What is ED95 fuel - KMUTT Energy Forum

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ื้ เพลิงเอทานอล ED95
เชอ
คุณณัฐชาติ จารุจน
ิ ดา
ประธานเจ้าหน้าทีป
่ ฏิบ ัติการกลุม
่ ธุรกิจปิ โตรเลียมขนปลาย
ั้
บริษ ัท ปตท. จาก ัด (มหาชน)
5 เมษายน 2556
-1-
Outline
• EU Roadmap Greenhouse Gas Emission
• Application of Ethanol Fuel in Sweden
• What is ED95 ?
• ED95 Engine
• ED95 in Thailand and PTT-Scania Collaboration Progress
• Comparison between normal diesel / NGV and ED95
-2-
EU Roadmap – Greenhouse Gas Emissions
l
2000
l
2010
l
2020
-3-
Sustainable Transport – Available Biofuels
Best Case
CO2 reduction
Ethanol
from sugar cane
< 90%
Synthetic diesel
from biomass
< 80%
Biodiesel
FAME, RME, etc.
< 70%
Biogas
from waste, sewage
< 90%
These fuels are available today
-4-
Fuel Alternatives
Ethanol
FAME/
RME
Synthetic
diesel
Biogas
Methanol
DME
Hydrogen
Handle &
store
+
+
+
+
+
?
+
+
+
?
+
?
+
+
+
+
-
?
?
+
-
?
+
?
?
?
?
+
-
Comm.
available
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Production
capacity
Local
Emissions
CO2/GHG
reduction
In vehicle
-5-
Application of Ethanol Fuel In Sweden
Engine Type
Fuel
E85
ED95
85% Ethanol
95% Ethanol
15% Gasoline
5% Additive
Ethanol type
Anhydrous 99.5%
Hydrous 95%
Engine Technology
Spark Ignition Engine
Compression Ignition
Application
Light-Duty FFV (Flexible Fuel
Vehicle)
Heavy-Duty Diesel Base
Engine Modification
Manufacturer
Ford, Volvo, Saab, Peugeot,
Citron, Skoda, Seat, Renault,
VW
SCANIA
In heavy duty diesel application, the most applicable of ethanol fuel with
high efficiency is ED95. E85 is, in general, not match with diesel
application due to extremely high octane number.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biofuel_in_Sweden
Ethanol for Dedicated Compression Ignition Engines (ED95)
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What is ED95 fuel ?
ED95 is a pure ethanol fuel with additives for diesel engine
adapted for ethanol
The composition of ED95 fuel :
Component
Anhydrous Ethanol; purity 95%
Additive
Amount
95%
5%
 Ignition improver
 Denaturant (by law)
 Corrosion inhibitor
 Lubricity additive
-7-
Ethanol specification comparison
Items, unit
Hydrous EtOH
Anhydrous
EtOH for
gasohol
Scania spec
MOE spec
Sulfur, mg/kg
Max 10.0
-
Phosphorus, mg/l
Max 0.20
-
Max 2.0
Sulphates, mg/kg
Max 4.0
-
Max 1.0
Max 20 (mg/L)
Max 0.5
Max 0.5
Inorganic chloride,
mg/kg
Max 0.100
Max 0.07
808-814
Dry residue,
mg/kg
Max 65
-
Tot.
