Patty Maloney RN, BSN

Report
Integumentary System and Body
Temperature-Chapter 7
Joe Pistack MS/ED
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
Integumentary system includes:
 The skin
 Accessory structures:- sweat glands
-oil glands
- _________
- _________

FUNCTIONS OF SKIN

The skin performs the following functions:
 Keeps
harmful ______ out of the body and helps
retain ______ and electrolytes.
 Protects
the internal structures and ______ from
injuries due to blows, cuts, harsh chemicals, sunlight
burns, and ______ microorganisms.
 Performs
an ______ function. Secretes water and
small amounts of urea.
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN

Acts as a gland by synthesizing vitamin ______ .
Vitamin D is necessary for absorption of calcium
from the digestive tract.

Performs a sensory role by housing the sensory
______ for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.

Plays an important role in the regulation of body
______ .
STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN
Skin:
 Considered an organ
 Also called integument or cutaneous membrane

Skin has 2 layers:
 ______ -outer layer
 ______ -inner layer


Dermatology-the study of skin and skin disorders.
LAYERS OF SKIN

Epidermis-thin ______ layer of skin.

Composed of ______ squamous epithelium.

Has no blood supply of it’s own, so it’s ______ .

______ and nutrients diffuse into the epidermis
from blood supply from the dermis.
LAYERS OF SKIN

The epidermis can be divided into 5 layers the two of
interest here are the deeper stratum ______ and the
more superficial stratum corneum

1.Stratum ______ -lies on top of the dermis.
-has access to a rich supply of blood.
-cells of this layer constantly divide, push old cells
to the surface.
LAYERS OF SKIN

Changes take place as cells move away from surface:
1. cells begin to die
2. ______ takes place
______ -process whereby tough protein
called keratin is deposited within the cell, keratin
______ and ______ the cells as they move toward
surface. This makes the skin ______ - ______.
LAYERS OF THE SKIN

Stratum Corneum:
 Surface
layer of the epidermis.
 Composed of about ______ layers of dead cells.
 Dead cells are continuously sloughed off.
 Sloughed cells are called ______ , and______ when
clumped by oil on the skull.
LEVELS OF SKIN

______ perspiration-500ml/day of perspiration
that is lost through the skin.

______ perspiration-due to activity of the sweat
glands.

If the epidermis is damaged, the rate of ______
perspiration increases. E.g. burns
LEVELS OF SKIN

Dermis:
 Located
under the epidermis.
 Largest portion of the skin
 Composed of dense, fibrous, ______ tissue.
 Contains collagen and elastin fibers that make the skin
strong and stretchable. E.g. Pregnancy
LAYERS OF SKIN

Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis:
 Not
considered part of the skin,
 Lies under the skin.
 Composed primarily of loose ______ and adipose
tissue.
LAYERS OF SKIN

Subcutaneous tissue performs two main roles:

1. Helps to insulate the body from extreme ______
changes in the external environment.

2. Anchors the skin to the underlying structures.
Several areas of the body have no subcutaneous layer and
are anchored directly to bone
 Drugs are administered (SubQ) because hypodermis has a
rich supply of ______ vessels.

LAYERS OF SKIN
SQ INJECTIONS
22 to20 ga. 5/8 to 3/4 long
SKIN COLOR
Skin color is determined by:
 Genetic factors
 Physiological factors
 Disease

______ -skin cells within the epidermal layer.
 ______ -darkening pigment, stains the
surrounding cells causing them to darken.

SKIN COLOR

The more melanin, the ______ the skin.

Amount of melanin secreted determines the skin
color.

Exposure to ______ sunlight increases the
secretion of melanin=suntan.
MALFUNCTIONING MELANOCYTE

Conditions involving malfunctioning melanocyte:

______ - melanocytes fail to secrete melanin.
- skin, hair, and iris (colored part of eye) are white.

______

______ and ______ :
-loss of pigment in certain areas of skin.
-creates patches of white skin.
-Areas in the skin where melanin is concentrated

______ melanoma
-A mole that has changed in character and has become cancerous
SKIN CONDITIONS

Carotene-yellowish pigment to skin.

______ -blue look to skin, result of poorly
oxygenated blood.

______ -dilation of the blood vessels.

______ -constriction of blood vessels, decrease in
oxygenated blood.
ACCESSORY STRUCTURES

Accessory structures include:
- hair
- nails
- glands

Hairless body parts: ______ of hands, ______ of
feet, lips, nipples, and parts of the external
reproductive organs.
PARTS OF HAIR
Chief parts:
 ______ -part above the surface of the skin.


