+ HIGHLIGHTS of CHANGES: DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5 Venkata Kolli Creighton-Nebraska Psychiatry Residency Program + + DSM- A long road! Medical DSM 203 (1943) I : 1952: 130 pages long DSM II: 1968:1974 (7th printing) homosexuality was removed as a disorder by voting! DSM III: 1980: “multiaxial” DSM IIIR: 1987. DSM IV: 1994. DSM IV-TR:2000. + DSM I-DSM 5 + Why is the roman numeral discarded? DSM –IV to DSM-5 + DSM-5, book divided into 3 sections 1. Section I: Basics 2. Section II: Diagnostic Criteria and Codes 3. Section III: Emerging Measures and Models + DSM –IV TR DSM -5 Axis –I Psychiatric disorders Axis –II Personality disorder & MR Axis III Medical problems Diagnosis Psychosocial & contextual factors Axis IV Axis V (GAF) World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0) + Neurodevelopmental disorders Autism Spectrum Disorder ADHD Intellectual Disability Communication Specific Disorders Learning Disorders Motor Disorders Other Neurodevelopmental disorders + Pervasive Developmental Disorder DSM -5 Autistic Disorder Childhood Disintegrative disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Asperger's Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS Rett’s Disorder Can still be diagnosed as ASD but with specifier ‘with known genetic or medical condition’ + Autism Spectrum Disorder DSM –IV TR DSM-5 Formerly (DSM-IV-TR): DSM–V: Characterized by Required Deficits in 3 Areas: Deficits in Social Interaction Communication Restricted, Repetitive and Stereotyped Behavior 2 CORE Domains: Social Communication and Interaction Restricted & Repetitive Behavior, Interests, and Activities Deficits in communication are related to social interaction deficits. DSM-5 fixes this double counting. + Autism Spectrum Disorders Social Communication and Interaction Social-Emotional Reciprocity Non-verbal Communication Developing, Maintaining, & Understanding relationships Level 3 is most severe, Level 1 Mild + Autism Spectrum Disorders Restricted & Repetitive Behavior, Interests, and Activities Stereotyped Movements, Use of Objects, or Speech Insistence on Sameness, Inflexibility, Ritual Behaviors Highly Restricted/Fixated Abnormal Interests Hyper- or Hypo-Reactivity to Sensory Input Level 3 is most severe + Autism Spectrum Disorders Present in Early Development Symptoms Cause Significant Impairment in Social, Occupational Functioning Symptoms Not Better Explained by Intellectual Disability or Developmental Delay + Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder) Formerly Mental retardation Previously part of Axis II of DSM- IV TR DSM-5 focus is on adaptive functioning along with standardized testing In DSM IV Levels of Retardation based on IQ Scores: Mild (IQ = 50/55 to 70), Moderate (IQ=35/40 to 50/55), Severe (IQ= 20/25 to 35/40), Profound (IQ= <20/25) Severity Unspecified (Unmeasurable) + Intellectual Disability (Intellectual Developmental Disorder) Deficits in: a) Intellectual and b) Adaptive Functioning c) Onset in Developmental Period Specifiers: Severity - Based on Conceptual, Social, Practical Functioning & Supports Needed: Mild Moderate Severe Profound + Changes related to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms present prior to age 12 (opposed to 7 in DSM –IV TR) Can now have a diagnosis of ADHD & Autism Spectrum Disorder Adults with ADHD: Symptom cutoffs for diagnosis is 5 criteria (instead of 6 for those <16 years old) + Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders + Schizophrenia symptoms Positive symptoms Hallucinations Eg. Second person, Third person (Schneiderian symptom) Delusions Bizzare Eg. Aleins controlling thoughts Nonbizzare Eg. Someone following Negative symptoms Disorganization + No special attributes Elimination of the special attribution of bizarre delusions and Schneiderian firstrank auditory hallucinations (e.g., two or more voices conversing). No bizzare Vs non-bizzare significance + Psychotic disorders time frames Unchanged from DSM-IV Brief psychotic disorder <1 month Schizophreniform disorder 1-6 months Duration of disturbance Schizophrenia > 6 months + Schizophrenia: Criteria A symptoms Hallucinations Delusions At least one of these symptoms should be present Disorganized speech Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior Negative symptoms At least two symptoms must be present for the majority duration + No more Schizophrenia subtypes Schizophrenia No more subtypes paranoid disorganized catatonic Specifier can be used three catatonic symptoms (out of 12) undifferentiat ed Residual + Other Psychotic disorders Schizoaffective disorder: Psychosis + Mood symptoms Major mood episode should be present for majority of the disorders total duration after criteria A(psychotic symptoms) is met. Delusional disorder no longer has the requirement that the delusions must be nonbizarre + Psychotic disorders Part of Section III Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome Schizophrenia Early intervention improves prognosis in psychotic disorders. + Bipolar disorder + Bipolar Disorders Changes in activity & energy as well as mood needs to be present for a diagnosis of mania or hypomania. NOS changed to ‘other specified bipolar and related disorder’ + Mixed features specifier Full criteria for one mood (depression, mania or hypomania) Have 3 or more symptoms of the other mood pole. Distractibility, irritability, insomnia & indecisiveness are not included. + Depressive disorder Bereavement specifier removed from major depressive episode Previously categorical exclusion 2 months following