Presentation (PowerPoint)

Report
19360 Business Center Drive
Northridge, CA 91324
www.ITSamerica.com
Transitioning from NTSC (analog)
to HD Digital Video Volume 2
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 1
A Review
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 2
Translating between Analog NTSC & SD/HD-SDI
Composite Analog
Video
6 MHz Bandwidth
1.53.0 GB/Sec
Bit Stream
At the SDI source
At the end of a 100 meter cable
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 3
Translating between Analog & SD/HD-SDI
Attribute
Analog Video
SDI Digital Video
Raw Video
Complex AM, FM and phase modulated signal
requiring 6 MHz bandwidth
Serial encoded bit stream at bit rates from
270 Mbits/s to 3000 Mbits/sec
Sync
Pedestal and color burst sync areas scaled
generally below the black level
A reserved bit patterns (SAV & EAV) defined by
SMPTE in the SDI stream
A predetermined voltage level in the video
signal
ANC space between EAV & SAV is Horizontal
“blanking” data space, ANC space between SAV
and EAV from first line to line 40 (1080) or 25
(720) is Vertical “blanking” data space.
Blanking
Active Video
Frame/Field
Rate
An AM signal with overlaid phase modulated
color information
480 scan lines/frame
RS 170 60Hz /30 Hz Field/Frame RS170A (NTSC)
59.94 (60/1.001)
CCIR 50Hz /25Hz field/frame
Progressive and Interlaced
A stream of image samples between SAV & EAV
from 640 (SD) to 1920 (1080) and scan lines from
480(SD) to 1080 (1080)
4
Many from 24.975 to 60 Hz and beyond
Progressive and Interlaced
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 4
Digital Video Resolution
Resolution is 3-Dimensional
2 bits = 4 colors
•
•
•
Horizontal Lines per Frame
Pixels per Line
Bits per Pixel (pixel depth)
4 bits = 16 colors
8 bits = 256 colors
24 bits = 16 million colors
Pictures from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_depth
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 5
HD Video Issues
Raw Video = high bit rates
 720p/60, 1080i/30, 1080p/30 = 1.485 gigabits /sec
 1080p/60 = 2.97 gigabits/sec
Transport
 Raw video high bit rates limits transport distances
• Via Coax < 200 meters
• Via Fiber < 30Km
Raw Video = lots of data
 One 1080 frame = 2,475,000 pixels
 One pixel = 20 bits (4:2:2 subsampling) or 24 bits RGB
 One 1080 frame = 6,187,500 to 7,425,000 bytes of data
 1080p/60 = 371,250,000 to 445,500,000 bytes/second
Subsampling reduces bytes/frame
 4:2:2 subsampling saves ≈ 16%
• Similar in concept to analog
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 6
Raw HD Video = High Bit Rates
Compression
 Reduces Bit Rate
• MPEG 2 20:1 to 30:1 (1080p > 18,562,500 to 12,375,000 bytes/sec)
• H.264 30:1 to 100:1 (1080p > 12,375,000 to 3,712,500 bytes/sec)
• JPEG 2000 10:1 to 30:1 (1080p > 37,125,000 to 18,562,500 bytes/sec)
 Extends transport distances
• H.264 enables broadcast of HD-SDI over GigE networks.
 Compromises image quality
•
•
•
•
Loss of background detail
frame drops
freeze frames
pixelization
 Introduces Latency
• 70 ms > several seconds
 Splits data space from video
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 7
Volume 2 Focus
HD Video Data Spaces
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 8
Analog Video Data Spaces
Vertical Blanking Space
A few lines above the visible image
Contains
• VITC
• Closed Captioning
• Teletext
• Billing data
• Copy protection & V-chip data
• ≈240 bytes per frame
Edge Encoding (non-broadcast)
Steals a bit of each video scan line
Supports 1 bits/line
60 bytes per frame
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 9
HD-SDI Frame (720p) & Metadata Space
720p Video
VANC Space 25 Lines * 1280 samples
Cinema & broadcast generally only use lines 14-15 for scene switch & closed captioning
EAV
>3000 data items
Example Packets
• 16 channel
audio snippets
• Film Codes
• Payload data
• Workflow data
• Copyright data
• V-chip data
• Billing data
• Logging Info
SAV
CRC
Line Count
EAV
HANC Space
370 Samples x 750
Buffer Space Lines 746-750
HANC
1280 luma samples
1650 luma samples
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 10
HD-SDI Frame (1080i/p) & Metadata Space
VANC Space 40 Lines * 1920 samples
Cinema & broadcast generally only use lines 14-15 for scene switch & closed captioning
1080i/1080p
EAV
>3000 data items
Example Packets
• 16 channel
audio snippets
• Film Codes
• Payload data
• Workflow data
• Copyright data
• V-chip data
• Billing data
• Logging Info
SAV
CRC
Line Count
EAV
HANC)Space
280 samp * 1125
Buffer Space Lines 1121-1125
HANC
1920 luma samples
2200 luma samples
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 11
Metadata Packets
Many Types Defined by SMPTE
 Dictionary
•
•
•
•
Keys
Data content
Format
Metadata Elements Dictionary

