In Slovenia

Report
8th IT STAR WS on History of Computing
History of Computing in the West Balkan Countries
Republic of Croatia
Republic of Slovenia
Mr.sc Marijan Frkovic
CITA, president and National ECDL Coordinator
Museum of Computer History
Szeged, 19th of September 2014
CROATIAN IT ASSOCIATION (CITA)
CITA (www.hiz.hr) is the umbrella organization of Croatian ICT experts
founded in 1975, ever since it has been acting continuously
CITA participates in the work of international ICT associations of
informatics experts; ITSTAR (www.starbus.org), CEPIS (www.cepis.org)
and IFIP (www.ifip.org).
CITA has ECDL license (www.ecdl.hr), and license for the certification of
professional ICT experts www.eucip.hr) in Croatia..
CITA AND IT STAR
• Member from 2002
•
CITA and
IT STAR
organized
regional conference on e-business
held in Zagreb on 2010, where it
was
opportunity
to
exchange
experiences of e-business in the
countries of Central and Eastern
Europe
(www.starbus.org/ws5/ws5.htm).
CITA i their Organisation and Forums
Croatian Society for Open Systems and Internet, founded 1992
Croatian ORACLE User Group, founded 1995
Croatian Society of Young Informaticians, founded 1985
Croatian Linux Users Group, founded 1996
Croatian Society of Geographic IS, founded 1994
Croatian Society of SAP, founded 1996
Croatian Society of ECDL test, founded 2003
Marijan Frkovic, CV
Active in informatics for more than 46 years having spent 24 years in a large steel company (13.000
employees) and 18 years in Croatian Chamber of Commerce
1968 - Programmer (UNIVAC 1004) II-nd generation, with external programing
1970 - Programmer and system analist (UNIVAC 1106)
1975 - Main system programmer and DB administrator
1982 - Project department leader
1983 - Computer centre director
1986 - Member of the Business Board of Stell Corporation for informatics (UNISYS 1100/72)
1992 - Director of Informatics department in Croatian Chamber of Commerce (UNISYS 80)
1993 - Member of the WG in ICC Paris for development World Chambers Network ( result
10.000 Chambers on the Net, Worldwide)
2005 - Member of the WG in ICC Paris for development e-business
2010 - Retired
1994 – 2002 President of CITA
2002 – 2011 Vice president and National ECDL coordinator
2011 – President of CITA
Balkan Countries
West Balkans Countries
History of Computing in the former Yugoslavia
Countries of the former Yugoslavia
There were no political barriers to
import computer equipment from the
West, which significantly influenced
faster development of information
systems and professional trainings of
computer programmers.
Yugoslavia - Open computers market
Open market
had a negative
influence on the development of
computing in Croatia because users
were buying computers mainly from
abroad.
Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988
Computer
APPLE
ALEGON-QUME
BULL
BURROUGHS
BUNKER RAMO
BYTRONIX
CBM
CDC
COMPUTER
COMMODORE
CONTROL
CII
CROMEMCO
DARO
DATA GENERAL
DEC
DFE
DIGISET
DIGITAL
DIGITRON BUJE
EI HONEYWELL
EI NIS
EI KIENZLE
ELWRO
EMOK
EPSON
Total
Very Small
Small
Medium
Large
337
400
4
533
199
1
4
21
1
622
7
4
18
62
1
29
1
1
189
7
460
13
159
3
8
51
337
400
_
181
199
1
4
12
1
601
5
_
16
59
_
1
1
1
41
6
319
13
139
2
_
51
_
_
4
291
_
_
_
8
_
18
_
4
2
3
1
14
_
_
69
1
114
_
17
1
5
_
_
_
_
59
_
_
_
_
_
3
_
_
_
_
_
11
_
_
74
_
15
_
3
_
3
_
_
_
_
2
_
_
_
1
_
_
2
_
_
_
3
_
_
5
_
12
_
_
_
_
_
Very small - up to 10.000 $
Smal l- 10.000 – 50.000 $
Medium - 50.000 – 500.000 $
Large - more than 500.000 $
Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988
FUJITSU
GENERAL
GCS
HELWETT
PACKARD
HITACHI
HONEYWELL
HUGIN
IBM
ICL
INFOREX
INFOSISTEM
IRIS
ISKRA
IVASIM
JAVOR
BITOLA
KIENZLE
KOPA
LITTON
LOGABAX
MEAL
MAI
MDS
MERA
MICOS
Total
31
2
2
Very small
5
1
1
Small
14
1
1
Medium
11
_
_
Large
1
_
_
552
1
198
9
8447
182
17
15
209
1759
217
418
1
35
9
7699
49
12
15
197
1146
217
106
_
129
_
410
110
1
_
12
306
_
27
_
23
_
233
15
4
_
_
303
_
1
_
11
_
105
8
_
_
_
4
_
35
229
37
1
3
67
15
388
16
30
159
18
1
3
58
14
355
15
5
66
16
_
_
9
_
18
1
_
4
3
_
_
_
1
15
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
25
1
24
_
_
Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988
MRI
NCR
NIXDORF
NOVKABEL
OLIVETTI
ORIC NOVA
PEL
VARAZDIN
PERTEC
PHILIPS
RAVI
RGB
ROBOTRON
RUF
RIZ
SDP
SIMENS
SINGER
SPERRY
TEHNICAR
TEKTRONIX
TIM
