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Vicarious Learning Theory Applied:
Using GoAnimate to Develop Online
Instructional Vignettes
Dr. Bill Solomonson, CPT
Dept. of Organizational Leadership
School of Education and Human Services
Human Learning…
Multimedia Model of Learning
Mental Model
Formation/
Retrieval
Instructional Methods
Explicit
Methods
Overt
behavioral
activity
Implicit
Methods
No overt
behavioral
activity
How can computer-based instruction
be designed to support knowledge
acquisition processes when learners
cannot physically interact with,
or control the content of that which
they are attempting to master?
Vicarious Learning Theory
Albert Bandura; 1962, 1986.
Gholson, B., & Craig, S.D. (2006).
Craig, S.D., Sullings, J., Witherspoon, A.,
& Gholson, B. (2006).
Vicarious Learning environments:
“Those in which learners see or hear
content for which they are not the
addressees and have no way of physically
interacting with the source of the content
they are attempting to master.”
Craig, S.D., Sullings, J., Witherspoon, A., & Gholson, B.
(2006).
Vicarious Learning
Talking with Grandpa –
1970s PSA on prejudice
Pre-fab characters in GoAnimate, 2014
• Historical Perspectives
– “Discourse”
– Religious Texts
– Socratic Method
– Socratic Circles
(modern pedagogy)
Research
References
•
•
•
•
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Clark, Ruth C. (2008-11-03). Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and
Performance Improvement (Kindle Locations 5475-5477). Wiley Publishing. Kindle
Edition.
Craig, S.D., Sullings, J., Witherspoon, A., & Gholson, B. (2006). The deep-level
reasoning question effect: The role of dialogue and deep-level reasoning questions
during vicarious learning. Cognition and Instruction, 24(4), 565-591.
Gholson, B., & Craig, S.D. (2006). Promoting constructive activities that support
vicarious learning during computer-based instruction. Educational Psychology
Review, 18, 119-139.

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