Alejandro Ponce`s Presentation

Report
1
Justice sector in Latin America:
Where does it stand?
Alejandro Ponce
The World Justice Project
May 2012
1
This presentation
 Comparative analysis of current performance
of justice institutions in Latin America
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
2
Framework
 Political dimension
 Oversight of government branches and making
accountable government officials
 Social and economic dimension
 Citizen security (criminal justice system)
 Deterrence and redress, while ensuring that
fundamental rights are protected
 Dispute resolution (civil justice system)
 Obtain remedies in conformity with fundamental
rights (access, efficiency, and fairness)
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3
Framework
 Political dimension
 Social and economic dimension
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
4
Oversight function
Eastern Europe
& Central Asia
Sub-Saharan
Africa
Middle East &
North Africa
Latin America
& Caribbean
South Asia
East Asia &
Pacific
Developed
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
SF 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
5
Oversight function
1.0
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
SF 1.3 Government powers are effectively limited by the judiciary
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
Venezuela
Bolivia
Guatemala
Dominican
Republic
Argentina
Mexico
El Salvador
Peru
Colombia
Brazil
Chile
0.0
6
Impunity
SF 1.5 Government officials are sanctioned for misconduct
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
7
 Please assume that a high-ranking government officer is taking government money
for personal benefit. Please also assume that one of his employees witnesses this
conduct, reports it to the relevant authority, and provides sufficient evidence to
prove it. Please assume that the press obtains the information and publishes the
story. Which one of the following outcomes is most likely?
 The accusation is completely ignored by the authorities (0.0)
 An investigation is opened, but it never reaches any conclusions (0.5)
 The officer is prosecuted and punished (through fines or time in prison) (1.0)
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
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Bolivia
Argentina
Mexico
Dominican
Republic
El Salvador
Peru
Colombia
Venezuela
Guatemala
Jamaica
Chile
Brazil
0.0
8
 Ciudad de México (27 febrero 2011).- De mil 779
personas denunciadas penalmente por la Secretaría
de la Función Pública (SFP) por delitos asociados a
corrupción, únicamente una ha sido consignada y
quedó libre bajo fianza.
Y es que la Ley de Servidores Públicos vigente no
considera como delito grave el desvío, la
malversación, el peculado ni ningún otro de los más
de 300 que sanciona, y eso impide que los
funcionarios que los cometen sean encarcelados.
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9
Framework
 Political dimension
 Social and economic dimension
 Citizen security (criminal justice system)
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
10
11
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
Jamaica
Brazil
Bolivia
El Salvador
Venezuela
Mexico
Chile
Colombia
Guatemala
Argentina
Peru
Dominican
Republic
Burglary rates
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
12
Business costs of crime
and violence
Region
Score
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
5.1
Sub-Saharan Africa
4.3
East Asia & Pacific
5.1
South Asia
4.2
Latin America & Caribbean
3.3
Middle East & North Africa
5.3
Source: WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
13
Conviction Rates (burglary)
0.16
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
Guatemala
Venezuela
Peru
Brazil
Jamaica
El Salvador
Bolivia
Argentina
Colombia
Chile
Mexico
Rest of the
world
0.00
14
Mob justice
Assume that a criminal is apprehended by your neighbors after
committing a serious crime. Which of the following two situations is more
likely to happen?
- The criminal gets beaten by the neighbors
- The criminal is turned over to the authorities without harm
Region
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
East Asia & Pacific
South Asia
Latin America & Caribbean
Middle East & North Africa
% without harm
70%
29%
62%
45%
41%
56%
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
15
Comparative analysis of
the criminal justice system
 Crimes are effectively investigated.
 Crimes are effectively and timely adjudicated.
 The correctional system is effective in reducing
criminal behavior.
 The criminal justice system is impartial.
 The criminal justice system is free of corruption.
 The criminal justice system is free of improper
government influence.
 The criminal justice system accords the accused
due process of law.
