綠色經濟學的個體基礎II

Report
綠色經濟學:個體基礎
周賓凰
國立中央大學財務金融系
2013/9/29
我們為什麼需要新的經濟學?
Why do we need new
economics? And why now?
Ravel: L’enfant
et les Sortileges
(The Child and the Spells)
Just a couple of years ago!
Now it’s been over 400ppm!
IPCC Fifth Assessment Report
(AR5)

United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC); AR5 will consist of three Working Group
(WG) Reports and a Synthesis Report, to be completed
in 2013 and 2014.
WG I: The Physical Science Basis – mid September 2013,
Summary for Policymakers published 27 September.
 WG II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability – mid March
2014
 WG III: Mitigation of Climate Change – early April 2014
 AR5 Synthesis Report (SYR) – October 2014

WG1, Sept 27, 2013
若人類什麼都不做、不控制溫室氣體,到
了2100年,二氧化碳濃度將飆升至936ppm
,全球平均溫度會上升攝氏4.8度,「當初
預測的正負2度C恐將失守」!
 台灣恐怕有10%土地都將沉入海底,包括
台北盆地、台中、彰化、雲林、嘉義、高
雄及屏東西部沿海地區,恐將被淹掉。

Vast costs of Arctic change
人與萬物以及
自然的疏離
John Robbins
http://www.johnrobbins.info/
Al Gore and Bill Clinton go
Vegan!

http://www.npr.org/blogs/thesalt/2013/11/26/247330160/al-goregoes-vegan-following-in-footsteps-of-bill-clinton

http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/postpolitics/wp/2013/11/25/al-gore-goes-vegan-with-little-fanfare/
Capitalist Economy: A Linear Economy
An example of “Greenwash”:
The industrial cup of tea
An Alternative: The permaculture cup
of tea…
From a linear economy to a circular
flow economy
資本主義經濟與綠色經濟




Kenneth Boulding, 1966, The Economics of the
Coming Spaceship Earth
資本主義:牛仔觀點
 無限資源的世界
綠色經濟:地球號太空船
 有限的資源
The term ‘Spaceship Earth’ was popularized by Buckminster Fuller in his 1963
book, “Operating manual for Spaceship Earth.”
Alternatives

Ecological economics
 Steady-state
 From growth
economy (SSE) (Herman Daly)
to development; from quantitative to
qualitative

Green economics
 Sustainable
economy
 Resource-based economy
 Blue economy
 Etc.

These can all be viewed as synonyms.
綠色經濟學與其他相關學門
What is green economics?
•
•
綠色經濟:在永續前提下,全體人
類福祉極大化的經濟社會
重現社會、經濟與環境之關係的圖
像
Lawson
綠色經濟學的基礎公理
1.
2.
3.
在有限空間內要永遠擴張是不可能的;
對有限資源的永久取用是不可能的;
所有事物都是相互連結的。
* 這基本上仍是傳統經濟範型的表達形式!
New Economics Foundation
一個圓滿富足社會的幸福宣言
決定我們幸福、福祉的三大範疇
1. Our parents 父母(50%): 基因、成長背景
2. Our outlook and activities 社會關係與生活
態度 (40%)
3. Our circumstances 所得、生活環境等外
在因子 (10%)
What is well-being?



簡單說,幸福(福祉)是生命整體的快樂與滿足
進一步,富足而自我實現的生活來自:
 發展個人之能力
 實現其潛能
 對社會有所貢獻
 ……
這也是心理學---尤其是正向心理學,所關注的。
政府的角色
nef: a well-being manifesto for a flourishing society
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Measure what matters: produce a set of national well-being
accounts.
Create a well-being economy: employment, meaningful work
and environmental taxation.
Reclaim our time through improving our work-life balance.
Create an education system to promote flourishing.
Refocus the NHS to promote complete health.
Invest in early years and parenting.
Discourage materialism and promote authentic advertising.
Strengthen civil society, social well-being and active
citizenship.
What is green economics? The
Microfoundation
Green theory of the individual
 Green theory of the firm
 Green theory of the market
 The role of government: A green
perspective

