To what extent should ideology be the foundation of identity?

Report
Related Issue 1: To what extent should
ideology be the foundation of identity?
To what extent are
ideology and identity
interrelated?
To what extent are
individualism/collectivism and
identity interrelated?
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
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Personal Identity is the idea that you have of
yourself as a unique individual.
Collective Identity is one that you share with a
group of people as a member of a large social
group such as a linguistic, faith, cultural, or
ethic group.
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
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
Shaped by our beliefs and values – it’s what
we value as important
Influenced by:
Family
Language
Media
Religion
Group
experience
Gender
Beliefs
Government
Culture
Values
Personal
experience
Relationship to
land / environ.
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
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
Take 15 minutes to look over the handout
concerning values and beliefs.
Read the sources and respond to the
questions below.
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Express one’s point of view as well as a
collective’s perspective
They impact your identity
It’s important to recognize beliefs and values
are not universal truths
◦ Just because one believes something, doesn’t make
it necessarily right (Apartheid in South Africa)

We need to be able to negotiate with the
beliefs and values of others (especially in a
democracy) – acceptance of others
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
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
A set of principles / ideas to explain our
world and our place in it
Helps us answer questions
 What are humans like?
 (human nature – good, evil, neutral)
 Why do humans act the way they do?
 (act based on beliefs and values)
 What is our role as individuals in society?
 (act individually or collectively; expectations placed on
citizens is determined by their country’s ideology)
 What is the nature of society?
 (more individualist or collectivist)
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
IDEOLOGY
a set of principles or ideas that explains your
world and your place within it, which is based on
certain assumptions about human nature and
society and provides an interpretation of the past,
an explanation of the present and a vision for the
future.
Characteristics of an ideology
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The answers an ideology provides to these
questions form the characteristics of that
ideology. Each ideology have these
characteristics:
1. The nature of human nature: beliefs
about how and why people act. Are they
good or bad? Do they look out for the
whole or just themselves?
2. The structure of society: Social,
economic, political structures
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
Characteristics of an Ideology


3. Interpretations of history: The events of our
past tend to influence the beliefs and values
that we hold
4. Visions of the future: Visions of how the
world should be in the future, which will guide
the actions of the people who embrace the
ideology.
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)

Please complete the Ideology In History
worksheet. Please hand in at the front of the
class!
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
Themes of Ideologies
Nation
Race
Gender
Class
Religion
1.5 examine the characteristics of ideology
(interpretations of history, beliefs about human nature,
beliefs about the structure of society, visions for the
future)
Environment and
Relationship to
land


Blueprint for a society – how should we live
together, what is expected of us
Ideologies lead people to make judgments
◦ Certain actions on issues are correct (either with us
or against us)
◦ Certain actions on issues are incorrect (terrorists vs.
freedom fighters)
1.5 examine the characteristics of ideology
(interpretations of history, beliefs about human nature,
beliefs about the structure of society, visions for the
future)

Ideologies determine our behaviour and actions
◦ Radical, reactionary, moderate
◦ Communist, utopian socialist, social democrat,
liberalist, conservative, fascist
◦ Acceptance of authority versus rights to dissent
◦ Spectrums on acceptance / rejection of …
 Change, use of violence, protection of individual rights,
protection of collective rights
1.5 examine the characteristics of ideology
(interpretations of history, beliefs about human nature,
beliefs about the structure of society, visions for the
future)

Ideology is not static!
◦ Beliefs change over time
◦ Impacted/influenced by other ideologies
 Immigrants challenge cultural uniformity
 Challenges to racism
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We embrace ideologies that match our beliefs
/ values
Once an ideology is accepted, people may
examine and re-interpret their own life
according to the ideology
Our ideology impacts our actions, choices,
perspective on the world, and how we relate
to others
1.5 examine the characteristics of ideology
(interpretations of history, beliefs about human nature,
beliefs about the structure of society, visions for the
future)

Please take 30 minutes to complete the
ANALYZING ONES IDENTITY worksheet, and
please hand in after you have completed it.
1.3 explore factors that may influence individual and
collective beliefs and values (culture, language,
media, relationship to land, environment, gender,
religion, spirituality, ideology)
1.
2.
To what extent are individualism and
collectivism foundations of ideologies?
Exploring Individualism:
The Roots of Individualism in History
Individualism can be:
1. Political
2. Economic
3. Social
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
500 - 1300
Medieval
Society
•Very little
individualism
1300s - 1600
The
Renaissance
1600s – 1700s
The Enlightenment
•Society was under
feudalism
•Religion had a lot
of control over
society
•Important
development: the
Magna Carta
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
500 - 1300
Medieval
Society
1300s - 1600
The
Renaissance
• There is a
renewed interest in
the individual
•But, most
peoplepeople
did
not not
did
possess
possess
rights
or freedoms.
rights
or freedoms.
Some
enjoyed privileges
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
1600s – 1700s
The Enlightenment
500 - 1300
Medieval
Society
1300s - 1600
The
Renaissance
1600s – 1700s
The Enlightenment
• Europe undergoes
significant change
•First scientists, then
philosophers,
explore the idea of
“natural law”
•This is the Age of
Reason
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)

Liberalism is an ideology based on the
importance of individual liberty.
◦ The American Revolution (1776) & the French
Revolution (1789) are fought for the liberal ideas of
individual rights and freedoms.