TOVARNA
MERIL KOPA
TRIUMPHADLER
TRS
Total
2
303
43
48
1113
35
Very small
2
200
18
5
1037
30
Small
_
76
22
42
75
5
Medium
_
26
3
1
_
_
Large
_
1
_
_
_
_
65
6
28
5
402
91
15
140
1
1
3
353
188
11
280
65
4
28
5
399
86
15
135
_
1
2
300
188
3
237
_
2
_
_
3
3
_
4
1
_
_
27
_
8
36
_
_
_
_
_
2
_
1
_
_
1
16
_
_
7
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
20
_
_
_
10
6
3
1
_
13
226
13
213
_
13
_
_
_
_
Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1980
UNIVAC
VARIAN
VIDEOTON
WANG
OTHERS
Total
Total
32
7
34
14
Very small
7
1
11
11
Small
8
6
20
3
Medium
13
_
3
_
Large
4
_
_
_
822
744
63
14
1
Source: Yugoslav IT Association, 1989
Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988
Republic
Number of Computers
%
Slovenia
9,400
47,27
Croatia
5,682
28,60
Serbia
3,565
17,92
Bosnia&Herzegovina
769
3,86
Macedonia
409
2,05
Montenegro
55
0,27
19,883
100,00
Total
Source: Yugoslav IT Association, 1989
Installed computers in Croatia in the 1985th to 1989th
Year
Very small
Small
Medium
Large
1985
1566
1025
104
22
1987
4098
3154
129
48
1988
5020
3857
166
51
1989
6582
5300
2010
72
Source: Croatian IT Association, 1990
History of Computing in the former Yugoslavia
On the begining, computer used in nuclear instituts for atomic weapons research.
No data about it..
Instituts
Vinca, Beograd Serbia, 1948
Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb Croatia, 1949
Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana Slovenia, 1949
History of Computing in the former Yugoslavia
The history of computing in in the
former Yugoslavia can be divided
into three periods: before 1965s,
1965s to 1975s, and after 1975s.
History of Computing in the former Croatia – Before 1965
The development and manufacture of
computers started in 1948 when
Computing machinery factory Zagreb
– (TRS ) was set up, the first of its
kind in Croatia. At the beginning, the
factory
computers.
produced
mechanical
History of Computing in Croatia - Before 1965
First digital computer in Croatia, 1959
Professor Branko Soucek, PhD
Institut "Rudjer Boskovic„ Zagreb,
Initiator and the one who built the first
digital computer in Croatia was a
Croatian
scientist,
the
doyen
of
computer science, both in Croatia and
worldwide, professor Branko Soucek,
Beginning of computer science development in Croatia.
First digital computer in Croatia, 1959
First computer
analyzer,
called "256-channel
memory,
logics
and
programs": based on vacuum tubes,
the magnetic cores memory, speed
of
million cycles p/s, which was
incredible at that time.
Cathode tube was used as an output
unit to display the data.
Croatia - Before 1965
Business computer
•
Usage of computers and the
development of IS started it was
based
mainly
on
imported
equipment.
•
Due to high price, only large
organizations
could
buy
computers.
•
Although the equipment had
limited capacity, highly trained
staff could develop complete
applications, thus compensating
for limited capacities.
UNIVAC 1004/USA
Croatia - Before 1965
Characteristics
•
Plug-board programmed, punched
card data introduced in 1962,
core memory 961 characters (6
bits)
Peripherals
• card reader (400 cards/minute),
card punch (200 cards/minute)
using 90-column, cards
• drum printer (400 lines/minute)
•
Plug-board
UNIVAC 1004
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
Unfortunately
Unfortunately, we were young and we
did not think that this equipment should
be preserved.
This (large size) computers and all
equipment used later (large scale
computers) ended up in the steelworks.
Steelworks
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
Local production
•
•
•
During 1968 , the first electronic
calculator with optical display was
developed.
The calculator was based on 100
10-component integrated circuits
produced in the factory RIZ in
Croatia.
At that time, there were no LSI or
VLSI-chips in the world, as well as
integrated circuits of high and very
high degree of integration.
Calculators
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
System 1
Colaboration with Slovenia
TRS collaborated with the company
MDS and Metalka from Ljubljana in
the
production
computers
as
of
well
711
as
series
with
the
company IBM in the production of
Series i and System 1, equipped with
peripherals from Croatia, intended for
use in economy, schools, railway and
others.