Green theory of the “consumer”


Objective: hierarchical, multiple
objectives
 Optimize the needs of all
levels in a balanced way
(seeking for the optimal
pattern in a Maslowian
manner).
 Eventual or lifetime goal:
self actualization.
The ultimate goal should be
reflected in all aspects of life:
education, work, consumption,
social relationship, etc.
自我實現
行諸於內的,是愛心的擴展(或者是意識
層次的提升),行諸於外的,則是公平與
正義的訴求與行動
 這種公平與正義所涵蓋的範圍,從單一人
類物種之內(男女、社會、國家,到全人
類之間),到不同物種之間(人與地球上
的動植物),再擴充到不同的世代之間。

The Daly Triangle
Herman Daly, 1973,
Toward a SteadyState Economy
A sustainability
framework
Max-Neef (1987) Matrix of Human Needs
Max Neef (1987) “Bare-foot economist”
Matrix of Human Needs


Max Neef (b1932); 智利
經濟學家;60年代任教於
Berkeley.
Right Livelihood Award,
1983
Five Capitals of Genuine Wealth:
Mark Anielski
用以達成各種需求的五
項「資本」:
 Human capital
 Social capital
 Natural capital
 Built capital
 Financial capital
How?
A Buddhist economics perspective




Schumacher (1911-1977)
The Buddhist sees the essence of
civilisation not in the multiplication of
wants but in the purification of
human character.
While materialist is mainly interested
in goods, the Buddhist is mainly
interested in liberation.
The keynote of Buddhist economics,
therefore, is simplicity and nonviolence (Ahimsa).
(continued)

From a Buddhist’s view, this is standing
the truth on its head by considering
goods as more important than people
and consumption as more important
than creative activity. It means…a
surrender to the force of evil.
Schumacher:
Small is beautiful
A Buddhist economist would consider
(consumption-oriented) approach as
excessively irrational: since consumption
is merely a means to human well-being,
the aim should be to obtain the maximum
of well-being with the minimum of
consumption.
(continued)
The Buddhist economics, in short, tries to
maximise human satisfactions by the
optimal pattern of consumption.
 Some guidelines:

 The
Middle Way
 No Attachment
 Buddha’s Noble Eightfold Path (八正道):
one of which is “right livelihood” (正命).
Labor vs. Work


傳統經濟學觀點
 人提供勞力是為了賺取提供其消費所需的金錢(a
necessary evil),工作必須犧牲休閒,所以是「反效
用」。
 勞力只是要素之一,與資本(或技術)是替代的。至
於其替代程度則是技術「層次」而定。「層次」高者,
為資本密集,低者則為勞力密集。在這一方面,經濟
學將人「物化」,無怪乎現代企業一旦發現勞工成本
過高,就將工廠轉往低的區域或國家;營運不佳就解
雇員工,或發明約聘、派遣、責任制等制度。
心理學觀點
 工作需滿足不同層次的需求
 正向心理學:strengths and virtues; meaning and
engagement.
Distribution of iPhone’s profit
Schumacher: Work from the
Buddhist economics perspective
The function of work is at least threefold:
 To give a man a chance to utilise and develop
his faculties;
 To enable him to overcome his ego-centredness
by joining with other people in a common task;
 To bring forth the goods and services needed for
a becoming existence.
紀伯倫: 《先知》
別人也曾告訴你,生命即黑暗,在你的倦乏中,你附和那些倦乏的人們
所說的。
而我說,生命的確是黑暗,除非有著熱望,
所有的熱望都是盲目的,除非具有知識,
所有的知識都是無用的,除非有工作,
所有的工作都是空虛的,除非有愛;
當你懷著愛心工作,你乃將你與你自己,與人人,也與神緊繫在一起。
怎麼樣才是懷著愛工作呢?
就是自你中心抽絲織布,好像你心愛的人要穿它。
工作是愛的具體化。
如果你不能懷著愛心,只能懷著厭惡工作,那不如拋下你的
工作,坐在廟宇門口,接受懷著喜悅去工作的人的賑濟吧。
因為如果你漫不經心的烘麵包,你只能做出餵的人們半飽的
苦麵包。
如果你怨恨榨葡萄的工作,你的怨恨將在酒中滲入毒素。
如果你雖唱得如天使一般,卻不愛歌唱,你便堵塞了人們的
心耳,使他們聽不清白晝與夜晚的聲音。
A digression: Schmacher on education
教育是人類最偉大的資源,而教育的本質
乃是在傳播價值。
 目前的教育太強調知識、技術與科學,以
致於「我們知道怎麼去做許多事情,但是
卻不知道要去做些什麼?知識不會帶來悲
傷,但有毒害的(教育)錯誤,卻為未來
第三代、第四代帶來無止境的悲傷。」