______ -part that extends from the dermis to the
surface.

______ ______ -formed by downward extension
of epithelial cells.
FUNCTIONS OF HAIR
Functions:
 ______ and ______ -protect the eyes from dust
and perspiration.
 Nasal ______ trap dust and prevent it from
entering the lungs.
 Hair of the scalp keeps us warm.

FUNCTION OF HAIR

Hair ______ -influenced by sex hormones.

Puberty-growth of hair in axillary and pubic areas
in male and females.

______ -excessive hair growth in females, caused
by too much testosterone.
HAIR FOLLICLE

Epidermal cells –receive blood supply from the
dermal blood vessels.

Keratinization of cells- cells die as they move
away from their source of nourishment.

Hair that we brush, blow dry, and curl is
______ .
HAIR COLOR
Hair color:
 Genetically controlled by the amount of ______ .
 Abundance of melanin- ______ hair.
 Less melanin- ______ hair.
 Absence of melanin- ______ hair.

SHAPE OF HAIR
Shape of the hair shaft:
 Determines the appearance of hair.
 Round shaft produces straight hair.
 Oval shaft produces wavy hair.
 Flat hair shafts produce curly and kinky hair.

HAIR FOLLICLE
HAIR FOLLICLE

______ ______ muscle- attached to the hair follicle.

Bundle of smooth muscle fibers, when these muscles
______ , hair stands on end.

Contract when cold or frightened.

Also called ______ ______ .
HAIR STANDING ON END
ALOPECIA

______ -loss of hair.

Male-pattern baldness
most common type.
 Characterized by a gradual loss of hair.


Drug toxicity
second most common type.
 Eg. ______ , ______ .

HAIR LOSS FROM RADIATION
NAILS
Nails:
 Thin plates of stratified squamous epithelial cells.
 Contain a hard form of keratin.
 Found on the ______ end of the fingers and toes.
 Protect structures from injury.

NAIL STRUCTURE

Structure:
 Free
edge
 Nail body (finger nail)
 Nail root
NAIL STRUCTURE

Nail growth-determined by half-moon shaped
______ located at the base of the nail.

As nail grows, it slides over the ______ .

Underlying dermal layer contains blood vessels
which give ______ color to nail.

______ -fold of stratum corneum-grows onto
proximal portion of the nail body.
NAIL STRUCTURE
______
NAILS
ASSESSMENT
Assessment of the nails should include:
-shape
-how they are cut
-type of manicure
-dorsal curvature
-adhesion to the nail bed -color
-thickness
-male/female

NAIL CONDITIONS

______ -condition that indicates fingertips have
received an insufficient supply of oxygenated
blood over a period of time.

______ become large, nails become think, hard,
shiny and curved at the free end.

Causes-chronic ______ and ______ disease.
CLUBBING OF FINGERS
CYANOSIS

Cyanosis-poor oxygenation makes the blood
appear ______ , this in turn makes the nails
appear bluish.

Nail abuse-trauma to the nail that causes the nail
to ______ and hypertrophy.

______ - generally due to poor oxygenation or
poor nutrition, or anemias.
CYANOSIS
GLANDS
Two major glands:
 ______ glands
 ______ glands

______ glands or oil glands-associated with the hair
follicles, found in all body areas that have hair.
 ______ -oily substance that flows into hair follicle or
onto surface of skin.

GLANDS
Function:
 Sebum lubricates and helps waterproof skin and
hair.
 Inhibits ______ on the surface of the skin.
 Production ______ with aging, results in dry skin
and brittle hair.
 ______ ______ -cream cheese covering that
babies are born with, secreted by sebaceous
glands.

GLANDS

Glands can become blocked by accumulating
sebum and debris.
 A ______
forms when sebum is exposed to air and
dries out
 A pimple
forms when the blocked sebum becomes
infected with ______ -it becomes a pustule
SEBACEOUS GLANDS
SWEAT GLANDS

Sweat glands or ______ glands:
 Located
in the dermis.
 Secrete ______ .
Sweat is secreted into a ______ that opens onto
the skin as a pore.
 We have approximately three million sweat
glands.

SWEAT GLANDS

Two types of sweat glands:
1) ______ glands-usually associated with the
hair follicles, found in the axillary and genital
areas.
Respond to emotional ______ and become activated
when a person is frightened, upset, in pain or sexually
excited.
 Become activated during ______ .(a time in your life)

SWEAT GLANDS

______ ______ - occurs when the substances in
sweat are degraded by bacteria into chemicals
with a strong unpleasant odor.

