What is Bone Mineral Density (BMD)? What does a BMD test measure? What do BMD scores mean? •Bone Mineral Density (BMD) determines your bone health, the amount of minerals, mainly calcium in your bones. •Proper mineral amounts keep your bones healthy and strong. •The test used to determine BMD can identity osteoporosis and determine risk for fractures (broken bones). •It measures the density, or thickness, or your bones. •The BMD test shows where you compare to the norm/people with healthy bone mineral density. Level Normal Osteopenia (Low bone mass ) Osteoporosis Severe osteoporosis (Established) Definition Bone density is within 1 Standard Deviation (SD) (+1 or −1) of the mean. Bone density is between 1 and 2.5 SD below the mean (−1 to −2.5 SD). Bone density is 2.5 SD or more below the mean (−2.5 SD or lower). Bone density is more than 2.5 SD below the mean, and there have been one or more osteoporotic fractures. What is the difference between Low Bone Mass and Osteoporosis? •Low bone mass can be caused by many factors such as: genetics/heredity; the development of less-than-optimal peak bone mass during youth; a medical condition or medication to treat such a condition that negatively affects bone; estrogen deficiency, and/or abnormally accelerated bone loss. •Not everyone who has low bone mass will develop osteoporosis, but everyone with low bone mass is at higher risk for the condition and resulting fractures. How can I help slow down bone loss and prevent osteoporosis? •Eating foods rich in calcium and vitamin D (milk, soy milk, light yogurt, fortified orange juice, almonds, broccoli, dark green lettuces.). •Taking a vitamin pill with calcium and vitamin D. •Doing weight bearing exercise such as walking, running or lifting weights. •In some cases, a doctor may recommend medication to prevent or treat osteoporosis. What should I do if I have osteoporosis? What are the treatments for osteoporosis? We do not currently have a doctor – what should I do? •You should consult your doctor to determine if the doctor recommends medication. •Request a vitamin D test from your doctor, and take a vitamin D supplement based on your doctor’s recommendation. •Following the healthy habits above will help as well. •There is no cure for osteoporosis, but there are steps that can be taken to prevent, slow or stop its progress including getting enough calcium and vitamin D. •Normalizing serum vitamin D levels. •It is important you see the doctor, because they may prescribe a medication to either slow or stop bone loss or rebuild bone. •SO Program insert here where they direct athletes.