RP210 Version 13 of this registry contains more than 3200 data types.
SMPTE KLV Pack= Defined Structure Ancillary Packet
 K=key (16 byte word)
 L=length (1 byte)
 V=(1-235 bytes of data); any data
 HANC KLV Pack; Type 01
 VANC KLV Pack; Type 02
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 12
HD-SDI KLV Type 02 VANC Packets
VANC -KLV Pack is a SMPTE Structure
 SMPTE Standard 291M
• Wrappers (ADF signature bytes)
• KLV Type identifiers (DID and SSID)

VANC = Type 02
• Length (DC)
 SMPTE RP210 defines >3000 keys
MISB uses the Type 02 KLV Ancillary Data Packet
 More than 900 keys
• Most derived from UAV needs
• Groups of variables

Pointing angles, gimbal angles, velocities may be all one chain of data
 Dictionary is MISB Standard 0807.10
• See http://www.gwg.nga.mil/misb/stdpubs.html
 Microsecond Timestamp is one particular MISB Dictionary Item
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 13
KLV = Game Change
KLV Value = Memory Space
 Binary Data
 ASCII Characters
 Integers, signed and unsigned
 Single Precision
 Double precision
 Any other meaning of binary data
HD Data Rate 1000x
 Analog offered < 2,000 bytes/sec
 HD offers up to data rate = 1,776,600 bytes/sec
•
•
•
•
@ 60 FPS * 235 bytes = 14,100 bytes/second data rate capacity per KLV packet
One line can hold 3-7 packets
1080p has ≈ 18 lines free
Data rate = 18*7*14100 = 1,776,600 bytes/sec
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 14
KLV = Game Change
KLV as transport
 @ 14Kb/sec each pack can move data point to point along with video
• Could be video related
• Could be unrelated information
• Could be cipher (secure)
 Can have multiple unrelated data streams (one in each KLV pack)
KLV Bound to Video
 Video related data
• Pointing angles
• Camera/Lens settings
• Situational Awareness
 Frame-to-Frame correspondence is exact & permanent
Record Clean Video
 Embed data traditionally on overlay in KLV, once per frame
 Display what is needed, when needed, where on the frame and in a useful color
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 15
Geodetic Datum
Camera ID
Run Number
Camera placement
Classification
H resolution
Temp
V Resoluiton
Pressure
Image bit depth
humidity
Encoding
wind speed
Image mode
direction
How many KLV packs are needed?
Integration time
Mount ID
Trigger time
 Example: ITS Proposed “Instrumentation Pack”
Camera ID
Time offset
Camera placement
• 41 data items
Timestamp mode
H resolution
Frame Rate