A liberal democracy guarantees the rights and
freedoms of its citizens.
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
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all members of society should enjoy the same
rights and freedoms.
Participation in government (democracy) is
one important right.
Rights and freedoms should be guaranteed
by law.
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)

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Individuals should have the right to
property, and government should not
interfere in the economy (the market).
The individual decisions of buyers and
sellers should shape the economy, not
the actions of government.
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
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All members of society are equals and should
be treated as such, regardless of individual
differences.
All people should have the same access to
society’s rights, freedoms, and quality of life.
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
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Private Property
Rule of Law
Individual rights and Freedom
Competition
Economic Freedom
Self Interest
1.7 analyze individualism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of liberalism: individual rights and
freedoms, self-interest, competition, economic
freedom, rule of law, private property)
Exploring Collectivism
•The principles of
collectivism are the
foundation of ideologies
such as communism and
socialism.
•Most liberal democracies
today have incorporated
aspects of collectivism into
their political, economic, and
1.8 analyze collectivism as a foundation of ideology
social systems
(principles of collectivism: collective
responsibility, collective interest, cooperation, economic
equality, adherence to collective norms,
public property)
 Public
Property
 Responsibility (collective)
 Interests (collective)
 Norms (adherence to the collective)
 Co operation
 Economic Equality
1.8 analyze collectivism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of collectivism: collective
responsibility, collective interest, cooperation, economic
equality, adherence to collective norms,
public property)
27
Chapter 2 – Ideologies of
Individualism and Collectivism
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People with larger incomes should pay more
taxes
All people should earn equal wages for work
of similar nature
A Guaranteed annual income (GAI)
All people should share in the wealth of the
country
People should own the means of production
collectively
Everything should be free - no private
property
1.8 analyze collectivism as a foundation of ideology
(principles of collectivism: collective
responsibility, collective interest, cooperation, economic
equality, adherence to collective norms,
public property)
28
Chapter 2 – Ideologies of
Individualism and Collectivism
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In Canada we have tried to bring about more
economic equality (redistribute the wealth) by
introducing Progressive Taxation.
Progressive Taxation means that people who
earn more money are taxed at a higher rate.
1.4 examine historic and contemporary
expressions of individualism and
collectivism
29
Chapter 2 – Ideologies of
Individualism and Collectivism
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Karl Marx believed in “abolition of private
property” in his Communist Manifesto that
argued that workers should profit from their own
labour. Thus, in a communist state, all
industries are controlled by the state for the
common good.
Liberal democratic countries such as Canada also
may have public property - such as National
parks, schools, roads, libraries, Crown land and
Crown corporations.
30
1.4 examine historic and
contemporary expressions of
individualism and collectivism

Via Rail, CBC, and Canada Post, are examples of
Crown Corporations maintained with public
money raised through taxation.
1.4 examine historic and contemporary
expressions of individualism and
collectivism
31
Chapter 2 – Ideologies of
Individualism and Collectivism
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
Canada is a good example of a society in
which individualist and collectivist values are
used side by side.
While we have individual rights and freedoms,
the rule of law and economic freedom, we also
benefit from a wide variety of social programs
and public services provided by our
government, such as health care, employment
insurance, welfare, and public education.
1.4 examine historic and contemporary
expressions of individualism and
collectivism
32
Chapter 2 – Ideologies of
Individualism and Collectivism
Contemporary Individualism and Collectivism
When speaking of individualism and collectivism,
people sometimes try to suggest that the two
viewpoints are incompatible.
While there are times that they are at odds, there
are often aspects that compliment each other.
Sometimes individualism and collectivism work
together for the common good of society.
1.4 examine historic and contemporary
expressions of individualism and
collectivism
Contemporary Individualism and Collectivism
Americans are well
known for their
emphasis on the
principle of
individualism

Even so, the majority of
North Americans
believe that
government should
provide help to those
who need it, and idea
that is essentially
collectivist
66%
65%
65%
64%
64%
believe
people
determi
63%
ne their
63%
own
62%
success
in life
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%
believe the
governmen
t should
supply a
'safety net'
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Contemporary Individualism
and Collectivism
Social capital is the strength of social
relationships between individuals
Some researchers have claimed that increased
individualism in a society leads to an
increased sense of commitment to the
collective
Indications lead us to believe that
individualism and collectivism are not
opposing concepts
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Entrepreneurialism-people pursue success
individually but successful businesses do things
beneficial to the collective like provide jobs or
do positive things
Social Programs- A country like Canada can be
individualistic but also has social programs
(health care, welfare, etc) that provide for all
NGOs- these are created with specific goals in
mind to benefit the community but are also
privately created and funded
Read the other examples on pages 90-95.
Balancing Individual Needs With the Public/Common Good
Smoking Ban, Cell Phone Ban, Curfews, Etc.
In groups of 3-4, using the examples above, write a statement in
which you respond to the following:
How does our society balance the needs of individuals with those of
the public good?
For each of the issues, be sure to include a list of:
Societies needs
Individuals needs
A balanced response
Political & Economic Spectrums and Ideologies
What is a political and/or economic spectrum?
A political (economic) spectrum is a way of modeling different political
(economic) positions by placing them upon one or more geometric axes
symbolizing independent political (economic) dimensions
What might these spectrums include? Examples?
Political
Right Wing
Left Wing
Communism
Socialism
Fascism
Dictatorships
Conservatism
Liberalism
Lets take a look…
Take a Spectrum Test
Or This Short One
Economic
Centrally Planned
Laissez Faire
Free Market
Command
Capitalism
Collectivism
Individualism

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