704 KAR 7:160

Report
704 KAR 7:160
1
USE OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT AND
SECLUSION IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS
Fayette County Public Schools
Agenda
2
 Background
 Description of Handouts
 Benefits of Positive Behavior Supports and
Interventions
 Schoolwide Positive Behavior Systems
 Behavior Management Strategies
 Effective Strategies for Responding to Problem
Behavior
Fayette County Public Schools
Background
3
 Enacted February 1, 2013
 Designed to enhance safety for students and staff by:
 Limiting the use of physical restraint and seclusion
 Training teachers on more effective ways to improve student
behavior
 Training teachers on how to safely conduct restraints when
absolutely necessary.
Fayette County Public Schools
Handouts
4
 Regulation
 FCPS Policy and Procedures
 List of each schools “core team”
Fayette County Public Schools
Benefits of PBS and Interventions
5
 PBIS is not a curriculum — it is a framework to
help schools identify needs, develop strategies, and
evaluate practices.
 Implementing positive, instructional discipline
strategies and systems is the most effective way to
prevent decrease or eliminate problem student
behavior.
Fayette County Public Schools
Four Key Principles
6
 Predicting problem behavior
 Preventing problem behavior
 Maintaining consistency
 Monitoring the program
Fayette County Public Schools
School-wide Positive Behavior
Systems
7
Fayette County Public Schools
Elements of Positive Behavior Interventions and
Supports
8
 Teaching and reinforcing appropriate behavior so
that everyone, the adults and the students, are
engaging in instruction and prevention
 Following consistent plans when responding to
problem behavior
 Using data to guide decision making
 Reinforces students for following the behavior
expectations
Fayette County Public Schools
Multi-Tiered Behavior System
9
 Our behavior POI is a multi-tiered system
 Primary (Universal) Prevention
 Secondary (Targeted) Prevention
 Tertiary (Intensive) Prevention
Fayette County Public Schools
PBIS Pyramid
10
Fayette County Public Schools
Key Points for PBIS
11
 A school-wide commitment is crucial to success.
 A leadership team that meets regularly is essential.
 Analyzing behavioral data for patterns helps to
predict behavior problems.
Fayette County Public Schools
Preventing Problem Behavior
12
 Routines and arrangements:
 Standing in the doorway during transitions
 Providing positive prompts before releasing students from
class.
 Keeping doors to stairways open.
 Acknowledging students following rules.
 Consistently correcting students who behave inappropriately.
 Teach expectations and post throughout the school.
Fayette County Public Schools
Responding to Problems
13
 Keys to responding appropriately to problems:
 Classroom vs. office referrals
 Develop a list of effective consequences
 Always have correction as part of the response
Fayette County Public Schools
Acknowledging Success
14
 Ways to properly use reinforcement:
 Verbal praise
 Non-verbal praise (thumbs up)
 Public acknowledgement
 Privileges
 Token systems, classwide reinforcement
Fayette County Public Schools
Monitoring Success
15
 Try to stay proactive instead of reactive
 Strive for a four to one ratio of positive to negative
interactions
Fayette County Public Schools
Behavior Management Strategies
16
 Adults’ actions are key…

Awareness – think about how your actions affect students.

Strive for a 4:1 ratio of positive reinforcement versus
punishment/negative interactions.
Fayette County Public Schools
Building Positive Relationships
17
 Quick strategies:

Showing a genuine interest in students

Providing age-appropriate feedback in a non-embarrassing
way.

Treating students with respect by using simple courtesy such
as saying “thank you” and “please”
Fayette County Public Schools
When problem behaviors occur…
18
 General strategies:

Acknowledge appropriate behavior displayed by students.

Speak privately to the student exhibiting problem behavior.

Identify the problem without emotion.

Present options.

Ask the student to improve their behavior for their benefit (not
yours)

Acknowledge compliance
Fayette County Public Schools
Behavior Management – Schedule and Routines
19
 Having a consistent schedule matters!
 Expectations for arrival times

A sequence and planned duration of activities

A routine for clean-up and transitions between activities

Explanations for any schedule changes
Fayette County Public Schools
In addition…
20
 All procedures are taught and practiced and feedback
is given.
 Transitions between activities are smooth and
without confusion.
 Transitions in and out of the classroom are clearly
defined and practiced.
Fayette County Public Schools
Physical Arrangement
21
 Characteristics of a well-designed classroom include:
 Clear expectations are communicated regarding acceptable
behavior

