TESOL Methodology Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages

Report
TESOL Methodology
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages
Classroom practices
- Teacher-centered
- Learner-centered
Philosophy of
Language Teaching & Learning

Behaviourism

A balance
activities

Acquisition
Humanistic

Self-directed
Task-based
approaches

&approaches
Learning
Cognitivism
learning
learning
Behaviourism
Cognitivism
This
term
refers
tocharacterised
a psychological
theory
that
• ••Language
•Stephen
• Language
…
•is
Focus
the
has
Krashen
psychological
teaching
on
to be
the
acquired
students
is not
theory
just
as
has
aabout
that
result
acquisition
also
all
led
teaching
ofhuman
to
some
the
as
 Acquisition
&of
Learning
is also
acquired
by
alearning
mental
process.
deeper
language;
aknowledge
development
subconscious
behaviour
experience
it is
isprocess
learners’
learnt
than
aboutthe
to
which
helping
fit
concentration
in results
with
students
and
external
inselfthe
on
to
Rejecting
toand
the
language
islearning
apoints.
set of
conditions,
knowledge
ofdevelop
aidea
is
directed
language
notthat
influenced
themselves
learning
whereas
grammar
by
programs.
as
people’s
people.
 Task-based
learning
habits,
Chomsky
emphasized
on
the
creative
results
only
in
“knowing
thoughts
about”
the
and
language.
feelings.

Humanistic
approaches
• “Learn
“Tell
to me,
know,
and
learn
I willtoforget;
do, learn
show
to be
mehuman,
and I’ll
performance
byis
internalising
rules and
of a
Acquiring
a
language
more
successful
From 
this
and
theory,
learn
remember;
to
it is
live
believed
involve
well with
that
me
the
and
language
community.
I’ll
learn.”
is
a
Self-directed
learning
language.
longer
lasting
than
learning.
formofAbehaviour
and
can
be
learnt
by
forming
balance activities approaches
habits following a three-stage procedure:
stimulus, response and reinforcement.
[Jeremy Harmer (1998). The Practice of English Language Teaching]
PRACTICE
OUTPUT
FINELY-TUNED
INPUT
LANGUAGE
LEARNER
ROUGHLYTUNED
INPUT
COMMUNICATIVE
OUTPUT
[Source: Jeremy Harmer (1998). The Practice of English Language Teaching]
The roles
of
teachers and learners
CLASSROOM PRACTICES
 Classroom
practices are tasks related to teaching
and learning process involving many activities.
 These
activities imply role relationships between
teacher and learner, learner and learner.
 These
relationships are established, maintained,
and evaluated through communication.
[Tony Wright (1997). Roles of Teachers and Learners.]
[Jeremy Harmer (1998). The Practice of English Language Teaching]
The roles of teachers
Controller
Assessor
Organizer
Prompter
Participant
Tutor
Resource
-to investigate what is going on in class
to•participate
observe
what
works
well
in
class
Controller
• charge
Participant
--to
in an
activity
with
- -toto
beencourage
in complete
ofparticipate
the class
students
to
-students
advice
and
guidance
tocenter
-to
togive
be
trylike
out
anew
walking
techniques
resource
and
activities
-to
organize
students'
activities
to
estimate
the
students’
work do, when they
to
control
what
the
students
•
Assessor
•
Tutor
-- to
make
suggestions
aboutabout
howactivities
students
students
what
to do
next students
--to
tooffer
evaluate
helpthe
whenever
appropriacy
of
need
these
new
techniques
and
to
give
clear
instructions
- to
see
how
well
they
are
performing
as well as
speak
and
what
language
they
use
may
proceed
in •an Resource
activity when there is a
- to•help
students
clarify ideas
and
limit
provide
information,
to
give
advice
Organizer
students’
tasks
how
theycentre
performed
- silence
towell
be the
of
attention
Teachers
who
constantly
seek
or
when
they
are performed about
the
tasks
to students
- to do to
a lot
talking
•actPrompter
• Investigator
theiraunderstanding
do of
next.
-totoenrich
as
coach, a guide,what
an
of what learning
is all about a resource…
organizer,
a prompter,
and what works well will find
the teaching of English constantly rewarding.
Learners’ activeness in practicing learning
activities in main approaches or methods
[David
Tasks
8 Nunan7(1992). Designing
3
5 for the
4 Communicative
11 Classroom
10 ] 2
1
Passive
1.1.
2.2.
3.3.
4.4.
5.5.
6.6.
7.7.
8.8.
9.9.
10.
10.
11.
11.
Communicative
The Grammar-Translation
Language Teaching
Method (08)
Community
The Direct Method
Language
(07)
Learning
Situational
SituationalLanguage
LanguageMethod
Method (03)
Suggestopedia
The Audio-lingual Method (05)
The
Suggestopedia
Audio-lingual
(04)Method
The
TotalCourse
Physical
Design
Response
Method
(11)
The
TheDirect
Silent Method
Way (10)
The
Community
Grammar-Translation
Language Learning
Method
(02)
The
Communicative
Natural Approach
Language Teaching (01)
The
TheSilent
Natural
Way
Approach (09)
Total
The Course
Physical
Design
Response
Method (06)
9
6
Active
Time of popularity and unpopularity of the
main approaches and methods
[Paul Davis (2000). Success in English Teaching]
1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
The Grammar-Translation Method (G-TM)
The Direct Method (DM)
Situational Language Method (SLM)
The Audio-lingual Method (ALM)
Total Physical Response (TPR)
The Silent Way
Suggestopedia
Communicative Language Teaching
The Natural Approach
Alternative Methods (AMs)
Communicative Language Teaching(CLT)
The “Course Design Approach” (CDA)
Setting of teacher-centeredness
Setting of learner-centeredness
(focus on communicative activities & pair, group work)
[Tony Wright (1997). Roles of Teachers and Learners]
Setting of learner-centeredness
Focus on
rehearsal &
class discussion
Thank you for listening

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