Aerodrome Inspectors Training * Module 7

Report
AERODROME TRAINING COURSE
– MODULE 7
Inspection, Maintenance, Works, Management,
Safety and Reporting
LEARNING OUTCOME
Participants will gain an overview of the following
requirements and issues concerning:
 Aerodrome inspections
 Conducting works and maintenance when the airport is
still operational
 Safety management and quality assurance systems and
procedures
 CAA incident and accident reporting
With access to reference documents they will be able to
specify:
 detailed zones and work activities permitted on the
runway strip
 Steps for conducting safety assessment
 Reporting requirements of aerodrome incidents to CAA
AERODROME INSPECTIONS
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Inspection Programme – primary responsibility of
Aerodrome certificate holder to ensure the correct
functioning or condition of following:
Pavement areas
Safety and obstacle free areas
Markings and signs
Aircraft loading/unloading and refuelling
Navigation aids
Public protection
Wildlife and airside fencing
Responsibility 3rd Parties – Other organisations such as
air navigation service providers may own navigation aids
on airside. Ultimate responsibility for visual aids (lighting
and marking) rests with the airport certificate holder.
AERODROME INSPECTIONS
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Inspection Frequency – following considerations:
number of aircraft movements, types of aircraft and
operation (VFR/IFR), meteorological conditions, day or
night, aerodrome environment, complexity and size of
aerodrome, and analysis of results/trends of inspections.
Recording and Reporting – essential good records are
kept and prompt reporting to ATC/NOTAM for operational
impact and maintenance for fault rectification.
Competency/Equipment of Inspector – important that
inspector understands function and operational impact of
items being inspected and supported by detailed
procedures (SOP) and necessary equipment and support
(radio equipped vehicles, management/technical escalation)
AERODROME MAINTENANCE
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Fault Rectification – reported by inspection programme,
pilots, ATC or routine maintenance inspections. Urgency
dependent on operational impact and allowable outages etc
Preventative – routine maintenance to minimise faults
and ensure safety (availability, continuity and integrity) of
service or facility.
Projects – CAPEX major works to enhance and upgrade
current facilities
Access – close proximity to and on runway difficult
Records – essential to keep good records to enable trend
analysis etc
RUNWAY WORK ZONES
NOTAM and ATS advice to pilots, consideration meteorological conditions
Zone 1 Calibration personnel equipment only when essential other
personnel to edge zone 2 for turbojet and edge zone 1 for turboprop light
GA aircraft
Zone 2 all equipment personnel clear for turbojet, okay for other
Zone 3 consideration navaid protection zones for
personnel/equipment/vehicles and LVO
METHOD OF WORKS PLAN
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For all major works a Method Off Works Plan (MWOP) is
required:
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Management – early appointment of project manager to
manage the pre works planning
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Consultation - airline and other operators, ATS, works
contractor, Airways technical for impact on their facilities,
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CAA - does the work require specific regulatory approval –
structures mast penetrating OLS require notification
Is work covered by existing AOC/Exposition
AIS – Use AIP Supplement with use of NOTAM only for
notifying start dates. Consider end of project permanent
changes required to AIP/Aeronautical charts.
MOWP - AIS
MOWP - SAFETY
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Operational Safety – Fully compliant Physical
characteristics, OLS, visual navaids, denoting
obstacles and facilities commensurate with:
The characteristics of the aircraft using the airport
The lowest MET minima
The ambient light conditions
Any changes to OP Data clearly published including
use of diagrams
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Personnel Safety – Fully compliant with all OSH
requirements
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Safety Plan – Overall safety plan reflecting above as
part of the Project signoff.
MOWP - CONTENTS
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Title Page – date of issue, location and short description eg
Wellington Runway overlay
Works Information – Outline full scope and state all facilities
that are affected, dates and duration of each stage
Restrictions to aircraft OPS/AIS – outline operational
restrictions including diagrams and detail AIP SUP and NOTAM
issued or to be issued during the various stages, impact adverse
weather.
Restrictions to contractors/works – detail restrictions and
requirements for restoring normal operations
Safety Plan – detailed safety plan including operational and
personnel OSH
Administration - provide the name of the project manager,
works safety officers and contact details
Authority – All works will be carried out in accordance with the
MWOP
Drawings – For each stage of the works
Distribution List – Airport, contractor, consultants, ATS
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS – NZ
EXAMPLE
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Swedavia-McGregor Report 1988 recommended
fundamental change to the civil aviation system. CAA up
to then provided external QA function through process of
constant inspection of the end product and intervention.
