BIAS - Campbell County Schools

 Labeling
 Rhetorical analogy
 Rhetorical definition
 Rhetorical explanation
 Innuendo
 Downplayers
 Hyperbole
 Truth Surrogates
 Ridicule / Sarcasm
 EUPHEMISM positive connotative word or phrase to
make topic seem less harsh
 DYSPHEMISM negative connotative word or phrase to
make topic seem more harsh
 Freedom fighter vs terrorist vs guerilla vs rebel
 Euphemism:
 His neighbor passed away.
 Dysphemism:
 His neighbor croaked
 Uses a figurative comparison (sometimes a simile
or metaphor) to convey a positive or negative
feeling towards a subject
 McCain Ad
 Palin Speech
 Obama response
“The environment needs George Bush like farmers
need a drought”
 The use of emotionally charged language to express or
elicit an attitude about something
 Capital punishment defined as “government
sanctioned murder”
 “…America is not the crude stereotype of a self-
interested empire.”
 ~Barack Obama~
 Expressing an opinion as if it were fact
 He didn’t have the guts to fight back VS he took the high
road instead of taking a swing.
 “People living illegally in our country,…, are taking
advantage of our schools and welfare programs, stealing
our jobs, and instigating crime.”
~Alexandra Le Tellier, LA Times~
 The speaker makes an unsupported claim, leading
the audience to believe something by implying or
hinting at it.
 We need a leader who is ready today.
 Wording to make someone or something look less
important or significant (Often uses a qualifier:
Mere, only, so called, only, etc….)
“Yes Dad, I had an accident, but really it’s just a dent”
 Use of quotation marks may also suggest irony or
misleading: She got her ‘degree’ from a corresponding
 An extravagant overstatement
 Can work to move the audience to accept the basic
claim even if they reject the extremes of the word
 Hinting that proof exists to support a claim without
actually supporting it.
 “studies show”, “according to an insider”, “there’s every
reason to believe that…..”
 If the evidence does exist, the author does a poor job of
citing it.
 We have every reason to believe that the football
stadium will be ready for next season.
 The use of language suggests the subject is worthy of
scorn. The language seeks to evoke a laugh or
sarcastically mock the subject
 Supreme Court Justices
 Fallacies are false or misleading arguments.
 Why Do I Need to Know These?
 You can point them out in a discussion thereby focusing the issues
where they belong while exposing error.
 You will notice them when people are trying to persuade you and
therefore be able to poke holes in their argument.
 Attacking the individual instead of the
 abusive attack the person instead of the
argument ("Only a cold-hearted Scrooge
would cut this program!")
 circumstantial attacking the circumstances
of the person ("How can you be against
relaxing immigration policies. Your
grandparents came over from Italy!")
 tu quoque ("you, too") AKA "practice what
you preach." ("Why should I follow this
Java style guide? You write pretty sloppy
code yourself!")
The hearer is urged to accept the argument
based upon an appeal to emotions,
sympathy, etc.
Example: You owe me big time because I
really stuck my neck out for you.
Example: Oh come on, I've been
sick. That's why I missed the deadline.
the hearer is urged to accept a position
because a majority of people hold to it.
Example: The majority of people like
soda. Therefore, soda is good
Example: Everyone else is doing it. Why
shouldn't you?
reduce complex issues to black and white
Example: Either we go to Panama City for
the whole week of Spring Break, or we
don’t go anywhere at all.
Example: Your grades show you just aren't
trying. Either study more, or drop out of
The attempt to endorse or disqualify a claim because
of the origin or irrelevant history of the claim
Example: The Nazi regime developed the
Volkswagen Beetle. Therefore, you should not buy
a VW Beetle because of who started it.
Example: America will never settle down; look at
the rabble-rousers who founded it.
a fallacy with the following form. 1. A occurs before B. 2. Therefore, A is
the cause of B.
Example: Eating five candy bars and drinking two sodas before a test
helps me get better grades. I did that and got an A on my last test in
Example: The picture on Jim's old TV set goes out of focus. Jim goes over
and strikes the TV soundly on the side and the picture goes back into
focus. Jim tells his friend that hitting the TV fixed it.
The introduction of a topic not related to the subject
at hand.
Example: I know your car isn't working
right. But, if you had gone to the store one day
earlier, you'd not be having problems.
Example: I know I forgot to deposit the check
into the bank yesterday. But, nothing I do
pleases you.
suggests that one step will inevitably lead to more,
eventually negative steps.
Example: We have to stop the tuition increase! The
next thing you know, they'll be charging $40,000 a
Example: You can never give anyone a break. If you do,
they'll walk all over you.
The leap to a generalized conclusion based on only a
few examples.
Example: Even though it’s only the first day, I can tell
this is going to be a boring year.
Example: On my layover in Paris, I met one French
person- now I know that ALL French people are
An appeal to fear in place of logic
Example: A candidate for president says
“Electing my opponent will open the door
for new terrorist attacks.”

similar documents