Expectations regarding behavior are posted clearly

Transitions are smooth and without confusion

Transitions in and out of the classroom that are clearly defined
and practiced

Students see teacher and teacher sees students at all times
Fayette County Public Schools
Teacher Proximity
22
 Moving about the classroom frequently and
maintaining a close proximity to the students can
have a dramatic impact on student behavior.
 Hovering near a particular student or area where
behavior problems may occur is an effective strategy.
Fayette County Public Schools
Positive Teaching Practices
23
 Provide clearly specified goals and objectives
 Engage students throughout lessons
 Provide high levels of feedback
 Use verbal prompts along with physical
demonstrations
 Use “natural models”
Fayette County Public Schools
Behavior Momentum
24
 Strategy for increasing the likelihood of appropriate
behavior by asking a student to do two or three
things they typically want to do and then following
up with a request for a behavior the student typically
does not want to do.
Fayette County Public Schools
Additional strategies
25
 Providing Choices
 Opportunities to Respond
 Prompts and Cues
Fayette County Public Schools
Effective Strategies for Responding
to Problem Behavior
26
Fayette County Public Schools
Why are these kids so angry?
27
 Three types of anger:
 Expressive
 Passive
 Implosive
Fayette County Public Schools
Expressive Anger
Characteristics
• Overt/Wants you to know
• Doesn’t seem to care about
•
•
•
•
•
consequences
May want attention
Can be cultural or gender
based
Easy to recognize
In control of emotions but
not behavior
Needs to talk about what
caused anger
Strategies
 Low-moderate skill
level required for good
response
 Teachable; will
respond to anger
management
instruction
Passive Anger
Characteristics
Strategies
 Hides anger
 Never confront alone;
 Knows how to avoid
witness are invaluable
 Get consensus before
reporting.
consequences
 In control of emotions
and behavior
 Needs to talk about
what CAUSED the
anger
 Carefully plotted
Implosive Anger
Characteristics
 Hides anger inside
 Wants consequences
 Ambivalent or flat affect
 Behavior dictated by out
of control emotions
 Knows he/she is angry
 May be sarcastic, bitter
 Can’t explain actions
Strategies
• Coach, don’t confront.
• Offer assistance carefully.
• Do not use negative
feedback.
• Increase positive
interactions
• Condition yourself to find
good in the child.
• May need professional help
or hospitalization
Phases of Escalation
Students differ in terms of specific
behaviors exhibited and the amount of
time it takes to move through a phase.
As educators it is our goal to use our
knowledge of these seven phases of
escalation to understand a student’s
behavior and to intervene as early as
possible in the process.
5. Peak
INTENSITY
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
THINKING
ABILITY
5. Peak
INTENSITY
Phase 1:
Calm
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
On Task
Follows rules and expectations
Responsive to praise
Initiates behavior
Goal oriented
Accepts praise
Strategies: Phase One
Calm
1. Structure
2. Quality Instruction
3. Attention
5. Peak
INTENSITY
Phase 2:
Trigger
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1. Conflicts
a. Denial of something they need
b. Something negative is inflicted on them
2. Changes in routine
3. Provocations
4. Pressure
5. Interruptions
6. Ineffective problem solving
7. Errors
8. Corrections
Strategies: Phase Two
Triggers
1. Formal strategies for
problem-solving
2. Individual Problem Solving
Plan
3. Pre-Correction Plan
5. Peak
INTENSITY
Phase 3:
Agitation
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1. Eyes dart or may stare into space
2. Language nonconversational or subdued
3. Busy hands or hands contained
4. In and out of groups or withdraws from
groups
5. Off task/On task or totally off task “Frozen”
Strategies: Phase Three
Agitation
1. Aim to reduce anxiety
2. Give space & time
3. Preferred activities
4. Teacher proximity
5. Independent activities
6. Movement activities
7. Plan ahead: Involve student in the
plan.
5. Peak
Acceleration
INTENSITY
Phase 4:
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Questioning and arguing
Non-compliance and defiance
Off task
Provoking students
Compliance (with inappropriate behaviors)
Whining and crying
Avoidance and escape
Threats and intimidation
Verbal abuse
Strategies: Phase Four
Acceleration
1. Avoid escalating prompts.
2. Maintain calmness, respect and
detachment.
3. Utilize crisis prevention strategies.
4. Allow a “face-saving” way out
5. Peak
INTENSITY
Phase 5:
Peak
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Physical abuse
Assault
Self-abuse
Severe tantrums
Hyperventilation
Screaming
Running
Violence
Strategies: Phase
Five Peak
1. Short term interventions
2. Crisis plan
3. Focus on safety
3. Long term interventions
5. Peak
De-escalation
INTENSITY
Phase 6:
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Confusion
Reconciliation
Withdrawal
8.
Denial
Blaming others
Responsive to directions
Responsive to
manipulative or
mechanical tasks
Easily re-escalated
Strategies: Phase Six
De-Escalation
1. Minimize demands and attention.
2. Allow some time to cool down.
3. Engage in independent work or structured
task such as counting items, sorting, etc.
4. Complete exit paperwork.
5. Restore environment.
6. Emphasize fresh start.
5. Peak
INTENSITY
Phase 7:
Recovery
4. Acceleration
6. De-escalation
3. Agitation
2. Trigger
7. Recovery
1. Calm
TIME
1. Eagerness for independent work or
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
activity
Subdued in group work
Subdued in class work
Defensive
Sleeping
Avoidance of de-briefing
Strategies: Phase Seven
Recovery
1. Provide strong focus on normal routines.
2. Facilitate transition back to engagement.
3. Acknowledge prior successful handling of
similar situations.
4. Communicate expectation that the student can
succeed and your willingness to help.
5. Establish a plan with specific steps.
6. De-brief.
7. Seek to reach closure.
Establishing a core team
47
 Regulation requires each school designate a core
team who is designated to respond to dangerous
behavior and to implement physical restraint, if
needed.
 Core team receives additional training.
 All school personnel will be notified who are the
members of the core team.
Fayette County Public Schools
704 KAR 7:160 Use of Physical Restraint and
Seclusion in Public Schools
48
 All school districts must establish and implement
policies and procedures regarding restraint and
seclusion that do the following:


