Integumentary System and Body Temperature-Chapter 7 Joe Pistack MS/ED INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Integumentary system includes: The skin Accessory structures:- sweat glands -oil glands - _________ - _________ FUNCTIONS OF SKIN The skin performs the following functions: Keeps harmful ______ out of the body and helps retain ______ and electrolytes. Protects the internal structures and ______ from injuries due to blows, cuts, harsh chemicals, sunlight burns, and ______ microorganisms. Performs an ______ function. Secretes water and small amounts of urea. FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN Acts as a gland by synthesizing vitamin ______ . Vitamin D is necessary for absorption of calcium from the digestive tract. Performs a sensory role by housing the sensory ______ for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature. Plays an important role in the regulation of body ______ . STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN Skin: Considered an organ Also called integument or cutaneous membrane Skin has 2 layers: ______ -outer layer ______ -inner layer Dermatology-the study of skin and skin disorders. LAYERS OF SKIN Epidermis-thin ______ layer of skin. Composed of ______ squamous epithelium. Has no blood supply of it’s own, so it’s ______ . ______ and nutrients diffuse into the epidermis from blood supply from the dermis. LAYERS OF SKIN The epidermis can be divided into 5 layers the two of interest here are the deeper stratum ______ and the more superficial stratum corneum 1.Stratum ______ -lies on top of the dermis. -has access to a rich supply of blood. -cells of this layer constantly divide, push old cells to the surface. LAYERS OF SKIN Changes take place as cells move away from surface: 1. cells begin to die 2. ______ takes place ______ -process whereby tough protein called keratin is deposited within the cell, keratin ______ and ______ the cells as they move toward surface. This makes the skin ______ - ______. LAYERS OF THE SKIN Stratum Corneum: Surface layer of the epidermis. Composed of about ______ layers of dead cells. Dead cells are continuously sloughed off. Sloughed cells are called ______ , and______ when clumped by oil on the skull. LEVELS OF SKIN ______ perspiration-500ml/day of perspiration that is lost through the skin. ______ perspiration-due to activity of the sweat glands. If the epidermis is damaged, the rate of ______ perspiration increases. E.g. burns LEVELS OF SKIN Dermis: Located under the epidermis. Largest portion of the skin Composed of dense, fibrous, ______ tissue. Contains collagen and elastin fibers that make the skin strong and stretchable. E.g. Pregnancy LAYERS OF SKIN Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis: Not considered part of the skin, Lies under the skin. Composed primarily of loose ______ and adipose tissue. LAYERS OF SKIN Subcutaneous tissue performs two main roles: 1. Helps to insulate the body from extreme ______ changes in the external environment. 2. Anchors the skin to the underlying structures. Several areas of the body have no subcutaneous layer and are anchored directly to bone Drugs are administered (SubQ) because hypodermis has a rich supply of ______ vessels. LAYERS OF SKIN SQ INJECTIONS 22 to20 ga. 5/8 to 3/4 long SKIN COLOR Skin color is determined by: Genetic factors Physiological factors Disease ______ -skin cells within the epidermal layer. ______ -darkening pigment, stains the surrounding cells causing them to darken. SKIN COLOR The more melanin, the ______ the skin. Amount of melanin secreted determines the skin color. Exposure to ______ sunlight increases the secretion of melanin=suntan. MALFUNCTIONING MELANOCYTE Conditions involving malfunctioning melanocyte: ______ - melanocytes fail to secrete melanin. - skin, hair, and iris (colored part of eye) are white. ______ ______ and ______ : -loss of pigment in certain areas of skin. -creates patches of white skin. -Areas in the skin where melanin is concentrated ______ melanoma -A mole that has changed in character and has become cancerous SKIN CONDITIONS Carotene-yellowish pigment to skin. ______ -blue look to skin, result of poorly oxygenated blood. ______ -dilation of the blood vessels. ______ -constriction of blood vessels, decrease in oxygenated blood. ACCESSORY STRUCTURES Accessory structures include: - hair - nails - glands Hairless body parts: ______ of hands, ______ of feet, lips, nipples, and