Change to responsibility be placed on certificated
organisations to have QMS with appropriate internal QA
procedures.
More effective for CAA to examine systems that control
the activities and ensure appropriate procedures in place
to address and achieve the required safety standard.
QMS is the structure, responsibilities, processes and
procedures of an organisation that promotes and
establishes an environment and culture of continuing
improvement that will enhance safety.
QUALITY ASSURANCE NZ EXPERIENCE
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Internal Quality Assurance procedures required to:
Identify, Document and Correct Instances of nonconformance or non-compliance
139.75 Aerodrome internal quality assurance
(a) Each applicant for the grant of an aerodrome operating
certificate shall establish internal quality assurance
procedures to ensure compliance with, and the adequacy
of, the procedures, plans, systems and programmes,
required by Subparts B, C, and D.
(b) The senior person who has the responsibility for
internal quality assurance shall have direct access to the
Chief Executive on matters affecting the safety of aircraft
operations and the performance of the aerodrome services
and facilities.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
ICAO Annex 14:
 1.5.3 States shall require, as part of their safety programme,
that a certified aerodrome operator implements a safety
management system acceptable to the State that, as a
minimum:
a) identifies safety hazards;
b) ensures that remedial action necessary to maintain an
acceptable level of safety is implemented;
c) provides for continuous monitoring and regular assessment
of the safety level achieved; and
d) aims to make continuous improvement to the overall level
of safety.
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1.5.4 A safety management system shall clearly define lines of
safety accountability throughout a certified aerodrome
operator, including a direct accountability for safety on the
part of senior management.
SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
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Safety is the state in which the risk to harm to
persons or of property damage is reduced to, and
maintained at or below, an acceptable level through a
continuing process of hazard identification and risk
management.
A Safety Management System is an organised
approach to managing safety, including the necessary
organisational structures, accountabilities, policies
and procedures.
Concept of Risk is two-dimensional involving both
likelihood of occurrence of a hazard and the
severity of its potential consequences.
ACCEPTABLE LEVEL OF SAFETY
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Expressed by 2 measures/metrics – safety performance indicators
and safety performance targets and implemented through various
safety requirements
Safety performance indicators – measure of safety performance
of an organisation. Must be easy to measure and linked to States
(CAA) Safety programme.
Safety performance targets – determined by considering what is
desirable and realistic. Should be measurable and acceptable to
stakeholders and consistent with States safety programme.
Safety requirements – to achieve safety performance indicators
and targets.
Example – no more than one runway incursion per 40,000 aircraft
movements (safety indicator); with a 40% reduction in a 12 month
period (safety target); the establishment of low visibility taxi
procedures (safety requirement).
ALARP
As Low As Reasonably
Practicable. Any further
risk is either impracticable
or grossly outweighed by
the cost.
ACCIDENT CAUSATION MODEL
ACCIDENT CAUSATION MODEL
1:600 RULE
ORGANISATION SAFETY MODEL
SAFETY CYCLE
RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS
RISK ASSESSMENT
RISK ASSESSMENT
RISK ASSESSMENT
STEPS FOR IMPLEMENTING SMS
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Step 1: Planning – review organisation look for existing
strengths and capabilities, safety cultural, draft safety
indicators, targets and strategy, implementation plan, budget
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Step 2: Senior Management’s Commitment – issuing
safety policy and safety objectives
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Step 3: Organisation – appointing safety manager,
committees, structures, training and competency
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Step 4: Hazard Identification – implementation of reactive
and proactive identification including: safety assessments,
trend monitoring, incident reporting, safety surveys
Step 5: Risk Management – hazard identification, risk
assessment, risk mitigation
STEPS FOR IMPLEMENTING SMS
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Step 6: Investigation Capability – internal capability
lessons learnt understanding not just the what but the how.
Step 7: Safety Analysis Capability – for trend analysis,
occurrence investigation, hazard identification, risk
assessment and mitigation, monitoring of safety performance.
Step 8: Safety Training and Promotion – keeping staff
informed through training and literature.
Step 9: Safety and Information Management – employ
modern electronic system to provide close to real time status of
all risk, minimise paper
Step 10: Safety Oversight and Performance Monitoring
– programme of inspections, audits and safety reviews
AERONAUTICAL STUDY/ SAFETY CASE
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Methodology in ICAO Safety Management Manual
Document 9859 2nd Edition 2009, chapter 5. The process
involves the following steps and documentation as detailed
below.