Ensures school personnel are aware of and parents are notified
how to access the policies and procedures regarding physical
restraint and seclusion
Requires school personnel to be trained in accordance with the
requirements outlined in Section 6 of the administrative
regulation
Fayette County Public Schools
• Outlines procedures to be followed during and after each use of physical
restraint or seclusion, including notice to parents, documentation of the
event in the student information system, and a process for the parent or
emancipated youth to request a debriefing session
• Requires notification within twenty-four (24) hours to the Kentucky
Department of Education and local law enforcement in the event of
death, substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted and
obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function
of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty resulting from the use of
physical restraint or seclusion
• Outlines a procedure by which parents may submit a complaint
regarding the physical restraint or seclusion of their child, which shall
require the district and school to investigate the circumstances
surrounding the physical restraint or seclusion, make written findings,
and, if appropriate, take correction action
Fayette County Public Schools
49
• Outlines a procedure to regularly review data on physical
restraint and seclusion usage and revise policies as needed
• As required by Section 6 (1), all school personnel shall be
trained in state administrative regulations and school district
policies and procedures regarding physical restraint and
seclusion.
• All certified and non-certified school personnel shall be trained
annually to use an array of positive behavioral supports and
interventions to accomplish the following:
*Increase appropriate student behaviors
*Decrease inappropriate or dangerous student
behaviors
*Respond to dangerous behavior
Fayette County Public Schools
50
Limitations on the Use of Seclusion
51
 704 KAR 7:160 defines seclusion as the involuntary
confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which
the student is prevented from leaving but does not mean
classroom timeouts, supervised in-school detentions, or outof-school suspension.
 Seclusion may only be implemented in a public school or
educational program under the following conditions:




The student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to
self or others
The student is visually monitored for the duration of the seclusion
Less restrictive interventions have been ineffective in stopping the
imminent danger of physical harm to self or others
School personnel implementing the seclusion are appropriately trained
to use seclusion
Fayette County Public Schools
Limitations on the Use of Seclusion
52
 Seclusion shall not be used:







As punishment or discipline
To force compliance or to retaliate
As a substitute for appropriate educational or behavioral support
To prevent property damage in the absence of imminent danger of
physical harm to self or others
As a routine school safety measure
As a convenience for staff
As a substitute for timeout
As defined in 704 KAR 7:160, "Timeout" means a behavior
management technique that is part of an approved program, involves
the monitored separation of the student in a non-locked setting, and
is implemented for the purpose of calming.
Fayette County Public Schools
Limitations on the Use of Seclusion
53
 The use of seclusion shall end as soon as:


The student’s behavior no longer poses an imminent danger of
physical harm to self or others or
A medical condition occurs putting the student at risk of harm
 A setting used for seclusion shall:






Be free of objects and fixtures with which a student could inflict
physical harm to self or others
Provide school personnel a view of the student at all times
Provide adequate lighting and ventilation
Have an unlocked and unobstructed door
Have at least an annual fire and safety inspection
Be reviewed by district administration to ensure programmatic
implementation of guidelines and data related to its use.
Fayette County Public Schools
Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint
54
 When choosing the trainer for the core team, school
districts must refer to the following requirements
regarding physical restraint:
 Physical restraint shall not be used:






As punishment or discipline
To force compliance or to retaliate
As a substitute for appropriate educational or behavioral support
To prevent property damage, except as permitted under KRS Chapter
503
As a routine school safety measure
As a convenience for staff
Fayette County Public Schools
Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint
55
 School Personnel Shall Not Impose the Following






