The SIOP Model

The SIOP Model
TESOL Instructional practices
SIOP & research
What is SIOP?
What are its components?
What struggle teachers with most?
What are essential Lesson Plan
What are research findings on
which SIOP is based?
SIOP & research
Food for thought
“ …educators have begun to
realize that the mastery of
academic subjects is the mastery
of their specialized patterns of
language use, and that language is
the dominant medium through
which these subjects are taught
and students’ mastery o them
tested.” (Lempke, 1988, p.1)
SIOP & research
What is SIOP?
S = Sheltered
I = Instructional
O = Observation
P = Protocol
SIOP was started by Echevarria &
Short to assist teachers in
improving their adaptations for
ELLs in L2 taught classes.
SIOP & research
What is SIOP?
Sheltered instruction is
one of the instructional models that uses
English only.
Not a set of additional or replacement
instructional techniques for the content area
classroom with native speakers.
An instructional form to extend time ELLs
have for language support services while
providing content area information required
for graduation.
Wide-spread and exists in many variations
SIOP & research
What is SIOP?
 SIOP includes specific lesson planning and
delivery suggestions and teacher observation
 Sheltered instruction includes strategies such
 Cooperative learning,
 Explicit, targeted vocabulary development
 Slower speech with clear enunciation and fewer
idiomatic expressions
 Visuals, demonstrations and hands-on learning
 Text adaptations
 Homework adaptations
 Supplementary materials
SIOP & research
What is SIOP?
SIOP is research based and validated
through multiple studies.
SIOP is used in SC school districts to
meet ELL students’ needs.
improve academic English in all content
by being engaged in content area
learning in L2
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
(1) Content objectives must be
clearly stated, displayed and reviewed
with students
(2) Language objectives must be
clearly stated, displayed and reviewed
with students.
(3) Content concepts must be
appropriate for age and educational
background of ELLs.
(4) Supplementary materials must
be used to a high degree.
Manipulatives, realia, pictures, visuals,
SIOP & research
multimedia, demonstrations
SIOP Components or Features
 (5) Adaptations of content to all levels of
student proficiency must be provided
 Graphic organizers
 Outlines (culture-sensitive for linearly and circularly
processing students)
 Leveled study guides
 Highlighted texts
 Taped texts
 Adapted texts (Dr. Costner’s presentation)
 Jigsaw text reading
 Marginal notes
 Texts in ELLs’ L1
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (6) Provide Meaningful activities that integrate
Lesson concepts with language practice opportunities.
Here the SIOP protocol and lesson planning guides are
 (7) Concepts are explicitly linked to to students’
background experiences
 Provide background and discuss orally (video, read
 Partner reading that includes checking off a list to
indicate what you know and do not know or what is
 (8) Provide explicit links between past learning and
new concepts
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (9) Emphasize key vocabulary and make it a
multisensory learning experience (see, say,
write, act)
 Highlight word patterns and their meanings (Ida Ehrlich
(2001). Instant Vocabulary, Penguin Books)
 Differentiate between function/processing words and
content words
 Word sorts with and without pictures for content
 preselect key vocabulary (5 by 5)
 Personal dictionaries (multilingual0
 Word walls with content vocabulary and images
 Concept definition maps
 Generate words that carry a particular pattern (groups)
 Self-assessment of word knowledge
 Vocabulary games (see website:
 Word study books SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (10) Use speech that is appropriate for
students’ proficiency levels
Sentence complexity
Repetitions supported with gestures
Idiom use
 (11) Provide clear explanations of academic
tasks in simple language
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (12) Use a variety of techniques to make content
concepts clear
 Gestures
 Model task, process or assignment (do what you say
students are to do)
 Preview material for optimal learning
 Allow alternative forms for expressing understanding of
 Use multimedia and other technologies
 Repeated exposure to words, concepts, and skills
 Sentence strips to review events/facts/ problems solving
steps with and without images
 Concrete, realistic models and hands-on working in small
 Graphic organizers
 Audiotapes for comprehension as oral language usually
develops faster than written language
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (13) Provide ample opportunities for students
to use/apply learning strategies:
metacognitive, cognitive, and
social/affective strategies,
 Mnemonic devices
 Acronyms for test taking, study and writing tasks
 Graphic organizers
 Directed- Reading Thinking activities (DRTA)
 Listening and reading comprehension strategies
 Rehearsal strategies
 See also CALLA (O’ Malley & Chamot, 1987;1994)
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
(14) Consistently use scaffolding
techniques to assist and support
student understanding and information
Reinforce contextual definitions
Provide correct pronunciation by repeating
student responses
Slow down speech, increase pauses, speak
in phrases
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
(15) Use a variety of questions or tasks
that promote HOTS
(16) Provide frequent opportunities for
discussion and interaction
Communication through technology
Performing, acting
Pair dialogue and sharing of information
Show and tell
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (17) Support language and content objective
through grouping configurations.