2) Eccrine glands-more numerous and widely
distirubuted throughout the body. Especially
numerous on the forehead, neck, back, upper lip,
palms, and soles.
GLANDS
 Eccrine
 Not
glands:
associated with hair ______ .
 Sweat that is secreted plays an important role
in ______ ______ .
 As sweat evaporates on the skin, ______ is
lost.
 ______ perspiration-secreted by the eccrine
glands, can secrete a gallon of sweat per hour.
GLANDS
Modified sweat glands:
 Ceruminous –found in the external auditory
canal, secrete ______ .

 ______
- yellow, sticky, wax-like secretion that repels
insects and traps foreign materials.

Mammary glands-located in the breasts, secrete
______ .
BODY TEMPERATURE
______ body temperature is ______ degrees F .
 Body temp. differs from one part of the body to
another.

______ temperature-reflects the temperature of
the inner parts of the body, (cranial, thoracic, and
abdominal cavities).
 ______ temperature-reflects the temperature of
the skin and mouth.

BODY TEMPERATURE

______ -the mechanism whereby the body balances heat
production and heat loss.

Failure to regulate body temperature causes the body
temperature to fluctuate.

______ -excessive decrease in body temperature.

______ -excessive increase in body temperature.

Extreme changes in body temperature may be fatal.
HEAT LOSS

80% of heat loss occurs through the ______ .

20% is lost through the ______ system and ______
products.
Heat loss occurs by four means:
 ______
 ______
 ______
 ______

HEAT LOSS

______ -heat is lost from a warm object (the body) to the
cooler air surrounding the warm object. Eg. Person loosing
heat in a cold room.

______ -loss of heat from a warm body to a cooler object
in contact with the warm body.
Eg. Warm person becomes cold when sitting on a block of
ice.
Eg. Cooling blanket for ______ -warm object (feverish
patient) looses heat to the cooler object, the cooling
blanket.
HEAT LOSS

______ -loss of heat by air currents moving over
the surface of the skin. E.g. Fan moving across
the surface of the skin.

______ -heat may be lost through changing a
liquid (sweat) to a gas.
E.g. during strenuous exercise, sweat on the
surface of the skin evaporates and cools the body.
BODY TEMPERATURE

Normal body temperature is regulated by several
mechanisms:
- ______ -thermostat of the body, located in the
brain.
-senses changes in body temperature and sends
information to the skin. (blood vessels, sweat
glands and skeletal muscle).
BODY TEMPERATURE
Exercise
Temperature ______
Blood vessels ______
Increased blood flow to the ______
BODY TEMPERATURE
Heat is transferred to deeper tissue surfaces
______ glands activate
Heat is lost as sweat ______
Body temperature ______
BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION
RESPONSE TO DECREASING TEMP.
Decreased temperature:
 Blood vessels ______ .
 Traps blood and heat in the ______ tissues
(prevents heat loss)
 Sweat glands become ______ active, ______ heat
loss.

RESPONSE TO DECREASING TEMP.

Skeletal muscles contract vigorously and
involuntarily causing ______ and an increase
in the production of heat.

Contraction of the arrector pili muscles causes
goose bumps indicating a decline in body temp.
TEMPERATURE REGULATION
BURNS

Classified according to ______ .

Classified as either partial-thickness burns or fullthickness burns.

Partial thickness are divided into ______ -degree and
______ -degree burns.
FIRST DEGREE BURNS
First degree burns:
 ______
 ______
 Slightly edematous (______ )
 Only ______ involved

E.g. sunburn
SECOND DEGREE BURN
Second degree burns:
 Redness
 Pain
 Edema
 ______ formation

May appear red tan or
white
THIRD DEGREE BURNS
______ degree burns:
(full thickness burns)
 Both epidermis and
dermis are destroyed
 Painless- ______
receptors destroyed
 May appear white, tan,
brown, black or cherry
red
BURNS

Rule of ______ :

System used to measure the extent of burns.

Total body surface is divided into regions.

The assigned percentages are related to the
number 9.
BURNS
BURNS
Severe burns are associated with ______
formation.
 ______ is dead, burned tissue that forms a thick,
inflexible scab-like layer over the surface.

 Can
act as a ______ and cut off blood supply to
extremity, or if the burn is in the trunk area it can limit
the ability to breath.
 Though initially ______ it can become a breeding
ground for bacteria, and their toxic ______ can easily
enter the blood.
AGING SKIN
As we age:
 Epidermis becomes ______ .
 Skin is more translucent.
 Melanocyte decreases.
 Dermis becomes ______ ,
 Decreased amount of ______ and ______ fibers.
 Increased wrinkles.
 Skin heals ______ .
AGING SKIN
AS WE AGE!

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