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
3rd generation
• real time applications, ,
communication systems,
• databases,
• multiprogramming, which enabled,
the faster processing units and
larger storage of external
memories, the development of IIS
UNIVAC 1106/USA
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
4rd generation
•
Main companies were IBM,
UNIVAC, ICL, Burroughs , BULL
GAMMA, Honeywell, PDP and
others.
UNIVAC 1100/72
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
During 1974 there was an idea that the development of
computer equipment production in Croatia can progress in
collaboration with only foreign partner - technologically
developed and well off.
Therefore, in 1976 the Government of the Republic of
Croatia supported this initiative, so
the Government
contacted the companies ICL and SPERRY UNIVAC.
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
In other parts of Yugoslavia the contacts were established as well,
• Slovenia with Philips,
• Serbia with Olivetti and Rockwell,
• Bosnia and Herzegovina with NCR and Olympia
Croatia - From 1965 to 1975
New studies Computer science and Digital computers
• In 1970 at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Faculty
(FEE) of Science Zagreb were the first in Croatia introduced
new study for undergraduate students in the 3rd and 4th year
of the study: Computer science, and for the postgraduate
study
• 1970 introduced new college: Digital computers, too
After 1975
Local Production
•
Couple of Croatian companies
that produce the equipment for
process management in telephone
exchange, CAD CAM systems
and
graphics
workstation,
personal
computers
and
peripherals
(printers,
cash
registers, video terminals, discs)
etc.
•
With open market, production of
hardware in Croatia developed
more slowly.
After 1975
• In Croatia there were
leading foreign manufacturers of computer
equipment, IBM, SPERRY UNIVAC ( UNISYS) and others, who
continued their work by installing computers of great capacities,
• Developing IS with the support of highly trained croatian experts,
which later resulted, after 1990 in establishing private IT companies
that positioned well in the foreign market.
After 1975
• Development of Croatian software and network accelerated, as
result
• Well educated of ICT professionals
•
Possibilities of buying hardware and software from abroad
•
Possibilities of more productive collaboration with the foreign
•
partners.
After 1975
Croatia could not compete with the world in the development of
hardware and system software, but the experience and knowledge
of our experts used in the development of application software
Museum of the old small computers and IT
opened 2007
PEEK&POKE
Club/Computer museum Rijeka
Several hundred computers and more
than the thousand calculators
Very early calculators and game
consoles to rare and obsolete
computers from the nineties.
Still had survived
A Brief History of Computing in Slovenia
• Overview
• Before 1965
• 1965 to 1975
• After 1975
• Present
Slovenia - Before 1965
Computers are a new phenomenon with a poor understanding of their
potential worldwide
The same is true of Slovenia of that era
Main calculating aids were electromechanical devices and slide rule
However There was an awareness that electronic computers might be useful in
scientific and technical domain.
As a result, Zuse 23 computer has been bought and installed as early as
1962.
Its usage:
- Physics
- - statistics
- - extensive calculations in engineering (e.g. statics)
However, it was still in function in 1967 and deployed to calculate score in
1967 European Figure Skating Championship in Ljubljana
Slovenia - 1965 to 1975
Highlights
In the world computers are recognized as a tool to enhance efficiency and
productivity of commercial companies.
Computers are recognized as a useful tool in public administration
In Slovenia
Major computer companies are represented:
UNIVAC, National Cash Register, RCA, General Electric, Control Data
Corporation, Honeywell, Burroughs, Digital Equipment Corporation, Olivetti
and more
First IBM Training Centre is established in Radovljica
Major companies and administrative bodies start to establish data processing
departments
No own production of computers or peripherals yet.
Slovenia - After 1975
Highlights
Computers are here to stay as inevitable tools in all industries and activities
Minicomputers start taking over the role of mainframes
New concepts in computing:
- distributed computing
- cooperative computing
- client – server scheme
- computer networks
In Slovenia
Iskra Delta is established
Development of Triglav/Trident – a most advanced personal computer of the time
Start of “own“ production - Delta 340
Development of IBM-compatible application programs
However
In the late 1980s Iskra Delta dissolved, end of Slovenian computer production
Slovenia - Present
Highlights
Ubiquitous computer and computing
Internet
Intelligent devices
Mobile computing
Social networks
Massive data processing
Need of computer skills recognized
In Slovenia
No own computer production
Thousands of companies active in software development and providing related
services
Niche software products
Bottom line: not to produce or own, but use intelligently
Thank you
•
•
•
•
•
•
Marijan Frkovic
Croatian IT Association
Prezident
e-mail: [email protected]
10000 Zagreb, Ilica 191e
CROATIA
www.hiz.hr, www.ecdl.hr

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