bereavement + Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) Exhibiting persistent irritability and severe behavioral outbursts 3 or more times per week for more than 1 year. The mood in between temper outbursts is persistently negative (irritable, angry, or sad), are present in at least 2 settings. Onset of illness has to be before age 10 years Chronological or developmental age of at least 6 years + Premenstrual dysphoric disorder again a mood diagnosis! • Symptoms are present in the final week before onset of menses • Improves with menses • Minimal in the week following menses + Anxiety disorders DSM changes Anxiety disorders: Agoraphobia, Specific Phobia, and Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia) Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders + Other changes Previous versions: requirement that individuals over age 18 years recognize that their anxiety is excessive or unreasonable Anxiety must be out of proportion to the actual danger or threat in the situation, after taking cultural contextual factors into account + Panic disorder & Agoraphobia Panic disorder and agoraphobia are unlinked in DSM-5. + New OCD disorders Trichotillomania + New disorders -OCD’s Hoarding disorder Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder Substance-/medication-induced obsessive- compulsive and related disorder Obsessive-compulsive and related disorder due to another medical condition Trichotillomania (Hair-Pulling Disorder): From impulse control disorder + Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders + Post Traumatic Stress DisorderDSM –IV TR Trauma ‘reaction with horror, helplessness or fear’ intrusive recollection avoidant/numbi ng >3 months chronic hyper-arousal + Post Traumatic Stress DisorderDSM –5 Trauma Is better defined e.g. sexual assault, recurrent exposure in police officers ‘reaction with horror, helplessness or fear’ Removed >3 months chronic 4 symptom clusters Intrusive recollection Avoidance Numbing Hyper-arousal + Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders PTSD will have 2 new sub types 1. PTSD in children less than 6 years 2. PTSD with Prominent dissociative symptoms PTSD Debate in the military: Should PTSD be called Post Traumatic Stress injury? + Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders Somatic symptom disorder covers previous somatization disorder DSM-IV disorder DSM-IV disorder diagnosis required large collection of symptoms (4 pain, 2 GI, 1 sexual symptoms, 1 pseudo-neurological symptoms) DSM-V diagnosis: Maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are required. Illness Anxiety disorder (Hypochondriasis):high health anxiety without somatic symptoms + Feeding & Eating disorders Binge eating disorder: Binging but no compensatory purging 1.Eat more food in a short period 2. Once a week for 3 months 3. Guilt, embarrassment, or disgust + Eating disorders Anorexia Nervosa: Reduction in energy intake leading to significantly low weight Fear of gaining weight Body Image distortions Amenorrhea for 3 months removed as a criteria Bulimia nervosa: Binge/Purge behavior once a week, was twice a week in DSM-IV + Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders Gambling Disorder: Gambling, activates the same brain reward system as other substance use disorders. + Substance Use Disorders Not separate the diagnoses of substance abuse and dependence Cannabis withdrawal, Caffeine withdrawal are new 2-3 criteria: mild, 4-5 :moderate, 6 or more: severe + Substance Use Disorder + Personality disorders No 6 major changes categories were proposed Finally 10 categories were retained Borderline personality disorder had the highest reliability + Conditions of Further Study Relevant for younger populations 1. Attenuated psychosis syndrome 2. Internet gaming disorder 3. Neurobehavioral disorder with prenatal alcohol exposure 4. Suicidal behavior Disorder 5. Non suicidal self injury + References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing;2013. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2000. http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/PTSD%20Fact%20Sheet.p df Stetka BS, Correll, CU. A Guide to DSM-5. Medscape Psychiatry. May 21, 2013. Retrived: 27th Marchhttp://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/803884_15 + Images Dailymail.co.uk www.dutyfreeaddict.com www.brightsideofnews.com ww.trekdek.com http://www.lastlashblog.com/2010/1 1/friday-eye-day.html www.dermatillomaniatreatment.com www.trekdek.com www.pjvoice.com www.uccs.edu - http://6foot4.net/articles/2013/03/0 5/utilizing-change/ www.glogster.com kidshealth.org ssgtleslie.wordpress.com ssgtleslie.wordpress.com school.discoveryeducation.com http://www.koemba.com/forum/stressed-out-with-an-adhd-child-whathelps/#sthash.981eD4Ns.dpuf http://emilysrosenlcsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Distracted-Studentin-the-Classroom.jpg + Communication disorders DSM-5 communication disorders include language disorder (which combines DSM-IV expressive and mixed receptiveexpressive language disorders): Speech sound disorder (a new name for phonological disorder) Childhood-onset fluency disorder (a new name for stuttering) Social (pragmatic) communication disorder, a new condition for persistent difficulties in the social uses of verbal and nonverbal communication. + Reactive attachment disorder emotionally withdrawn/inhibited and indiscriminately social/disinhibited. In DSM-5, these subtypes are defined as distinct disorders: reactive attachment disorder & disinhibited social engagement disorder.