously fires two shells at target dummies. All we know is that the shells follow the ideal parabolic trajectories shown, which target gets hit first? A) A B) B C) Both at the same time D) Need more information Worked-Example: Flour Bomb Where to release? How fast (x & y) is it going when it hits? 13 Worked-Example: Flour Bomb 14 1. What would have changed if we had placed the origin on the ground directly below where the flour was released? The answers? The equations? Any of the values we found? Explain. ~14% → The answers would change ~70% → Some #s in the calculation, but not the answers ~14% → Stuck or didn’t answer this question Worked-Example: Flour Bomb 15 Worked-Example: Flour Bomb 16 2. If the flour bag had been shot downward at 10 m/s (instead of just being released), how would that have changed the final vertical speed of the bag? How would it have changed the final velocity? ~70% → f, would be larger ~42% → f would be larger ~14% → f would be the same ~14% → f would be smaller Worked-Example: Flour Bomb 17 18 A small ball rolls horizontally off the edge of a tabletop that is 1.2 m high. It strikes the floor at a point 1.52 m horizontally from the edge of the table. How long is the ball in the air? A) t = 0.20 s B) t = 0.50 s C) t = 0.56 s D) t = 0.63 s Follow up: What was its speed as it left the table? Warm-Up: Slingshot Speed 19 A girl wishes to figure out the maximum speed at which her slingshot fires rocks, but she has no access to timing devices of any kind. Using your knowledge of projectile physics, describe how she could do this using nothing but a good measuring tape. ~17% → ~8% → ~25% → ~50% → Good “lone wolf” method Good “it takes a village” method Really wanted to measure time or angle Wrong track or stuck Warm-Up: Slingshot Speed “She first has to measure the angle she is shooting the slingshot at so she can take the cosine and sine and multiply it to the distance the rock travels to find Vx and Vy respectively. [Equations V0x=V0cos(theta)0 and Vx=V0x] She can then take the square root of Vx^2 + Vy2 which will give her the speed.” 20 Warm-Up: Slingshot Speed 21 “[…] I would tell her to count the number of seconds the best she could […]” “[…] make sure to count the time it took for the rock to reach it's landing area […]” Many of you have great confidence in a kid’s ability to time things accurately by counting out seconds! Warm-Up: Slingshot Speed 22 “Since gravity is a known value, have the girl launch the rock vertically at 90 degrees and measure max height, then calculate velocity need to reach that height.” This works, but measuring the maximum height is not exactly easy! Warm-Up: Slingshot Speed 23 “By laying out the measuring tape, it is possible to test the maximum speed of the rocks by pulling the slingshot back as far as possible, and then firing at different angles, until an angle is found at which the rocks fly the furthest.” This will work, but takes a lot of repetition. Warm-Up: Slingshot Speed 24 “Fire the rock parallel to the ground. Measure the height of the rock from the ground before it it fired (y). Measure the distance it travels till hit first hits the ground (x). Plug y into this equation -y=(1/2)(9.8)t^2 to solve for time (t). Plug t and x into this equation x=Vo*t to solve for the initial velocity when it leaves the sling.” Yes! If you shoot horizontally, the vertical drop acts as the timer! 25 One ball is going to be dropped from the platform while simultaneously another is launched horizontally from the platform. They both then fall to the ground. Which ball hits first? A) The dropped ball. B) The horizontally launched ball. C) They hit at the same time. D) Depends on the speed of the launched ball. E) Depends on their masses. Acceleration Without Changing Speed A ball swings in a circle at constant speed. Is it accelerating? Yes! Can its acceleration be directed in the same direction as its velocity? No! Can its acceleration be directed in the opposite direction as its velocity? No! So the must be perpendicular to the velocity… Inward! An object in circular motion has inward acceleration called centripetal acceleration. 26 Centripetal Acceleration 27 Centripetal acceleration always points towards the center of the circle ac v 2 What matters is speed r and turning radius: If you only go faster, acceleration is larger. If you only tighten your turn, acceleration is larger. Centripetal acceleration is the amount of acceleration required for an object to go in a circle of radius r at speed v. WarmUp: Ranking Circles Rank from largest to smallest radial acceleration. ~14% → B = E > A = C = D ~42% → B > A = C = E > D ~42% → B > E > A = C > D ~2% → C = E > A = B = D 28 29 Which of the following best describes the magnitude of the acceleration that you are experiencing around the axis of the earth’s rotation right now? A) Your acceleration is greater than g. B) Your acceleration is equal to g. C) Your acceleration is less than g. D) Your acceleration is zero. Coming up… Thursday (9/4) → Catch up & Ch 4 Mini-Exam Tuesday (9/9) → Ch 4 & Mini-Exam Mini-Exam bumped to next Tuesday No Warm-Up for Thursday. Study & practice! Mastering Hwk #3 due Sunday by 11:59 PM 30