Chapter 7

Report
1.
2.
3.
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Howard Gardner developed the theory of Multiple
Intelligences and defines 8 different Intelligence
Types. Name and define the type you think best
describes you and why.
The text defines 3 different types of learning styles.
Name the Learning Style you think best describes
how you learn and why.
BONUS! Victor is not very structured, doesn’t like
timelines, delays decisions, and plays before his
work is done. Victor is a:
Thinker
Judger
Perceiver
Introvert
Feeler
Chapter Seven:
Learn
Don’t know, and
don’t know they don’t
know
Know, and know they
know
Don’t know, and
know they don’t know
Know, but don’t know
they know

Dominant
Intelligence +
Preferred
Learning Style
+Personality
Type = Active
Learner


A cognitive mental action
Can be conscious and/or unconscious
◦ Examples?

Can be formal (book smarts) or informal
(street smarts)
◦ Examples?

Can be done in many ways
◦ Examples?

Case study (Confucius – 5th Centry BC):
◦ Storytelling and discussion

Active learning (Lao-Tse – 4th Century BC):
◦ Experience-based learning

Socratic method (Socrates – 300 BC):
◦ Learning by asking questions to stimulate critical
thinking

Dialectic method (Plato):
◦ Learning by dialog – “The Searcher” and “The Expert”

Sensory learning (John Locke - 1690):
◦ Born a “blank slate” – we learn what our senses bring us

Learning styles (Rousseau - 1760):

Behaviorism (Watson – early 1900s):

Holistic learning (Piaget – mid 1900s):

Mastery learning (Bloom - 1956):
◦ People learn best by experiencing rather than being told
how to do things.
◦ Learning should follow our basic instincts
◦ Learning through conditioned response (Pavlov’s dog)
◦ We act and learn in certain ways because we’ve been
conditioned to do so.
◦ Learning through experiencing a wide variety of stimuli –
Reading, listening, experimenting, etc.
◦ transforming simple information to new, complex ideas
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Motivation to learn the Material – you must
WANT to learn the material first.
Understand the material – you should be able to
describe/discuss it – put it in your own words.
Internalize the material by asking – how does it
affect me? Why is it important?
Apply the material by asking – How can I
improve myself with this information? How do I
practice what I’m learning?
Evaluate the material – determine it’s value? Is
the research/source reliable?
Use the material – to grow and change.


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

Professor Howard Gardner (1983)
Eight intelligences everyone possesses
Not equal to traditional I.Q. measurement
Dominant intelligences are more welldeveloped
Other intelligences less-developed – but can
be improved with practice and hard work.



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Visual/spatial – “picture smart”
Verbal/linguistic – “word smart”
Musical/rhythmatic – “music smart”
Logical/mathematical – “number smart”
Body/kinesthetic – “body smart”
Interpersonal – “people smart”
Intrapersonal – “self smart”
Naturalistic – “environment smart”

How do you best process information?

Three styles:
 Visual – “eye smart”
 Auditory – “ear smart”
 Tactile/kinestetic – “action smart”

Taking the lead

Visual Learners

Auditory Learners

Tactile Learners
◦ Start with the big picture, then examine the smaller details
◦ Review a piece of information, close your eyes and try to
visualize it
◦ Draw pictures to help you visualize information
◦ Color-code with highlighters
◦ Where acceptable, record class and listen to the lecture
again later.
◦ Remember details by trying to “hear” previous discussions
in your mind.
◦ Participate in class discussion.
◦ Master material/skill via imitation and practice
◦ Study in 20 minute intervals, then take a 5 min break
◦ Sit up front and take notes to stay focused



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Learning style = how you best process
information
Learning strategy = how you choose to study
Dominant intelligence = well-developed
aspect of intelligence
Personality type = your preferences and
patterns

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Carl Jung (1921) and Isabell Briggs-Myers and
Kathernine Briggs (1942)
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Human behavior is not random and patterns
are caused by individual motivation and
energies
Four major categories of personality
1.
2.
3.
4.
Where you draw your energy
How you learn and deal with information
How you make decisions
Lifestyle


Extroverts (E)– draw strength others and
prefer to live in the outside world.
Outgoing and love interaction and being
the center of attention
Introverts (I) – draw strength from their
inner world. Need alone time to
energize. Often quiet and reflective.
Make decisions by themselves and are
private


Sensers (S) – gather information through five
senses. Like concrete facts and details. Have
common sense. Focused on “what is”
Intuitives (N) – not as detail-oriented. Rely on
gut feelings. Innovative and see possibilities.
Focused on “what could be”.


Thinkers (T) – logical people. Analytical and
do not make decisions based on emotion.
Can sometimes be seen as insensitive and
lacking compassion. Make decisions with
head v. heart
Feelers (F) – like harmony and consider
others’ opinions and feelings. Usually tactful
and warm. Make decisions with heart v. head


Judgers (J) – orderly people who prefer
structure in their lives. Good at setting goals
and sticking to them. Work before play.
Perceivers (P) – less structured and more
spontaneous. Overextend themselves and do
not like timelines. Play before work.
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ISTJ – “the dutiful”
ISFJ – “the nurturer”
INFJ – “the protector”
INTJ – “the scientist”
ISTP – “the
mechanic”
ISFP – “the artist”
INFP – “the idealist”
INTP – “the thinker”

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ESTP – “the thinker”
ESFP – “the performer”
ENFP – “The inspirer”
ENTP – “the visionary”
ESTJ – “the guardian”
ESFJ – “the caregiver”
ENFJ – “the giver”
ENTJ – “the executive”

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Get involved in a variety of learning and social
situations
Use your less dominant areas in order to
strengthen them
Read more about personality typing and
learning styles
Surround yourself with others who learn
differently than you
Try new ways of learning and studying
By understanding how you process
information, you can dramatically your ability
to learn.

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