4) Service Learning

Bruce Berdanier, PhD, PE, LS
Department Head
Civil and Environmental Engineering
South Dakota State University
Joanita Kant, MS
PhD Candidate
South Dakota State University
Constructivism and Service - Learning
Constructivist Pedagogy:
● Emphasizes knowledge gained through guided
experience where the learner builds complex and
interrelated understandings.
● Deep knowledge develops where information is a “light
on in the mind” not a “load on the mind.”
● The Kolb-Fry experiential learning model is a spiral
usually beginning at step one but can begin at any of the
four steps in a repetitious cycle.
What if?
Kolb and Fry
formation of
concepts based
on reflection
and reflection
on the
OSSPEEC’s modified learning strategy
• guided experience
• guided reflection
• cross-disciplinary learning
a “systems” approach to understanding the
• unintended consequences of human interventions.
PowerPoint revised after Diane Nagy 2011
 Academic service-learning is a strategy that integrates service in
the community with academic study to meet specific learning goals
for students. Faculty, in partnership with community agencies,
design service projects that will
 Meet community-identified needs
 Advance students’ understanding of specific course content
 Promote civic engagement
Critical reflective components are built into the course to help
students consider relationships between their service, the course
curriculum, current societal issues, and their professional goals.
 Experiential service-learning is different, only in that it does not
involve a course for credit.
OSSPEEC provides examples of both.
An Introduction
Summer 2012 ServiceLearning Initiative
OSSPEEC involves internships and
field education service-learning
Academic insight
Values and
Community Defined
 Off-campus populations underserved by our market
 Organizations whose primary purpose is the
common good
 Agencies whose mission provides
stewardship: public works, natural
OSSPEEC and CU students
collaborating on net-zero home
for the Pine Ridge community
Essential Elements
 Emphasis on reciprocity
 Learning and service objectives are clearly identified
and congruous
 Service is meaningful, challenging, and meets a real
 Reflection is continuous, structured, and complex
 Fosters learning about larger social issues
Service Projects
 One-time group projects
 Cross-disciplinary
 Multi-semester projects
 Alternative Weekend
 Alternative Breaks
(immersion experiences)
OSSPEEC students and faculty Lester
Richards, Tyler Corbine, Shane Herrod and
Dr. Damon Fick (SDSMT) at Wanblee
Veterans Wall
Principles of Good Practice
If academic credit is awarded, it is for learning, not for the service
Includes set learning goals for students
Criteria for the selection of service sites
Kyle White presenting on summer 2011
surveying work at Piya Wiconi
OSSPEEC / SDSMT field camp fieldtrip to drill a
temporary monitoring well on Rapid Creek
Critical Reflection
 Links experience to course, or
prior course, learning objectives
Is guided and purposeful
Tinant, Means and
Hansen measuring
Challenges assumptions and complacency
Occurs before, during, and after service
Includes components that can be evaluated according
to well-defined criteria
Involves reading, writing, doing and telling
Clarifies values and fosters civic responsibility
Invites feedback
Benefits to Agencies
• Infusion of people power to meet needs
• More informed/involved citizenry
• Increased name recognition
• New ideas and energy
• Technical assistance
• Diversity enhancement
• Access to university resources
• Reinvigorate staff
OLC students
Jake Fergusson, Aaron
Rasor and Delaine
Peterson collecting PHAB
data to be shared with
OST Environmental
Protection Agency
Benefits to Universities and Colleges
 Enhance student satisfaction, retention, and
graduation rates
 Improve relationships with community
 Advance institutional goals: Service, Social
Responsibility, Scholarship of Teaching and Learning,
Diversity Enhancement
 Promote coherent
collaborative curriculum
OSSPEEC student and community
member Oliver Covey relating
academics and service under a
cottonwood tree
Benefits to Faculty
 Enrich and enliven teaching
 Identify new areas for research and
Ale Higa (OLC faculty)
 Develop projects that are simultaneously and next generation at an
productive in research, service, and teaching OLC research meeting
 More efficient use of available resources
 Foster cross-disciplinary learning
Benefits to Students
 Personal – enhanced sense of efficacy, identity,
 Social – diversity, social responsibility, citizenship
skills, commitment to service
 Academic – increased complexity of understanding,
problem analysis, critical thinking, GPA, cognitive
development, ability to apply learning to “real world”
OLC Student Delaine Peterson “enjoying the opportunity to research streams”
Heavy Metals
 Areas of Focus on the PRIR and White River
 Traditionally Edible Plants
 Soils
 Surface Water
 Sediment
 Undergraduate and graduate student research
 Interfacial Research
 Engineering, Environmental Science, Biology
Heavy Metals Research
We work in the
“Field” and in
the “Lab.”
