City of Willows Pavement Management Program Road Maintenance Needs March 25, 2014 Willows’ Paved Streets are a Valuable Asset • The City of Willows maintains nearly 31 centerline miles of paved public streets. • Total replacement value of this asset is approximately $36.1 million. • To preserve this important asset it is essential to properly maintain the roads each year to minimize much larger costs in the future if they are not maintained properly. Pavement Deterioration Over Time • Pavements deteriorate at a relatively slow rate over the first 75% of their useful life. • Pavements deteriorate at a relatively fast rate after hitting 75%of their useful life. PAVEMENT LIFE CYCLE PCI Number Rating Verbal Rating MTC Condition Category 100 EXCELLENT 90 pavements which have little 80 VERY GOOD 40% Drop in Quality (Relatively Slow) 70 GOOD II pavements which have a significant level of distress; non-load related 60 III pavements which have a significant level of distress; load related IV POOR pavements which have a major level of distress VERY POOR pavements which have extreme amounts of major distress 50 Figure 1 6 PAVEMENT CONDITION or no distress I FAIR 40 Another 40% Drop in Quality (FAST) 30 20 10 V FAILED 5 *TIMELINE (YEARS) 10 75% of Useful Life (CRITICAL TIME TO APPLY LOW COST TREATMENTS) *TIMELINE varies depending on traffic volume and loads, climate, pavement design, etc. 15 12% of Useful Life 20 Timing of Treatment is Key • The cost of applying preventative pavement maintenance during the first 75% of their useful life is generally onetenth to one-fifth of the cost of waiting until the roads have completely failed and need complete reconstruction. Managing Pavement Properly • In the absence of a plan for maintenance, cities can fall into the “worst first” trap. This can prove to be expensive and may not be the most cost effective approach. • One of the best and most common ways for cities to develop a plan to maintain their roads is to develop a pavement management plan (PMP.) This program determines the most cost effective way for the City to spend maintenance monies. Pavement Management Philosophy • PMP’s evaluate all streets and determine which streets are still within the zone of 75% of their useful lives and the best treatments to preserve the streets to avoid more costly reconstruction needs in the future. • Pavement Management Programs involve visual inspections of all streets on 7 different categories. • Visual ratings are input into PMP software and Pavement Condition Indexes (PCI’s) are determined for each street. Pavement Condition Index 100 Good – Excellent Prev. Maint. - surface seals every 7 -9 years ($0.60-$6.02/Sy Yd) 70 At Risk Thin AC Overlay ($11.50/ Sy Yd) Poor Thick AC Overlay ($15.89/ Sy Yd) Failed Reconstruct Road ($29.00/ Sy Yd) 50 25 0 Condition of Willows’s Streets • This year, the City just completed the first update to the City’s PMP since 2005. • Based on field surveys, the current average Citywide PCI is 54. • 29% of the City’s streets have a PCI of 70 or above (considered very good.) • 28% of City’s streets have a PCI of 50-69 (considered good.) • 29% of the City’s streets have a PCI of 25-49 or below (considered poor.) • 14% of the City’s streets have a PCI of 24 or below (considered very poor.) Street Condition by MIles 9.0 mi (29%) (28%) 8.7 mi Total Miles (Percentage of City) 9.0 (29%) (14%) 4.3 mi Very Good PCI 70100 Data source: StreetSaver PMP Report, Network Summary Statistics Good PCI 50-69 Poor PCI 25-49 Condition Category Very Poor PCI 0-24 Pavement Condition Index 2014 Residential Average PCI 52 Average PCI by Functional Class Collector Average PCI 46 Data source: StreetSaver PMP Arterial Average PCI 70 Types of Pavement Treatments • Depending on the condition of the street, several typical treatments are used for maintaining streets. These include: Crack Sealing Chip Sealing Asphalt Overlay Full depth asphalt Slurry Sealing Cape Sealing In-place asphalt recycling Road Reconstruction • A PMP will typically recommend one of these treatments, depending on the condition of the street and what is needed to bring the street back to like-new condition. Road Maintenance Plan Five budget scenarios were considered: • Maintaining the current condition of streets over the 5 years from 2014-2019 (a PCI of 54) • Increase the PCI by 5 points over 5 yrs. • Unconstrained budget (if money were no object what would it take to bring all streets up to at least a PCI of 80 in 5 yrs.) • Do nothing • Annual Expenditures of $140,000 Budget Comparison City Budget Comparison Effects on 5 Year Projected PCI 85 82 80 76 75 71 Projected 70 Do Nothing $0 Budget 66 65 Expected $140k Annual Budget 61 60 57 56 54 55 58 57 55 55 52 51 50 58 54 59 Maintain PCI 54 $1.2m Annually 54 Increase PCI = 59 $1.8m Annually Unlimited $4.19m Annually 50 49 48 46 45 46 44 40 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 What Does All This Mean • Gives the City Council a good idea of the condition of the streets and what may be needed to adequately maintain them. • If $140,000 is spent annually on City streets over the next 5 years, the average condition of the City’s streets will degrade from “good” to “poor.” • Cost effective maintenance strategies can be applied to obtain the biggest “bang for the buck” to ensure the assets in the City’s streets can be preserved. Results should be used to program street projects. • Some streets will have approached the point where they may start to deteriorate more rapidly. Need to keep an eye on conditions. Funding Options • Typical funding used for street maintenance includes Gas Taxes; however the rate of gas taxes paid to agencies over the past several years has declined and failed to keep up with inflation. • State and federal funding can be applied for, however there are limited sources and it is very competitive. • Important to be aggressive as possible to look for alternative funding sources to supplement currently used funds. Suggested Approach • Begin implementing annual pavement rehabilitation projects to put funds to use in the smartest way possible. • Base annual budget funding primarily from gas tax, however continually review/pursue state and federal funding sources for roads, bicycles and pedestrian improvements where some street improvements can be incorporated. • Update PMP every 3-5 years to stay in compliance with state regulations and to keep track of pavement conditions. Other Options • Other options to consider: • Spending higher amounts of money to get less streets treated by reconstructing some of the streets in the poorest condition. • Balance of implementing some of the PMP recommended treatments with some road reconstruction. • Future annual allocations • Provide guidance to staff on the amount the Council would like to fund each year out of the gas tax money to keep up on street maintenance.