parts of the external reproductive organs. PARTS OF HAIR Chief parts: ______ -part above the surface of the skin. ______ -part that extends from the dermis to the surface. ______ ______ -formed by downward extension of epithelial cells. FUNCTIONS OF HAIR Functions: ______ and ______ -protect the eyes from dust and perspiration. Nasal ______ trap dust and prevent it from entering the lungs. Hair of the scalp keeps us warm. FUNCTION OF HAIR Hair ______ -influenced by sex hormones. Puberty-growth of hair in axillary and pubic areas in male and females. ______ -excessive hair growth in females, caused by too much testosterone. HAIR FOLLICLE Epidermal cells –receive blood supply from the dermal blood vessels. Keratinization of cells- cells die as they move away from their source of nourishment. Hair that we brush, blow dry, and curl is ______ . HAIR COLOR Hair color: Genetically controlled by the amount of ______ . Abundance of melanin- ______ hair. Less melanin- ______ hair. Absence of melanin- ______ hair. SHAPE OF HAIR Shape of the hair shaft: Determines the appearance of hair. Round shaft produces straight hair. Oval shaft produces wavy hair. Flat hair shafts produce curly and kinky hair. HAIR FOLLICLE HAIR FOLLICLE ______ ______ muscle- attached to the hair follicle. Bundle of smooth muscle fibers, when these muscles ______ , hair stands on end. Contract when cold or frightened. Also called ______ ______ . HAIR STANDING ON END ALOPECIA ______ -loss of hair. Male-pattern baldness most common type. Characterized by a gradual loss of hair. Drug toxicity second most common type. Eg. ______ , ______ . HAIR LOSS FROM RADIATION NAILS Nails: Thin plates of stratified squamous epithelial cells. Contain a hard form of keratin. Found on the ______ end of the fingers and toes. Protect structures from injury. NAIL STRUCTURE Structure: Free edge Nail body (finger nail) Nail root NAIL STRUCTURE Nail growth-determined by half-moon shaped ______ located at the base of the nail. As nail grows, it slides over the ______ . Underlying dermal layer contains blood vessels which give ______ color to nail. ______ -fold of stratum corneum-grows onto proximal portion of the nail body. NAIL STRUCTURE ______ NAILS ASSESSMENT Assessment of the nails should include: -shape -how they are cut -type of manicure -dorsal curvature -adhesion to the nail bed -color -thickness -male/female NAIL CONDITIONS ______ -condition that indicates fingertips have received an insufficient supply of oxygenated blood over a period of time. ______ become large, nails become think, hard, shiny and curved at the free end. Causes-chronic ______ and ______ disease. CLUBBING OF FINGERS CYANOSIS Cyanosis-poor oxygenation makes the blood appear ______ , this in turn makes the nails appear bluish. Nail abuse-trauma to the nail that causes the nail to ______ and hypertrophy. ______ - generally due to poor oxygenation or poor nutrition, or anemias. CYANOSIS GLANDS Two major glands: ______ glands ______ glands ______ glands or oil glands-associated with the hair follicles, found in all body areas that have hair. ______ -oily substance that flows into hair follicle or onto surface of skin. GLANDS Function: Sebum lubricates and helps waterproof skin and hair. Inhibits ______ on the surface of the skin. Production ______ with aging, results in dry skin and brittle hair. ______ ______ -cream cheese covering that babies are born with, secreted by sebaceous glands. GLANDS Glands can become blocked by accumulating sebum and debris. A ______ forms when sebum is exposed to air and dries out A pimple forms when the blocked sebum becomes infected with ______ -it becomes a pustule SEBACEOUS GLANDS SWEAT GLANDS Sweat glands or ______ glands: Located in the dermis. Secrete ______ . Sweat is secreted into a ______ that opens onto the skin as a pore. We have approximately three million sweat glands. SWEAT GLANDS Two types of sweat glands: 1) ______ glands-usually associated with the hair follicles, found in the axillary and genital areas. Respond to emotional ______ and become activated when a person is frightened, upset, in pain or sexually excited. Become activated during ______ .