Chapter 7 th 7 Grade Section 7.1 The Early Years of the War • Support for the Revolution- most Americans did not support the war. • Benjamin Franklin was a patriot. • His son, William Franklin, was a loyalist. George Washington • George Washington was a patriot. • Washington was the commander of the Continental Army. • Washington faced difficulties: 1. turning his volunteer fighters into well-trained soldiers 2. preventing his troops from deserting during hard times 3. keeping his troops supplied with food and clothing • Mercenary – a professional soldier hired to fight for a foreign country • Britain hired about 9,000 Hessians from the German states The Battle of Trenton • Fought December 25, 1776 Britain’s Strategy • Strategy- an overall plan of action – to seize the Hudson River Valley • It called for a rendezvous, or a meeting, of 3 British armies at Albany, NY Saratoga: Turning Point of the Revolution • Why did the Patriots win at Saratoga? • Fortifications helped the Patriots fight and daily, heavy firing exhausted British troops. Benedict Arnold Even today, the name Benedict Arnold is used to mean traitor. • Reasons he betrayed the Patriots: – He married a Loyalist – He wanted more honor for his heroic actions – His wife influenced his decision Section 7.2 The War Expands Help From France • After hearing of the American victory at Saratoga, King Louis XVI of France recognized U.S. independence and in 1778, France signed two treaties of alliance with the U.S. and went to war with Britain • Alliance - an agreement to help each other • France was our main ally • France sends us badly needed funds, supplies, and troops Europeans Help General Washington • Marquis de Lafayette- 19 year old French nobleman volunteered to serve in the Continental Army – He used his own money to buy warm clothing for his ragged troops – He fought in many battles and persuaded the French king to send a 6,000 man army to America •Baron von Steuben- a German trained the Continental Army –Trained men to use bayonets, how to move in lines and columns, and to locate latrines far from camp and the kitchen areas. Revolution turns into a world war! Spain and Russia both aid in the cause! War on the Frontier George Rogers Clark captures British outposts on the American frontier without firing a shot. George Rogers Clark • In 1777, a 24-year old frontiersman walked into the office of Virginia’s governor and said he had come to take part in defending the Western frontier. • He lived in Kentucky, which was claimed by Virginia. • He wanted Virginia to defend that region against British soldiers and their Native American allies in what is now Indiana and Illinois. • He led some frontiersmen to fight in present day Indiana and Illinois. War at Sea • privateer - a privately owned ship that a wartime government gives permission to attack an enemy’s merchant ships. – After capturing a British merchant ship, the crew of a privateer sold its cargo and shared the money – As a result, a desire for profit as well as patriotism motivated privateers. A Naval Hero • John Paul Jones was an American naval officer who won the sea battle against the British warship Serapis • He is known for saying, “I have not yet begun to fight.” Section 7.3 The Path to Victory Savannah and Charles Town • Geography helped the Patriots win the Revolution because the colonies were too large an area for the British army to control The Swamp Fox and Guerrilla Fighting •One guerrilla band had a leader who was called the Swamp Fox •Guerrillas are small bands of fighters who made hit and run attacks •Both sides used guerrillas during the Revolution The Tide Turns Pacifist- a person who opposed war The End of the War The Battle of Yorktown was the fighting that marked Great Britain’s defeat in the Revolution •Lord Cornwallis’ surrender signaled Great Britain’s defeat in the American Revolution Section 7.4 The Legacy of the War Why the Americans Won •Patriot Advantages •Better leadership •Knowledge of the land •Motivation •NOT money and supplies The Treaty of Paris •The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the Revolutionary War •Conditions included in the treaty: 1. The U.S. was independent 2. Its boundaries would be the Mississippi River on the west, Canada on the north, and Spanish Florida on the south. 3. The U.S. would receive the right to fish off Canada’s Atlantic Coast, near Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. 4. Each side would repay debs it owed the other. 5. The British would return any enslaved persons they had captured. 6. Congress would recommend that the states return any property they had seized from Loyalists. Costs of the War Look at the chart on p. 197 •The British had about 10,000 military deaths •The Americans had an estimated 25,700 deaths. Issues After the War •republicanism- an idea that stated that instead of a king, the people would rule •Only Northern states ended slavery after the war. In the North, slavery was not as important a part of the economy as in the South.