Pointing Angles up to 24 bit resolution
V Resoluiton
Lens ID
Image bit depth

Ranges as SP values of ±9.999999E±16
Zoom factor
Encoding
Test ID

64 bit time stamps
Units
Image mode
DAS Time
Focus setting
Integration time

Five 10 ASCII character fields
Geodetic Datum
azimuth
Trigger time
Run Number
• 170 Bytes TOTAL!
elevation
Time offset
Classification
Mount angles timestamp
Timestamp mode
Temp
Range
Frame Rate
Pressure
Range timestamp
ITS has developed Multi-KLV Pack Engine
Lens ID
humidity
Object(target) ID
Zoom factor
wind
speed
 2 KLV packs available as memory space
Tsens AZ
Units
direction
Tsens EL
• 470 bytes to hold information
Focus setting
Mount ID
Tsens Range
azimuth
Camera ID
 User can invoke 1, 2 or none dynamically Camera placement elevation
Tx
Ty
Mount angles timestamp
H resolution
 User can extract “V” on command
Tz
Range
V Resoluiton
Tspeed
 User can monitor during write
Range timestamp
Image bit depth
T-Heading
Object(target) ID
Encoding
 User can display at destination
Ttemp
Tsens AZ
Image mode
Transitioning From NTSCIntegration
to SDI Digital
Tsens EL
time Video
Copyright
ITS
2013
Sheet 16
Tsens Range
October 24,2013
Trigger time
Tx
Time offset
KLV = Game Change
 All of this data fits in a single KLV pack
V2.0 ITS HD-SDI Insertion Engine
SAV
Line 9
Pack 0
Microsecond Timestamp
Can turn off
Fixed MISB Format
Always first pack
Option Pack 1
Data block
Can turn on or off
Can be any data from 1-235 bytes
Basic decoder ;
ASCII, Integer, decimal
Option Pack 2
Data block
Can turn on or off
Can be any data from 1-235 bytes
Basic decoder ;
ASCII, Integer, decimal
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 17
ITS KLV Tool Kit
Use a MISB key or Create with the ITS KeyTemplate©
 Excel worksheet
 Export design to ‘CSV’
 Distribute design to all stakeholders
Build a 16 byte key
K ey (HE X )
L eng th (B ytes )
F ield C ount
Create Fields &
F ie ld R e f Name
F ie ld
Numbe r
T es t ID
D AS T ime
G eodetic D atum
R un Number
C las s ific ation
T emp
P res s ure
humidity
wind s peed
direc tion
Field Ref Name
Focus setting
azimuth
elevation
57414A19360A00017F 44A0904F 013AAB
0
200
E s t. D is play P roc es s T ime
45
6.4 mS ec
Assign Data Types O K for 60 F P S .
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Field
Number
27
28
29
S tart
B yte
P ad
1
11
19
20
21
31
33
35
36
37
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
F ormat
Input
LEN
AS C II
B inary
B inary
B inary
AS C II
UI-MAX
UI-MAX
UI-MAX
UI-MAX
UI-W Z
OK
Plan what fields would be displayed
Time
Qualified Plan to
Resolution Budget
Length Show
(uS)
100
10
Y
20
8
Y
20
1
Y
20
1
Y
100
10
Y
.002
500
2
N
.00
500
2
N
.4
500
1
N
.8
500
1
N
L en
R ang e
10
8
1
1
10
2
2
1
1
2
1-234
1-225
1-217
1-216
1-215
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
Choose how fields would be displayed
Start
Byte
Pad
Before
This Byte
87
0
89
0
93
1
Format Input LEN
UI-MAX
UI-MAX
SI-MAX
2
3
3
Len
Range
1-4
1-4
1-4
Full Scale Decimal
Value
Places
1024
360
180
0
8
8
Display Model
1024.
359.99997854
+/-179.99997854
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 18
ITS KLV Tool Kit
Insert
 GUI imports ‘CSV’
• Prepares List of Fields

User selects what fields to display

Selects row/column locations
 GUI forms complete commands to
• Load “decoder ring”
• Set display locations
 Input your data via Ethernet port
 Transport data via SDI video stream
Your Data
SDI Video
w/KLV Data
CSV of
KLV
design
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 19
ITS KLV Tool Kit
Display
 GUI imports ‘CSV’
• Prepares List of Fields

User selects what fields to display

Selects row/column locations
SDI Video
w/KLV Data
 GUI forms complete commands to
• Load “decoder ring”
• Set display locations
Your
Data
 Select Fields to Display and Where
 May monitor at write time, display at destination
CSV of
KLV
design
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 20
ITS KLV Tool Kit
Test Your Design
 Test GUI imports ‘CSV’
•
•
•
•
Prepares an input form
Input test data
Set repetition rate
Start test
CSV of
KLV
design
 View decoded data in overlay
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
October 24,2013
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 21
Check List
KLV packs in SDI are a game changer
 KLV Packs can
•
•
•
•
Transport data
Move cipher blocks
Enable recording of clean video
Maintain alignment of imagery and data
 Video Encoders/Decoders Must Preserve VANC end-to-end
 SDI Recorders must
• Preserve VANC at record time
• Restore VANC at playback time
 Video Archiving must preserve VANC
 ITS toolkit
•
•
•
•
•
October 24,2013
Create KLV
Insert your data
Monitor your data
Display your data
Test your KLV design
Transitioning From NTSC to SDI Digital Video
Copyright ITS 2013
Sheet 22

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