On Any Student at Any Time:
Mechanical restraint
Chemical restraint
Aversive behavioral interventions
Physical restraint that is life threatening
Prone or supine restraint
Physical restraint if they know that physical restraint is
contraindicated based on the student’s disability, health
care needs, or medical or psychiatric condition
Fayette County Public Schools
Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint
56
 Physical Restraint May Only be Implemented In a Public
School or Educational Program when:

 The student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm
to self or others and as permitted under:
 KRS 503.050
KRS 503.070
KRS 503.110
 The physical restraint does not interfere with the student’s ability to
communicate in the student’s primary language or mode of
communication, unless the student uses sign language or an
augmentative mode of communication as the student’s primary
mode of communication and the implementer determines that
freedom of the student’s hands for brief periods during the restraint
appears likely to result in physical harm to self or others.
Fayette County Public Schools
• The student’s physical and psychological wellbeing is monitored for
the duration of the physical restraint.
• Less restrictive behavioral interventions have been ineffective in
stopping the imminent danger of physical harm to self or others,
except in the case of a clearly unavoidable emergency situation posing
imminent danger of physical harm to self or others.
• School personnel implementing the physical restraint are
appropriately trained as required by Section 6(3) (Core Team
Training) of this administrative regulation, except to the extent
necessary to prevent physical harm to self or others in clearly
unavoidable emergency circumstances where other school personnel
intervene and summon trained school personnel as soon as possible.
• Implementing a physical restraint, school personnel shall use only the
amount of force reasonably believed to be necessary to protect the
student or others from imminent danger of physical harm.
Fayette County Public Schools
57
Limitations on the Use of Physical Restraint
58
 The use of physical restraint shall end as
soon as the following conditions occur:


The student’s behavior no longer poses an imminent danger of
physical harm to self or others
A medical condition occurs putting the student at risk of harm
Fayette County Public Schools
Warning Signs
59
 Warning Signs of Student Emotional Distress
 Uncontrollable crying or screaming
 Extreme withdrawal
 Irrational statements
 Urination, defecation, or vomiting
 Warning Signs of Serious Physical Injury
 Complaints of pain
 Bleeding
 Complaints of severe pain with obvious reddening, swelling or abrasions
 Signs of broken or dislocated joints/bones
 Warning Signs of Asphyxia
 Panting, shallow breaths, or hyperventilation
 Unconsciousness or unresponsiveness to regular verbal checks
 Darkening of skin around mouth or nose, and in hands or fingernails
Fayette County Public Schools
Recording and Reporting Data
60
 THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION MUST BE REPORTED by the district in
the Kentucky Student Information System:
Aggregate number of uses of physical restraint.
Aggregate number of students placed in physical restraint.
Aggregate number of uses of seclusion.
Aggregate number of students placed in seclusion.
Aggregate number of instances of substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain,
protracted and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the
function of a bodily member, organ, or mental faculty to students related to physical
restraint and seclusion.
 Aggregate number of instances of risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted
and obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a
bodily member, organ, or mental faculty to school personnel related to physical
restraint and seclusion.
 Aggregate number of instances in which a school resource officer or other sworn law
enforcement officer is involved in the physical restraint or seclusion of a student.





Fayette County Public Schools
Policy 09.2211
61
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STUDENTS
09.2212
Use of Physical Restraint
Use of physical restraint or seclusion by school personnel is subject to 704 KAR 7:160. However, nothing in this policy prohibits the exercise of
law enforcement duties by sworn law enforcement officers.
DEFINITIONS
Physical Restraint means a personal restriction that immobilizes or reduces the ability of a student to move the student’s torso, arms, legs, or
head freely.
Seclusion means the involuntary confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which the student is prevented from leaving, but does
not mean classroom timeouts, supervised in-school detentions, or out-of-school suspensions.
PHYSICAL RESTRAINT
All School Personnel
Use of physical restraint by all school personnel is permitted when a student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or
others in clearly unavoidable emergency circumstances. In such situations, staff who have not had core team training may physically restrain
students, but shall summon core trained school personnel as soon as possible.
In all situations involving use of physical restraint (including restraint by core trained personnel):
The student shall be monitored for physical and psychological well being for the duration of the restraint.
Personnel shall use only the amount of force reasonably believed necessary to protect the student or others from imminent danger of physical
harm.
Core Trained Personnel
School personnel who have undergone core team training may also use physical restraint after less restrictive behavioral interventions have
been ineffective in stopping misbehavior as noted below:
In nonemergency circumstances when a student’s behavior poses an imminent danger of physical harm to self or others;
As provided in KRS 503.050 (including when personnel believe physical restraint is necessary to protect themselves against the use or
imminent use of unlawful physical force);
Fayette County Public Schools
Procedures: 09.2211.AP21
62
Fayette County Public Schools

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