(a time in your life) SWEAT GLANDS ______ ______ - occurs when the substances in sweat are degraded by bacteria into chemicals with a strong unpleasant odor. 2) Eccrine glands-more numerous and widely distirubuted throughout the body. Especially numerous on the forehead, neck, back, upper lip, palms, and soles. GLANDS Eccrine Not glands: associated with hair ______ . Sweat that is secreted plays an important role in ______ ______ . As sweat evaporates on the skin, ______ is lost. ______ perspiration-secreted by the eccrine glands, can secrete a gallon of sweat per hour. GLANDS Modified sweat glands: Ceruminous –found in the external auditory canal, secrete ______ . ______ - yellow, sticky, wax-like secretion that repels insects and traps foreign materials. Mammary glands-located in the breasts, secrete ______ . BODY TEMPERATURE ______ body temperature is ______ degrees F . Body temp. differs from one part of the body to another. ______ temperature-reflects the temperature of the inner parts of the body, (cranial, thoracic, and abdominal cavities). ______ temperature-reflects the temperature of the skin and mouth. BODY TEMPERATURE ______ -the mechanism whereby the body balances heat production and heat loss. Failure to regulate body temperature causes the body temperature to fluctuate. ______ -excessive decrease in body temperature. ______ -excessive increase in body temperature. Extreme changes in body temperature may be fatal. HEAT LOSS 80% of heat loss occurs through the ______ . 20% is lost through the ______ system and ______ products. Heat loss occurs by four means: ______ ______ ______ ______ HEAT LOSS ______ -heat is lost from a warm object (the body) to the cooler air surrounding the warm object. Eg. Person loosing heat in a cold room. ______ -loss of heat from a warm body to a cooler object in contact with the warm body. Eg. Warm person becomes cold when sitting on a block of ice. Eg. Cooling blanket for ______ -warm object (feverish patient) looses heat to the cooler object, the cooling blanket. HEAT LOSS ______ -loss of heat by air currents moving over the surface of the skin. E.g. Fan moving across the surface of the skin. ______ -heat may be lost through changing a liquid (sweat) to a gas. E.g. during strenuous exercise, sweat on the surface of the skin evaporates and cools the body. BODY TEMPERATURE Normal body temperature is regulated by several mechanisms: - ______ -thermostat of the body, located in the brain. -senses changes in body temperature and sends information to the skin. (blood vessels, sweat glands and skeletal muscle). BODY TEMPERATURE Exercise Temperature ______ Blood vessels ______ Increased blood flow to the ______ BODY TEMPERATURE Heat is transferred to deeper tissue surfaces ______ glands activate Heat is lost as sweat ______ Body temperature ______ BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION RESPONSE TO DECREASING TEMP. Decreased temperature: Blood vessels ______ . Traps blood and heat in the ______ tissues (prevents heat loss) Sweat glands become ______ active, ______ heat loss. RESPONSE TO DECREASING TEMP. Skeletal muscles contract vigorously and involuntarily causing ______ and an increase in the production of heat. Contraction of the arrector pili muscles causes goose bumps indicating a decline in body temp. TEMPERATURE REGULATION BURNS Classified according to ______ . Classified as either partial-thickness burns or fullthickness burns. Partial thickness are divided into ______ -degree and ______ -degree burns. FIRST DEGREE BURNS First degree burns: ______ ______ Slightly edematous (______ ) Only ______ involved E.g. sunburn SECOND DEGREE BURN Second degree burns: Redness Pain Edema ______ formation May appear red tan or white THIRD DEGREE BURNS ______ degree burns: (full thickness burns) Both epidermis and dermis are destroyed Painless- ______ receptors destroyed May appear white, tan, brown, black or cherry red BURNS Rule of ______ : System used to measure the extent of burns. Total body surface is divided into regions. The assigned percentages are related to the number 9. BURNS BURNS Severe burns are associated with ______ formation. ______ is dead, burned tissue that forms a thick, inflexible scab-like layer over the surface. Can act as a ______ and cut off blood supply to extremity, or if the burn is in the trunk area it can limit the ability to breath. Though initially ______ it can become a breeding ground for bacteria, and their toxic ______ can easily enter the blood. AGING SKIN As we age: Epidermis becomes ______ . Skin is more translucent. Melanocyte decreases. Dermis becomes ______ , Decreased amount of ______ and ______ fibers. Increased wrinkles. Skin heals ______ . AGING SKIN AS WE AGE!