Field and Lab
“Rough” and “Sophisticated”
White River Project Area 2012
Our Theory
 Immediate participation of undergraduate students
early in their plan of study in field and laboratory
 initiates their precognition to the benefit of future
classroom pursuits
confirms their interest in science and technology
helps them self identify as a member of another defined
gives them purpose in pursuing an academic degree and
fulfills their need to serve the community through their
intellect and efforts
Our Experience
 Students have completed two summers of STEM,
service – learning, sampling and analysis
 Presentations at OLC poster sessions last year and this
 Abstracts submitted to AIGEP conference for this fall
Next Steps
 Presentation of this year’s undergrad results at
selected conferences
 Completion of MS this year on White River sediment
and water
 Defined research (sampling and analysis) program for
next year
 Propagation of field/lab summer program
 Completion of Interfacial PhD during 2013
Charles Jason Tinant
OSSPEEC Project Director – OLC
PhD Candidate Earth Science
MS Water Resources Engineering
BS Geological Engineering
Community-Defined Needs in Surface
Water Quality & Quantity
 Many community concerns
on the Pine Ridge
Reservation are centered
around water – Questions
of Sustainability
 Drinking Water Quality
 Is the water safe to drink?
 Stream Health
 How is the environment
around me changing?
 Long-term Availability
 Mni Wiconi / Treaty Rights
regarding the Missouri River
White River near Badlands Visitor Center –
zero flow condition on July 23, 2012
OSSPEEC Partnerships with Community
Agencies around Water
 OST Environmental Protection Program
 Non-point Source Monitoring / Analysis (Tinant,
Benning – SDSMT, Kenner – SDSMT)
 Natural Resources Regulatory Agency
 Well-drilling (Schwalm – OLC)
 Hydrogeology (Sawyer - SDSMT, Sanovia - OLC)
 Water budget development (Tinant)
 OST Rural Water
 Existing relationship with SDSU in water
distribution research (Beck – SDSU Civil
 Thunder Valley Development Agency
 Floodplain modeling (Tinant)
 Design of net-zero water / wastewater treatment
(Berdanier, Fick, Pyatt – UC Boulder)
Dr. Schwalm (OLC), Calvin Cutschall,
and James Means drilling core at an
abandoned mine in Harding County,
Pine Ridge Aquatic Ecology Project
 Engineering Need: Watershed health
defined by analysis of chemical, biological,
and physical parameters;
Concrete Experience: Guided WQ and
biotic sampling, laboratory analysis;
Observation / Reflection: Analysis of
macroinvertebrate data, field data,
laboratory data, discussion on the bigger
social picture;
Abstract Thinking (cross-disciplinary
learning): biogeochemical cycling,
anthropogenic perturbation, stability;
Testing Abstract Concepts: Best
Management Practice (BMP) design using a
systems approach;
Jake Fergusson water quality
Delaine Peterson and Jake
Fergusson sampling
Streamflow Event Sampling
 Engineering Need: Fecal coliform
and sediment identified as
impairments in Pine Ridge
Reservation streams
Concrete Experience: Stormwater sampling, stream flow
Observation / Reflection:
Capacity building with OST
Environmental Protection
Program, K-12 Outreach
Vertical integration:
Collaborative project with an MS
candidate, SDSMT Senior, and
OLC freshman
Abstract Concepts: Best
Management Practice (BMP)
design; storm flows
Shane Herrod teaching OLC Freshman Engineering
and high school students how to measure stream
Practical Irrigable Land Estimation for Pine
Ridge Reservation
• Engineering Need: OST should quantify future agricultural water
needs as part of treaty negotiations with Federal government;
• Concrete Experience: Joni Tobacco was formerly Water Director for
OST Natural Resources Regulatory Agency;
• Abstract Thinking: Modeled PIA from effective rainfall in ArcGIS
July 11, 2012
Jim Sanovia and students standing on White Clay
 Geology of the White Clay fault area 1:24k quads
 Structural geology of the White Clay fault area
 Stratigraphy of the White Clay fault area quads
 Baseflow analysis of White River streamflow 1992 - 1997:
evidence of structural influence on ground water
All pictures taken mid-July
No stream flow
This image about 50
miles downstream from
images to the right
Evidence of structural influence on
ground water recharge
Teaching hands on field methods
for geologic mapping
Dr. Foster Sawyer demonstrates field sampling
Dr. Hannan LaGarry explains the
fossiliferous Niobrara formation to the
Instructors also teach students
how to properly take field notes,
field drawings, prepare their note
books, field bags, equipment etc.