contamination,
mg/kg
Max 24
-
Electrical
conductivity,
uS/cm
Max 5.0
Max 5.0
Washed gum,
mg/100ml
-
Max 5.0
pHe
-
6.5-9.0
Hydrous EtOH
(for ED95)
Anhydrous
EtOH for
gasohol
Scania spec
MOE spec
Total alcohol
(EtOH&higher
alcohol), %m/m
Min 92.4
Min 99.0
Higher saturated
mono-alcohols
(C3-C5), %m/m
Max 2.0
MeOH, %m/m
[email protected],
Kg/m3
Items, unit
Copper, mg/kg
Appearance
Bright&Clear, no
visible impurity
Bright&Clear, no
visible impurity
Min 10
-
Acidity( as acetic
acid), %m/m
Max 0.0050
Max 30 (mg/L)
Aldehyde(as
acetic aldehydes),
%m/m
Max 0.0250
-
Flash point, oC
Water, %m/m
4.5-7.4
Max 0.3
-8-
Properties of ED95
ED95
Diesel
Density(kg/m3)
810-830
810-820
Flashpoint(°C)
12
>56
Cetane number
~10
>50
Biofuel (vol-%)
>95
<7
Energy content (MJ/kg)
24.7
44.5
Energy content (MJ/litre)
20.5
35.6
Handling and properties of ED959
ED95 is a stable fuel with long shelf life
Must be handled as gasoline for safety reasons
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ED95 fulfils the Euro 5 emission standard and
EEV
-10-
Scania ED95 Engine
3rd generation diesel-ethanol engine
Based on the 9-litre Euro 4 diesel
engine
270 hp, 1200 Nm
Euro 5 and EEV
Best available environmental standard
9-litre diesel engine
270 hp, 1200 Nm
Thermal efficiency
Ethanol up to 43%
Diesel up to 44%
Proven technology
Cost efficient way to replace diesel
-11-
ED95 Engine
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ethanol resistant fuel system (unit injectors)
Increased fuel injector size (+75% at equal pressure)
Very high compression ratio: 28:1
Ethanol compatible engine oil
Reduced service interval
Short route EGR, with venturi
– to reduce NOx emissions (Euro 5 diesel EGR levels)
Oxidation catalyst
– eliminating CO and HC emissions
ED95 piston 28:1
HSD piston 17:1
-12-
Scania’s commitment to sustainability
Vehicles, fuels, infrastructure…
-13-
-14-
ED95 Project in Thailand
January 23rd 2011 at Bangkok
9 Partners
-15-
ED95 Project in Thailand
-16-
ED95 Project in Thailand
PTT supported ED95 station (fuel system, pump, tank and dispenser)
Additive imported from Brazil
-17-
ED95 Station
1. Storage EtOH and additive separated , mixed when fill in bus or truck
EtOH tank
Additive tank
2. Storage finish ED95 (mixed EtOH and additive in tank)
ED95 tank
-18-
PTT & Scania Siam Collaboration
Project on ED95 Working Schedule
Objective :
To develop ED 95 formulation by using PTT ‘s additive
Testing & Evalutaion by Scania :
Engine Test : modified single cylinder ( CR = 28:1 )
Performance evaluation :
• Ignition delay
• Combustion Stability
Conclusion :
 Scania approve PTT ED95 formulation
-19-
Comparison between NGV and ED95 for heavy
duty vehicles
NGV
ED 95
CNG 100 %
95% hydrous + 5% additive
Dedicated CNG Heavy Duty
Need special lube
bioethanol-adapted
compression ignition
engine
Need special lube
NGV Service Station
Same as E85
1.7 – 2.7 km./kg equivalent to
3.4- 5.4 km./l normal diesel
10.5 baht / kg
1.2 – 1.8 km./l
Fuel Cost , baht/km
5.55 – 10.5
17.78 – 26.67
Vehicle Cost , Mbaht
6-7
8
Items
Fuel Formulation
Engine
Lube
Service Station
Fuel Consumption *
Fuel Price
* Reference : KMIT ED95 Project
> 32 baht / l
-21-
Comparison between Diesel and ED95 for heavy
duty vehicles
Items
Fuel Formulation
Engine
Lube
Service Station
Diesel
ED 95
Diesel ( B5 )
95% hydrous + 5% additive
Normal diesel engine
bioethanol-adapted
compression ignition
engine
Need special lube
Normal diesel engine oil at
same ODI
Normal
Same as E85
Fuel Consumption *
1.8 – 2.7 km./l
1.2 – 1.8 km./l
Fuel Price
29.99 baht / kg
> 32 baht / l
Fuel Cost , baht/km
11.11 – 16.66
17.78 – 26.67
Vehicle Cost , Mbaht
5
8
* Reference : KMIT ED95 Project
-22-
All emission emitted by ED95 bus comparing to diesel is totally less than diesel,
while the PM and CO are higher than CNG bus.
แหล่ งที่มา: ข้ อมูลจาก รายงานประจาปี 2554 กรมควบคุมมลพิษ
-23-
Thank you
-24-

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