Slides in Powerpoint

Report
Spearman and the
Cognitive Ergonomics
of Health Disparities
Linda S. Gottfredson, School of Education, University of DE
Kathy Stroh, Diabetes Prevention & Control Program, DPH, DE
Eileen Sparling, Center for Disabilities Studies, University of DE
International Society for Intelligence Research, Limassol, Cyprus, December 8, 2011
Today
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Rejected
Spearman’s g (people)
Spearman’s g loading (tasks) Neglected
Diabetes epidemic ($$$$) Non-adherence
Wishful thinking (them) Knowledge, not g
Realistic strategy (us) Diabetes a g-loaded job
Pilot data
Cognitive ergonomics
Exploding health care costs
Fast death, or death by parts (eyes, feet, heart…)
Patient error & non-adherence
Cognitive limitations of patients
Diabetes up & up, +younger & younger
High cognitive demands of diabetes self-care
Exploding health care costs
Fast death, or death by parts (eyes, feet, heart…)
Patient error & non-adherence
Cognitive limitations of patients
+younger
health
policy?
DiabetesCurrent
up & up,
& younger
Access to care + Motivate + Educate
High cognitive demands of diabetes self-care
‘Enlightened’ Opinion
Individual differences = “Inequalities”
Opinion
Inputs
Bad
“Low literacy among highly
educated too”
Inputs
X
Unacceptable
g
Outcomes T1
Bad
Outcomes T2
Back-sliding
“See, it can’t be g!”
The reality
Adult patients
Wide variation
~IQ 80
$$$
John B Carroll
Resolute ignorance about g
Health policy &
practice?
Wide variation
No see
No hear
No say
No insult
So, patients die
‘Enlightened’ Opinion
Individual differences
“Inequalities”
Opinion
Inputs
Bad
“Low literacy among highly
educated too”
Inputs
Unacceptable
g
Outcomes T1
Bad
Outcomes T2
Back-sliding
“See, it can’t be g!”
Neglected—the patient’s job
Individual differences
“Inequalities”
Opinion
Inputs
Bad
Inputs
Unacceptable
g
Job to be done
Complexity
(g loading)
Much is inherent
Outcomes T1
Bad
Outcomes T2
Back-sliding
Neglected—the patient’s job
Individual differences
“Inequalities”
Opinion
Inputs
Bad
Inputs
Unacceptable
g
Job to be done
Complexity
(g loading)
Outcomes T1
Much is inherent
Bad
Simple task
Outcomes T2
Complex task
g levels meet
Back-sliding
g loadings
Current Strategy
Access to care + Motivate + Educate
Disparities generator
g loadings rise; g levels won’t
Neglected Reality
No hope? So, give up??? No!!
It’s the g loadings,
stupid!!
The patient’s reality
What’s a carb??
Collaborators
Conference venue
Call 911 for C, but doctor for D
System no longer on auto-pilot
The health provider’s reality
My blood sugar is 154 over 90.
I don’t eat sugar any more. Just
pasta.
It’s low fat, so it’s healthy.
Title
I skipped lunch so I could have a big
dinner.
What’s a carb??
Collaborators
You mean I have to measure stuff?!
Conference Never
venue
tested my sugar because I
never figured out my meter.
Call 911 for C, but doctor for D
Can I still eat donuts?
Patient fails to take control
AADE7™ + 1
Teaching to take
control
Self-management education today
Cognitive overload
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Serial by topic
Abstract
Decontextualized
Fast
Concentrated
One-size-fits-all
No scaffolding
~No practice
~No assessment
g
Neglected job elements
Core tasks:
• Interdependence
• Criticality
• Responsibility
Cognitive complexity • Extinguish old habits
Work conditions:
• Time pressure
• Distractions
Cognitive interferences • Predictability
• Interferences in-situ
• Rest breaks
g
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
Job analysis of diabetes
R&D
today
Clinic service delivery
I&E
Training modules for self-care
Evaluation
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
Job analysis of diabetes
R&D
Training modules for self-care
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
Clinic service delivery
I&E
Evaluation
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
Job analysis of diabetes
R&D
Training modules for self-care
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
Clinic service delivery
I&E
Evaluation
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
R&D
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
Clinic service delivery
I&E
Training modules for self-care
Priority
Criticality
Evaluation
g loading
Job analysis of diabetes
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
R&D
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
Clinic service delivery
I&E
Training modules for self-care
Priority
Criticality
Evaluation
g loading
Job analysis of diabetes
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
R&D
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
I&E
Clinic service delivery
Clinics
• lo-SES
• medical “home” (facilitate)
Patients
• high cost
• low g (assess)
Elderly too
Training modules for self-care
Priority
Criticality
Evaluation
g loading
Job analysis of diabetes
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
R&D
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
I&E
Clinic service delivery
Clinics
• lo-SES
• medical “home” (facilitate)
Patients
• high cost
• low g (assess)
Training modules for self-care
Priority
Criticality
Evaluation
g loading
Job analysis of diabetes
Cognitive ergonomics project (9 FQHC clinics)
R&D
Keep system under control
Cognitive complexity
Critical incidents
Cognitive task analysis
I&E
Clinic service delivery
Clinics
• lo-SES
• “medical home” (create)
Patients
• high cost
• low g (assess)
Training modules for self-care
Priority
Criticality
Evaluation
Costs
• ED visits
• Hospitalizations
Patient outcomes
• Glucose control
• Complications
g loading
Job analysis of diabetes
Criticality rankings (pilot data)
System unstable,
restore control
Recognize when sugar
too high or low
Take correct action
when sugar to low
Call doctor if sugar
persistently high
Ranked by 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
Criticality rankings
Eat correct serving sizes
Recognize signs to stop
exercise
Take meds in correct
amount & time
Maintain system
control
Ranked by 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
Criticality rankings
Identify hazards
Identify barriers to selfcare
Ranked by 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
Critical incidents
Took meds on time,
—but delayed meal BG crash
—but ate only a salad BG crash
Causal nexus
(food, meds, blood sugar)
From 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
Critical incidents
Sick & not eating,
—so took no insulin (T1) DKA
—but took same dose BG crash
Shift rule when
conditions change
From 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
Critical incidents
Ate prophylactically to “prevent”
low blood sugar, did not test
blood sugar, got no exercise,
chronic high sugar
incubating, unseen damage
One cause
One effect
One tactic
From 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
Critical incidents
Did not control diet
chronic high sugar
poor wound healing
Feared treatment
hospitalized for necrotic foot
One goal
(avoid immediate pain)
One tactic
(avoid medical treatment)
From 30 diabetes health providers (MD, RN, RNP, RD, CDE, other)
1. When cognitive budget is small,
spend it wisely.
High g loadings
are expensive.
2. Focus on critical tasks
3. Teach g-efficiently
4. Supply g support
Advice and questions?

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