Scenario
System Description
Hazard Identification Process
Safety Risk Assessment Process
Safety Risk Mitigation/Control Process
Individual Responsibilities for Implementing Measures
Hazard Identification and Safety Management Log
AERONAUTICAL STUDY - EXAMPLE
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Scenario - The close proximity of the planned extension of the wind
turbine farm to X International Airport and that the proposed turbines
will infringe the inner horizontal and conical OLS requires the CAA to
conduct an aeronautical study as detailed in CA Rules. The
aeronautical study is to identify any risks to airport and aircraft
operations and to recommend if required the necessary control
measures and mitigations to ensure safe and regulatory compliant
operations.
System Description X International Airport is a designated
international airport for the State. The airport operator is X. X is a
government owned company operating all the airports in the State and
the sole provider of air traffic and air navigation services.
The airport is operational 24 hours per day, seven days per week (H24),
and has direct schedule international flights to/from Europe, Africa and
North America. It also has frequent domestic flights to the other
airports in the state. The airport is capable of handling aircraft up to
ICAO Annex 14 Code 4D with the current largest aircraft regularly
operating at the airport being the Boeing 757-200.
ACCIDENT/INCIDENT REPORTING
Accident means an occurrence that is associated with the operation of an
aircraft and takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft
with the intention of flight and such time as all such persons have
disembarked and the engine or any propellers or rotors come to rest,
being an occurrence in which—
(1) a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of—
(i) being in the aircraft; or
(ii) direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including any part that has
become detached from the aircraft; or
(iii) direct exposure to jet blast—
(2) the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure that—
(i) adversely affects the structural strength, performance, or
flight characteristics of the aircraft; and
(ii) would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected
component— except engine failure or damage that is limited to the engine,
its cowlings, or accessories, or damage limited to propellers, wing tips,
rotors, antennas, tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents, or puncture holes in
the aircraft skin;
INCIDENT
Incident means any occurrence, other than an accident, that is associated with the
operation of an aircraft and affects or could affect the safety of operation:
 Aircraft incident means any incident, not otherwise classified, associated with the
operation of an aircraft:
 Aerodrome incident means an incident involving an aircraft operation and—
an obstruction either on the aerodrome operational area or protruding into the aerodrome
obstacle limitation surfaces; or
(2) a defective visual aid; or
(3) a defective surface of a manoeuvring area; or
(4) any other defective aerodrome facility:
 Airspace incident means an incident involving deviation from, or shortcomings of,
the procedures or rules for—
(1) avoiding a collision between aircraft; or
(2) avoiding a collision between aircraft and other obstacles when an aircraft is being
provided with an Air Traffic Service:
 Bird incident means an incident where—
(1) there is a collision between an aircraft and one or more birds; or
(2) when one or more birds pass sufficiently close to an aircraft in flight to cause alarm to
the pilot:
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CAA NOTIFICATION – NZ EXPERIENCE
12.55 Notification of incident
A holder of a certificate issued in accordance with the following Parts
must notify the Authority as soon as practicable of any associated
incident if the certificate holder is involved in the incident and
the incident is a serious incident or is an immediate hazard to the
safety of an aircraft operation:
(6) Part 139 ─ aerodrome incident:
(d) The notification of an incident required by paragraphs (a), (b),
and (c) must be conveyed by a means acceptable to the Authority
and contain, where ascertainable, information in accordance with
the following:
(g) Aerodrome incident – The following information is required for
notification of an aerodrome incident under rule 12.55(d)(7):
(1) date and time of the incident:
(2) brief description of events:
(3) name of the aerodrome:
(4) description and the location of the reported defect or obstruction:
(5) name, organisation, and contact details of the person notifying
the incident.
CAA FORM 5
PRESERVATION ACCIDENT SCENE
No person may have access to, interfere with or
remove except
 To remove persons and livestock
 Prevent further damage to aircraft
 Prevent obstruction to public or air navigation
where no practicable alternative is available
BIRD HAZARD REPORTS
BIRD HAZARD – CAA ACTION
PRACTICAL EXERCISE
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What aspects need to be considered in preparing
a method of works plan?
What restrictions are there in notifying airport
works by using solely the NOTAM service?
Aeronautical Study – Course team discussions
on handout and presentation to course

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