1. 2. 3. a) b) c) d) e) Howard Gardner developed the theory of Multiple Intelligences and defines 8 different Intelligence Types. Name and define the type you think best describes you and why. The text defines 3 different types of learning styles. Name the Learning Style you think best describes how you learn and why. BONUS! Victor is not very structured, doesn’t like timelines, delays decisions, and plays before his work is done. Victor is a: Thinker Judger Perceiver Introvert Feeler Chapter Seven: Learn Don’t know, and don’t know they don’t know Know, and know they know Don’t know, and know they don’t know Know, but don’t know they know Dominant Intelligence + Preferred Learning Style +Personality Type = Active Learner A cognitive mental action Can be conscious and/or unconscious ◦ Examples? Can be formal (book smarts) or informal (street smarts) ◦ Examples? Can be done in many ways ◦ Examples? Case study (Confucius – 5th Centry BC): ◦ Storytelling and discussion Active learning (Lao-Tse – 4th Century BC): ◦ Experience-based learning Socratic method (Socrates – 300 BC): ◦ Learning by asking questions to stimulate critical thinking Dialectic method (Plato): ◦ Learning by dialog – “The Searcher” and “The Expert” Sensory learning (John Locke - 1690): ◦ Born a “blank slate” – we learn what our senses bring us Learning styles (Rousseau - 1760): Behaviorism (Watson – early 1900s): Holistic learning (Piaget – mid 1900s): Mastery learning (Bloom - 1956): ◦ People learn best by experiencing rather than being told how to do things. ◦ Learning should follow our basic instincts ◦ Learning through conditioned response (Pavlov’s dog) ◦ We act and learn in certain ways because we’ve been conditioned to do so. ◦ Learning through experiencing a wide variety of stimuli – Reading, listening, experimenting, etc. ◦ transforming simple information to new, complex ideas 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Motivation to learn the Material – you must WANT to learn the material first. Understand the material – you should be able to describe/discuss it – put it in your own words. Internalize the material by asking – how does it affect me? Why is it important? Apply the material by asking – How can I improve myself with this information? How do I practice what I’m learning? Evaluate the material – determine it’s value? Is the research/source reliable? Use the material – to grow and change. Professor Howard Gardner (1983) Eight intelligences everyone possesses Not equal to traditional I.Q. measurement Dominant intelligences are more welldeveloped Other intelligences less-developed – but can be improved with practice and hard work. Visual/spatial – “picture smart” Verbal/linguistic – “word smart” Musical/rhythmatic – “music smart” Logical/mathematical – “number smart” Body/kinesthetic – “body smart” Interpersonal – “people smart” Intrapersonal – “self smart” Naturalistic – “environment smart” How do you best process information? Three styles: Visual – “eye smart” Auditory – “ear smart” Tactile/kinestetic – “action smart” Taking the lead Visual Learners Auditory Learners Tactile Learners ◦ Start with the big picture, then examine the smaller details ◦ Review a piece of information, close your eyes and try to visualize it ◦ Draw pictures to help you visualize information ◦ Color-code with highlighters ◦ Where acceptable, record class and listen to the lecture again later. ◦ Remember details by trying to “hear” previous discussions in your mind. ◦ Participate in class discussion. ◦ Master material/skill via imitation and practice ◦ Study in 20 minute intervals, then take a 5 min break ◦ Sit up front and take notes to stay focused Learning style = how you best process information Learning strategy = how you choose to study Dominant intelligence = well-developed aspect of intelligence Personality type = your preferences and patterns Carl Jung (1921) and Isabell Briggs-Myers and Kathernine Briggs (1942) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Human behavior is not random and patterns are caused by individual motivation and energies Four major categories of personality 1. 2. 3. 4. Where you draw your energy How you learn and deal with information How you make decisions Lifestyle Extroverts (E)– draw strength others and prefer to live in the outside world. Outgoing and love interaction and being the center of attention Introverts (I) – draw strength from their inner world. Need alone time to energize. Often quiet and reflective. Make decisions by themselves and are private Sensers (S) – gather information through five senses. Like concrete facts and details. Have common sense. Focused on “what is” Intuitives (N) – not as detail-oriented. Rely on gut feelings. Innovative and see possibilities. Focused on “what could be”. Thinkers (T) – logical people. Analytical and do not make decisions based on emotion. Can sometimes be seen as insensitive and lacking compassion. Make decisions with head v. heart Feelers (F) – like harmony and consider others’ opinions and feelings. Usually tactful and warm. Make decisions with heart v. head Judgers (J) – orderly people who prefer structure in their lives. Good at setting goals and sticking to them. Work before play. Perceivers (P) – less structured and more spontaneous. Overextend themselves and do not like timelines. Play before work. ISTJ – “the dutiful” ISFJ – “the nurturer” INFJ – “the protector” INTJ – “the scientist” ISTP – “the mechanic” ISFP – “the artist” INFP – “the idealist” INTP – “the thinker” ESTP – “the thinker” ESFP – “the performer” ENFP – “The inspirer” ENTP – “the visionary” ESTJ – “the guardian” ESFJ – “the caregiver” ENFJ – “the giver” ENTJ – “the executive” Get involved in a variety of learning and social situations Use your less dominant areas in order to strengthen them Read more about personality typing and learning styles Surround yourself with others who learn differently than you Try new ways of learning and studying By understanding how you process information, you can dramatically your ability to learn.