* Many people play tennis as a way of improving their fitness. a) Explain the difference between the terms health and fitness. (1 mark) b) Explain how the health of a performer may affect their fitness. (2 marks) a) * Fitness – ability to cope with demands of your environment. * Health – complete mental, social and physical well-being. b) * Can be unhealthy/get cold/flu/injury/ and unable to train/fitness declines * Can be unhealthy but able to train and fitness can still improve The different types of events in athletics require different components of fitness. a) Name two components of skill-related fitness required by a 400 metre hurdler. (1 mark) b) Name two components of health-related fitness required by a shot putter. (1 mark) a) * Agility/balance/co-ordination/reaction time. b) * Strength/power/speed/flexibility. Football is a popular team sport played in the UK. Football players require a good level of stamina if they are to be successful. a) What do you understand by the term ‘stamina’ and why is it an important component of fitness for football players? (2 marks) b) Name two other components of fitness and, using examples, explain why each component is important in a game of football. (3 marks) a) * Ability to delay the onset of fatigue * Important because of the duration of the game eg 90 mins b) * Power; Speed; Flexibility; Balance; Agility, Reaction time; Co-ordination; Muscular endurance. * Power – move body quickly/jump high/ apply force to ball/shoot/tackle; * Speed – get to ball quickly/run fast; * Flexibility – reach in tackle/stretch to get to ball; * Balance – stay stable/not fall when dribbling; * Agility – change direction quickly; * Reaction time – respond quickly/make decisions/read game (especially goalkeepers); * Co-ordination – move legs/feet/hands smoothly; * Muscular endurance – repeated skills/ muscle contractions Weightlifting requires different types of strength. a) Name and describe the different types of strength used during weightlifting. (2 marks) b) Apart from strength, name and describe another component of fitness that is needed for weightlifting. (1 mark) a) * Explosive strength – rapid/maximal/forceful/powerful contraction/equiv; * Static strength – holding position/isometric b) * Flexibility – wide range of movement; * Speed – rapid movement/move quickly; * Co-ordination – combining movements/arms and legs together; * Power – strength x speed/large force quickly; * Agility – change direction quickly; * Balance – Remaining stable/equilibrium/ centre of mass over area of support. Performers in team games such as netball need to be suitably prepared to meet the demands of the game. a) In order to play netball effectively, performers need to be fit. What do you understand by the term fitness? (1 mark) b) Discuss whether you must be healthy in order to be fit. (2 marks) a) * Ability to meet everyday demands. b) * Healthy – social, mental and physical well-being * Can be fit and healthy * Can be fit and unhealthy Many people participate in physical activity to maintain their health and to improve their fitness. a) Give an appropriate definition for each of these terms. (2 marks) b) Give two reasons why it is possible that a person may be considered to be fit but not healthy. (4 marks) a) * Fitness – ability to cope with demands of your environment. * Health – complete mental, social and physical well-being. b) * Several other factors involved in being ‘healthy’ including nutrition, living conditions, genetic background, illness, age, mental state, social happiness etc. Physical fitness is just one component of health. Power may be considered to be a major fitness component required for gymnastics. a) b) What do you understand by the term ‘power’? (2 marks) Name and describe two other fitness components that you consider to be important for gymnastics. (4 marks) a) * Power is the rapid application of muscular strength. * Strength and speed combined. b) * Any two of the following with appropriate defeinitions: Strength, speed, muscular endurance, flexibility, agility, balance, coordination. A defender in a team game has to sprint for the ball, stop and then change direction to mark an attacker. The attacker moves towards goal and the defender has to stretch to win the ball. Define three components of fitness that have been used in this period of play and state when they were used. (6 marks) * Speed (during sprint for ball) – the rate at which the body is moved from one place to another. * Agility (during the stop and change direction) – the ability to change the body’s direction efficiently and under control. * Flexibility (during the stretch to win the ball) – the range of movement around a joint. The choices we make about our lifestyle can have negative effects upon our health and fitness. a) State three lifestyle choices that can have an effect upon our health and fitness. (3 marks) b) Choose one of the answers in part (a) and discuss how you could help somebody else change their lifestyle. (3 marks) a) * Diet, exercise, alcohol intake, smoking. b) * Dependant on answer chosen from (a). Answer must explain the dangers and/or benefits of the particular lifestyle choice and suggestions of how to start to adopt a more healthy lifestyle choice (e.g. for exercise; walking to school/work).