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16
Effective criminal justice
system
Region
Score
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
0.45
Sub-Saharan Africa
0.45
East Asia & Pacific
0.54
South Asia
0.45
Latin America & Caribbean
0.42
Middle East & North Africa
0.47
Developed economies
0.75
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index
World2011
Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
17
Criminal justice system
Venezuela
Crimes
investigated
Mexico
Crimes
adjudicated.
Bolivia
Argentina
El Salvador
Correctional
system
Guatemala
Impartial
Colombia
Free of
corruption.
Brazil
Dominican Republic
Free of
government
influence.
Due process
of law
Peru
Jamaica
Chile
0
1
2
3
4
5
18
Comparative analysis of
the civil justice system
 People are aware of available remedies.
 People can access and afford legal advice and
representation.
 People can access and afford civil courts.
 Civil justice is free of discrimination.
 Civil justice is free of corruption.
 Civil justice is free of improper government influence.
 Civil justice is not subject to unreasonable delays.
 Civil justice is effectively enforced.
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
19
Framework
 Political dimension
 Social and economic dimension
 Citizen security (criminal justice system)
 Dispute resolution (civil justice system)
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
20
Civil dispute
 During the past three years, have you or
someone in your household had a conflict
with someone who refused to fulfill a
contract or pay a debt?
 Which one of the following mechanisms
was used to solve the conflict?
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
21
Civil disputes
Country
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
El Salvador
Guatemala
Mexico
Peru
Venezuela
Middle Income w/o LA
Court
38%
No action
15%
20%
28%
31%
37%
40%
24%
40%
36%
35%
32%
36%
21%
34%
13%
14%
12%
33%
33%
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
22
Civil disputes
Country
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
El Salvador
Guatemala
Mexico
Peru
Venezuela
Middle Income w/o LA
No action rich
15%
No action poor
14%
31%
25%
18%
42%
49%
30%
6%
33%
9%
14%
7%
25%
37%
17%
14%
22%
32%
33%
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
23
Civil disputes
Country
Argentina
Brazil
Chile
Colombia
El Salvador
Guatemala
Mexico
Peru
Venezuela
Middle Inc wo LA
Fair
39%
Slow
15%
Expensive
44%
76%
76%
59%
55%
47%
15%
67%
85%
51%
38%
68%
48%
54%
44%
12%
33%
24%
4%
22%
60%
65%
40%
16%
63%
54%
21%
39%
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
24
Access to civil justice
Region
Score
Eastern Europe and Central Asia
0.52
Sub-Saharan Africa
0.48
East Asia & Pacific
0.48
South Asia
0.40
Latin America & Caribbean
0.53
Middle East & North Africa
0.55
Developed economies
0.69
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index
World2011
Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
25
Access to civil justice
Access and afford
legal advice
1.00
Access and afford
civil courts
ADRs
0.50
Effectively
enforced
0.00
Not subject to
unreasonable
delays
Free of
discrimination
Free of corruption
Free of improper
government
Source: WJP Rule of Law Index 2011 influence
Latin America
Other middle income
High income
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
26
Access to justice
Legal
representation
Accessible
Venezuela
Mexico
Bolivia
Impartial
Guatemala
Peru
Free of
corruption
Free of govt.
influence
Quick
Dominica…
El Salvador
Jamaica
Argentina
Enforced
Colombia
Brazil
ADRs
Chile
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
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Summary (1)
 Substantial variation in the performance of
the justice sector in the region
 There is important variation in the oversight
function, with some countries enjoying a fair
system of checks and balances; however the
perception of impunity among government
officials who break the law remains
widespread
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
28
Summary (2)
 The judicial sector struggles to provide protection
from crime or to punish perpetrators of abuses.
Nowadays, Latin American countries show the
highest crime rates in the world and the criminal
justice systems rank among the worst in the world.
 The performance of civil justice system is mixed,
although generally inaccessible for disadvantaged
groups
World Justice Forum | www.wjp-forum.org | [email protected]
29
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Thank you
Alejandro Ponce
The World Justice Project
[email protected]
www.worldjusticeproject.org
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