 (18) Provide sufficient wait time for student
50-50 television show model
Phone a friend
 (19) Provide ample opportunity for students to
clarify key concepts in L1
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
 (20) Provide hands-on materials and
manipulatives for students to practice using
the new content in context.
 (21) provide activities that allow students to
apply content and language knowledge
 (22) Integrate all language skills into
content area instruction.
 (23) Content objectives must be clearly
supported by lesson delivery.
SIOP & research
SIOP Components or Features
(24) Language objectives must be
clearly supported by lesson delivery.
(25) Students are engaged 90-100%
of the time.
(26) Pace lesson delivery according
to students’ ability levels.
SIOP & research
SIOP Lesson Plan
Measurable Content objectives
Measurable language objectives
Explicit listing of key vocabulary
Explicit listing of supplemental
SIOP & research
SIOP Lesson Plan
Lesson Plan Sequence with
Motivation, pre-knowledge activation
Modeling of new content
Practice scaffolded from intense to minimal
Review of content by students
Post lesson assessment of objectives
REFLECTIONS on what worked and did not
work and what, therefore to focus on next
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
The National Literacy Panel on
Language Minority Children and Youth
(NLP) conducted a summary of research
on ELL instruction, second language
acquisition, crosslinguistic and
sociocultural factors, ELL assessment
and professional development
conducted by (August & Shanahan,
2006), the following research-based
statements can be made:
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
(1) ELLs benefit from instruction in the
key components of reading as defined
by the National Reading Panel (NICHD,
2000); This includes explicit instruction
Phonemic awareness, letter-sound
awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and text
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
 (2) Explicit instruction in these 5 areas is
necessary but not sufficient to teach ELLs to
read, write and spell proficiently in
English.Oral language proficiency for social
and academic purposes is necessary also.
 (3) Oral proficiency and literacy in the
student’s L1 will facilitate development of
literacy in L2 (English). Literacy in L2 can also
be developed in L2 without literacy proficiency
in L1.
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
(4) Individual student characteristics
and history of migration play a
significant role in L2 literacy
(5) Home language experiences can
contribute to L2 (English) literacy
development. However, there is limited
research on the influence of sociocultural factors on L2 acquisition
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
 Researchers from the National Center for
Research on Education, Diversity and
Excellence (CREDE), a federally funded
research center until recently, conducted a
second major review of L2 literacy
 The focus was
 Oral language development
 Literacy development from linguistic and crosslinguistic angles
 Academic achievement
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
Both groups came to similar
(1)L2 literacy development is
influenced by numerous variables
that influence each other. Among
them are socio-economic status, L1
literacy base, and L2 oral
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
(2) Certain L1 literacy skills transfer to L2
even if these two language s differ in
print, pronunciation, and writing
conventions. Among them are
phonemic awareness
morphological awareness
listening and reading
language learning strategies
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
(3) Oral performance and literacy
(tasks involved in managing print) can
develop simultaneously.
(4) Academic literacy skills in L1
positively support literacy development
in L2.
(5) ELLs need enhanced, explicit
vocabulary instruction.
SIOP & research
ELL research findings
 (6) High quality instruction for ELLs is similar
to high quality instruction for other native
speakers; but ELLs need instructional
accommodations (mandated by law!) and
other additional support to succeed at the
academic level
 (7) teaching the 5 major components fo
reading (NICHD, 2000) to ELLs is necessary
but not sufficient for developing academic
literacy. ELLs need to develop oral language
proficiency as well.
SIOP & research

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