Field Work to Computer
Field geologic mapping
brought into ArcInfo and
digitized to make the Tribe’s
first ever 1:24k geologic
Intern learning GIS
geodatabase management
Baseflow analysis of
White River
July 23, 2012
Interns geologic
Service Learning Opportunities
 Compile a more accurate geologic map for the Pine Ridge
 Provide critical hydrologic information for the surface water
ground water systems on the Reservation
Wind Energy
 80 ft. 20kW turbine
 Pressure cells
 Strain gages
 Accelerometers
 Wind speed/direction
 33 ft. Skystream turbine
 Three photovoltaic cells
SDSMT’s Renewable Energy Research
Meteorological Tower at OLC
 50 m. meteorological tower
 Lowered for meteorological
 Instrumentation
 3 anemometers
 Humidity
 Temperature
 Objectives
 Wind data for OLC, Thunder
Valley Community Development
 Potential wind turbine
Meteorological tower at OLC
 Poster presentations
 SDSMT Undergraduate
Research Symposium
 SD Academy of Science
 Undergraduate Research
 Spring, 2012 – Shane Herrod
 Exposure to M.S. research
Structural Restoration
 Wanblee Memorial Wall
 Built in 1947
 Wall settlement, deterioration
of engraved names
 Public Input
 Grandson of original builder
 School and community
 Repair Strategies
 Replacement
 Repair
 Restoration
 Historical Perspective
 Relationship to
Construction Materials
 Soils
 Concrete
 Economics
 Repair comparisons
 Creative solutions
 Collaborations with existing programs (REU,
NASA, NASHA, Pine Ridge DOT)
 Exposure to SDSMT
 Working with others
 Multidisciplinary component
Service – Learning First
Year Assessment and
Bruce Berdanier, PhD, PE, LS
Department Head
Civil and Environmental Engineering
South Dakota State University
Joanita Kant, MS
PhD Candidate
South Dakota State University
Service - Learning :The First Year
 Students and Faculty completed pre – and post-
assessment surveys
 Post survey included a question for participants to
indicate the effort they had made for reflective
journaling throughout the summer
 Faculty and students strongly favor “hands – on” versus
traditional classroom learning
 Faculty and students both recognized precognition
value of projects to benefit future coursework
 Coursework was applicable to summer projects
 Project potential, and importance: student evaluation
became less positive over the summer
 Faculty remained positive
 We believe that the first summer results indicate
students were in data gathering and had not
proceeded to design or experiment results, while
faculty could see the long range benefits of pursuing
the projects
 Expected Challenges
Distances between Institutions;
Low math skills (OLC);
 Unexpected Challenges
Long project maturation time;
Project teams like “ships passing in the night”;
Migration of OLC SEM students to natural science.
 2012 student teams are
exhibiting local stability and
resilience as student’s take
ownership as project
 OSSPEEC leadership learning
flexibility in order to capitalize
on new opportunities
 2011 Visiting professors
interested in uranium / arsenic;
 2012 Tribal Agency Internships
 2012 Thunder Valley
Regenerative Community
 Interdisciplinary Learning
OSSPEEC and UC students testing
compaction at Thunder Valley
Serendipitous Outcomes
 Capacity Building at OLC Laboratory / Repository
 Water quality emphasis recruits new students and reenergizes OLC chemistry faculty;
 Metals research results in the start of the OLC botanical
collection -> results in K-12 teachers increasing the
collection by 50%;
 OLC tightly integrated into NSF EPSCoR sustainability
planning proposal;
 Capacity building at SDSU
 OSSPEEC has dramatically increased throughput rate for
Image credit: www.greatfarm.org
to Academics
 Construction Materials
 Veteran’s wall;
 DOT Internships
 Surveying
 Wind tower heights (Fa 2o11
 Thunder Valley (Fa 2012)
 Statics / Mechanics
 Wind tower “repair”
 Veteran’s wall
 Engineering geology
 Geoprobe drilling projects
 Real world capstone design
opportunity with Thunder
Valley water sustainability Image Credit: www.physics.org
project for SDSU & SDSMT“Net zero applied to water reclamation”
Project Summary
 In its first two years OSSPEEC has achieved:
 A complete pre-engineering curriculum with OLC pre-engineering
articulating to SDSU and SDSMT;
 Stronger partnerships between OSSPEEC institutions, Tribal Agencies,
and the Thunder Valley NGO;
 Meaningful research/service opportunities in engineering for
undergraduate and graduate students at three institutions that are based
on community needs;
 Better support strategies for engineering students resulting in high
retention at OLC, SDSMT and SDSU;
 Verification of a modified constructivist paradigm based on:
 Guided experience / reflection;
 Cross-disciplinary learning;
 A “systems” approach to understanding the environment;
 Respect for natural world through emphasizing unintended
consequences of human interventions (e.g. wise engineering)
Moving Forward
 Continued capacity building of OLC, SDSU, and SDSMT
faculty and staff in research and instruction;
Constant improvement for pre-engineering / engineering
coursework at OLC, SDSU, SDSMT through servicelearning and continued instructional collaboration;
Refocus of emphasis from engineering analysis to
engineering design as projects mature;
Greater pre-engineering student enrollment at OLC with
greater matriculation success at SDSU and SDSMT;
Continued research collaboration between OLC, SDSU and

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