Federico Pistono: 投資自己的教育價值(TEDxTaipei 2013)
Happiness and curiosity in
school (nef)
Ted on
“Education”
Green theory of the market:
Localization and
community-based economy
Schumacher’s view
“From the view point of Buddhist
economics, therefore,
production from local resources
for local needs is the most
rational way of economic life.”
 Ecovillage; Bioregion; etc.

Green theory of the firm


Firm as an organism; survival and
health are more important than
profit maximization.
Products: Goods and services that
fulfill people’s different needs.




Triple bottom line accounting
Common or mutual ownership:
Scott Bader commonwealth; John
Lewis Partnership
Intermediate technology
Applications: social enterprise and
CSR
Social Enterprise: A working
definition

A social enterprise is a business whose
purpose is to change the world for the
common good.
An example of common ownership:
Scott Bader Commonwealth




Scott Bader Co. Ltd., founded by Earnst Bader,
a Quaker, at the age of 30 in 1951.
Background: During World War II; searching for
a good pattern of ownership.
Commonwealth(同協): wealth held in common
Structure



Company board (SB Inc.)
Commonwealth board of management
Community council
憲章
1.
2.
3.
公司將保持在有限規模下,如此所有成員才能
衷心擁護。公司也不會成長到超過350人。如有
需要,則應協助以SB同協的方式,成立一新的
獨立組織。
不分年齡、性別、功能或經驗,公司最低與最
高薪資,在稅前都不應超過1:7。
因為所有成員都是合夥人而非雇員,所以除非
嚴重錯誤,其他共同合夥人無權將之開除。當
然他們可自動離職,只要有事先通知的話。
憲章(續)
4 公司董事會對同協負全責。在憲章規定下,同協
有權利與義務對董事任免,並同意其薪酬水準。
5 公司之淨利由同協分配之數,不得超過40%---至
少保留60%以作為稅賦與自我融資之用;同協則
將其淨利之一半配予員工之紅利,另一半則作為
組織外慈善之用。
6. 公司之產品不得售予已知會將其用於戰爭用途之
客戶。
Green Finance
Financing for green business (local
ecovillage, social enterprise, etc.)
 Green money and banking
 Social investment counseling; green funds
(ethical funds; SRI)
 Social exchange

 IIX:
Impact Investment Exchange Asia
(Singapore)
Annie Leonard: The story of stuff
東西的故事
 碳交易的故事
 國家破產的故事
 民主失竊的故事
 改變的故事

政府的角色
nef: a well-being manifesto for a flourishing society
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Measure what matters: produce a set of national well-being
accounts.
Create a well-being economy: employment, meaningful work
and environmental taxation.
Reclaim our time through improving our work-life balance.
Create an education system to promote flourishing.
Refocus the NHS to promote complete health.
Invest in early years and parenting.
Discourage materialism and promote authentic advertising.
Strengthen civil society, social well-being and active
citizenship.
Tentative Conclusion
The eventual goal of the new economics,
the green economics, is a convivial world.
 The steps would be bottom-up, instead of
top-down, which has been supported and
claimed by most macroeconomists.


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