LOGOTHERAPY AS A UNIFYING AGENT IN A DIVERSE WORLD RACHEL BOLAJI ASAGBA, PHD,PGD,BA,RD,CDE,PADEG SENIOR LECTURER,DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN NIGERIA [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] +234-802-316-5957, +234-803-950-3560 Outline • • • • Introduction The totality of man or the concept of man Frankl’s position on his predecessors Frankl’s lifestyle & coping with life after release from concentration camp • Logotherapy as a unifying agent among academia, nations and religions • Conclusion • References INTRODUCTION »Man’s uniqueness and diversity • According to logotherapy, man is a unique creation whose differences form his individual identity. • The airplane vs car analogy described by Frankl (1967;1986;1988) and Fabry (1987) explains this: INTRODUCTION An airplane and a car can move along the runway INTRODUCTION ….that does not make the airplane a car! INTRODUCTION »Choices and change • Man has the ability to think rationally and make choices • These choices matter because they affect the one making the choices, as well as other people around. • Decisions and choices effect change in every aspect of life. • Responsible decisions beget meaningful changes. INTRODUCTION »Meaning of the moment • The answers given to the life questions that come to an individual at any moment would determine that individual’s experiences. • Graber (2004) defines this using the ‘hour glass’ as described by Weiter (1987): INTRODUCTION The future. The past. The present. THE HOURGLASS The totality of man or the concept of man • Frankl’s predecessors, Freud and Adler, only viewed man in the physical and psychological dimensions. • Frankl insisted on adding the third dimension- the spiritual dimension. • According to him, man is comprised of the body, psyche and spirit; different parts of a whole, which are interwoven. • The analogy is that of an object having a length, a breadth as well as a height. The totality of man or the concept of man 3 dimensional objects each have a length, a breadth as well as a width FRANKL’S POSITION ON HIS PREDECESSORS • In spite of his disagreement with his predecessors, he still respected them, while holding on to his concept of the spiritual dimension. • He still tried to unify the three schools of Viennese psychotherapy, using 2 analogies: – Three blind men describing an elephant – A dwarf sitting on the shoulder of two giants FRANKL’S POSITION ON HIS PREDECESSORS Three blind men, each touching a different part of the same elephant, describe it differently FRANKL’S LIFESTYLE & COPING WITH LIFE AFTER RELEASE FROM CONCENTRATION CAMP • Frankl was able to put his life together after his harrowing experience at the concentration camp without complaining. • Rather than leaving his country, he insisted on staying back and did not even mind helping those of opposing views. • He was a unifying agent and lived as a role model, inspiring logotherapist to propagate the same at every level of society. Viktor Frankl, a very profound man LOGOTHERAPY AS A UNIFYING AGENT AMONG ACADEMIA, NATIONS AND RELIGIONS »Academia • Thanks to globalization, there are now diverse areas of specialization in different professions. • This however tends to make different professionals compete for supremacy. • Logotherapy presents each role of any individual as being complimentary and not competitive. • Health care providers can use this to choose a patient centered approach. LOGOTHERAPY AS A UNIFYING AGENT AMONG ACADEMIA, NATIONS AND RELIGIONS »Nations • There are different languages and divergent cultures around the world. • Logotherapy can help to unify nations with its principles of cooperation and collaboration, resulting in peace. • THIS IS POSSIBLE TO ACHIEVE!!! LOGOTHERAPY AS A UNIFYING AGENT AMONG ACADEMIA, NATIONS AND RELIGIONS »Religion • Logotherapy is by no means restricted to any religion. • It is only concerned with the spiritual dimension of man: the belief system of man; not belief factions. • It is compatible with all religions and nonreligions. • Logotherapy can therefore unify all people regardless of their belief. LOGOTHERAPY AS A UNIFYING AGENT AMONG ACADEMIA, NATIONS AND RELIGIONS CONCLUSION • Man is a unique creation with the ability to make choices that can help others to make life better. • Frankl’s lifestyle and Lukas’s views on reconciliation agents are useful in unifying the academia, nations, religions and the whole world at large. REFERENCES • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Asagba, R.B. (2006/7). Logotherapy and Cultural Development, Ibadan; Spectrum Ltd. Asagba, R.B. (2009) Logotherapy Issues from an African Perspective. Ibadan: University Press Plc. Asagba, R.B. (2011a) “Finding Meaning in Life in a Changing World.” A paper presented at the 18th World Congress in Fostering Spirituality for our World in Distress. 22 – 26 June 2011 at Marriot Hotel, Addison, Dallas, Texas, USA. Asagba, R.B. [2011b) “Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy and Life History: Relevance for Managing Psychotrauma, Conflict Resolution and Reconciliation.” A paper presented at the Fourth Regional Conference & Training on Psychotrauma on the 11 15 July 2011, Nairobi, Kenya. Fabry, J B  The Pursuit of Meaning,Berkeley; Institute of Logotherapy Press Frankl, V. E. (1983) The Doctor and the Soul: From Psychotherapy to Logotherapy. New York: Vintage Books Frankl, V. E. (1986) Man Search For Meaning. Boston: Beacon Press Frankl, V.E. (2006) Psychotherapy and Existentialism. New York: Simon and Schuster. Frankl, V.E. (1988) The Will To Meaning: Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy. Expanded Edition. New York and Scarborough & Ontario: A Meriden Book New American Company. Grabber DV. (2009). Preparing for life’s ultimate Adventure: The Journey Home Birmingham, Logolife Press. Grumbaugh, J.C. (1991) “Principles of Psychotherapy and its Relationship to Logotherapy.” The International Forum for Logotherapy Journal of Search for Meaning. Vol. 14, No. 2; Fall, 1991. Lukas E. (1989) “From Self –Actualization to Global Responsibility: Search for the Sacred, Necessary and Otherliness in Pursuit of Meaning; Road to self-Esteem and Social Conscience – The Proceedings of Logotherapy Berkley: Institute of Logoterapy Pressp 9 – 31. Lukas, E. (2000). Logotherapy textbook: Meaning Centered Psychology (T Burger Trans) Toronto: Liberty Press (original published in 1998) Lukas F. (1986) Meaningful Living: A Logotherapy guide in Health, New York: Grove Press Inc. Winberly C. (2010). Intervention with an At Risk Student International Forum for Logotherapy Vol. 33 Number 1 Spring pp 10 -17. Wimberly (2011). Application of Lukas five-step Intervention Model. International forum for Logotherapy Vol. 34 Number 3. All images used were gotten from google images Thank you for your attention and have a meaningful Day !