Chapter 7

Chapter 1
7 Lecture
Fifth Edition
Chapter 7
The Skeletal System:
Appendicular Division
Frederic Martini
Michael Timmons
Robert Tallitsch
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The appendicular skeleton is involved in
changing your position in the external
– Standing
– Walking
– Sitting
– Dressing
– Driving a car
Figure 7.1 The Appendicular Skeleton
The Pectoral Girdle and the Upper Limb
• Includes the S-shaped clavicle (collarbone)
and the flattened scapula (shoulder blade).
• The clavicle articulates with the sternum’s
manubrium; is the only direct connection
between the axial skeleton and the pectoral
• The scapula is attached to the clavicle
anteriorly but has no connection to the
actual axial skeleton; instead skeletal
muscles and ligaments support it.
The Pectoral Girdle
The Clavicle
Figure 7.3 The Clavicle
The Scapula
Figure 7.5a,b,c The Scapula
The Scapula
Figure 7.5d,e,f The Scapula
The Upper Limb
• Consists of the:
– Brachium (humerus)
– Antebrachium (ulna and radius)
– Wrist (carpals)
– Hand (metacarpals and phalanges)
The Upper Limb
The Humerus: Anterior
Figure 7.6a The Anterior Humerus
The Humerus: Posterior
Figure 7.6d The Posterior Humerus
The Ulna and Radius: Posterior
Figure 7.7a The Posterior Forearm
The Ulna and Radius: Anterior
Figure 7.7d The Anterior Forearm
The Wrist and Hand
• The carpal bones are the eight bones of
the wrist.
• The five metacarpal bones articulate with
the distal carpal bones and make up the
palm of the hand.
• The fourteen phalanges of the hand make
up the finger bones.
The Wrist and Hand
The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
• The pelvic girdle supports and protects the
lower viscera and developing fetus in females.
• The bones of the pelvic girdle and lower limb
are much more massive than their homologues
of the upper limb.
• Consists of two ossa coxae bones.
• The lower limb includes the thigh (femur),
kneecap (patella), leg, (tibia and fibula), ankle
(tarsals), and foot (metatarsals and
The Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limb
The Pelvic Girdle
Figure 7.10a Lateral Pelvic Girdle
The Pelvic Girdle
Figure 7.10b Medial Pelvic Girdle
The Pelvis
Figure 7.11a Anterior Pelvis
Figure 7.11b Posterior Pelvis
The Pelvis
Figure 7.12a Superior Pelvis
Figure 7.12c Inferior Pelvis
The Pelvis: Male vs. Female
• The male and female pelvis contains
numerous differences.
– Generally the male pelvis is heavier with more
prominent markings due to the larger muscles
attached to it.
The Pelvis: Male vs. Female
• Characteristics of the female pelvis:
Enlarged pelvic outlet, due to wider ischial spines
Less curvature of the sacrum and coccyx
Wider, more circular pelvic inlet
Broader, lower pelvis
Widely fanning ilia
Pubic angle greater than 100°
The Pelvis
The Femur: Anterior
Figure 7.14a The Anterior Femur
The Femur: Posterior
Figure 7.14d The Posterior Femur
The Patella
Figure 7.15 The Patella
The Tibia and Fibula: Anterior
Figure 7.16a The Anterior Tibia and Fibula
The Tibia and Fibula: Posterior
Figure 7.16d The Posterior Tibia and Fibula
The Ankle and Foot
• Seven tarsal bones make up the ankle.
• The five metatarsal bones articulate with
the distal tarsal bones and make up the
arches of the foot.
• The fourteen phalanges of the foot make
up the toe bones.
The Ankle and Foot
3 Arches

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