Chapter 7- Balancing Nationalism and Sectionalism 1812-1838 The Industrial Revolution Let’s look at the preview questions: 1. How do you think new inventions of the Industrial Revolution might further divide North and South? 2. Predict what types of things might have been done to lessen tensions. 3. Are there still tensions between different regions? What are they? The North The North: becomes more industrialized The Lowell Factory – Lowell, MA exemplified the changes brought on by the Indust. Revolution Booming manufacturing center Opportunities for women The North Farmers in the North had little motivation to use slaves. crops did not require labor to grow many began to speak out against slavery Most northern states abolish slavery by 1804 The South The Cotton Gin: patented by Eli Whitney in 1793 Turned much of the South into a “Cotton Kingdom” Tied the North and the South together economically Effect on slavery? Increases from 700,000 to 1,200,000 from 1790-1810 The American System James Madison tries to unite the country Proposes a plan to tie all regions together through transportation, tariffs, and a national bank Henry Clay calls it the American System The National Road and Erie Canal Early forms of railroad to connect the regions of the country National Road built in 1811. Eventually extends from Maryland to Illinois. Erie Canal (completed in 1825) connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes The “Era of Good Feelings” Tariff of 1816 American products more expensive than foreign goods Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun helped gain support for the tariff National Bank James Monroe elected in 1816- the “Era of Good Feelings” What could historians call the political era of today? Discuss with partner. America: The Story of US Add details to your notes as you watch. Section 2- Nationalism at Center Stage Robert Fulton’s steamboat-1807 150 miles up the Hudson in 32 hours Method of transportation spread quickly to different regions Helped unite economic life of the North and South Supreme Court Boosts National Power Gibbons v. Ogden 1824-Supreme Court Case Aaron Ogden- worked for Fulton’s steamboat service Claimed only he could run a steamboat service on the Hudson Thomas Gibbons began running a steamboat serviceOgden sues and takes him to court Court rules with Gibbons-interstate commerce could only be regulated by fed. Government Long term- government can regulate ANYTHING that crosses state lines. Supreme Court Boosts National Power McCulloch v Maryland 1819-Supreme Court Case Maryland had levied a high tax on the local branch of the National Bank of the U.S.- hoped to make it fail Court ruled against Maryland and claimed the National Bank to be constitutional. One of many cases that strengthened the federal government. Chief Justice John Marshall (in office 1801-1835) Nationalism helps shape foreign policy Nationalism National interests should be placed ahead of regional concerns and foreign interests. Strongly supported by President James Monroe and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams John Quincy Adams Nationalism Nationalism- Good or Bad? Somewhere in between? Talk to your partner about this. Nationalism vs. Patriotism “Nationalism is the habit of assuming that human beings can be classified like insects and that whole blocks of millions or tens of millions of people can be confidently labeled 'good' or 'bad‘” -George Orwell He goes on to make the differentiation between “nationalism” and “patriotism.” Patriotism, Orwell states, is harmless. It is a love of native culture, and the patriot has no need to impose that culture on others. But history is indeed littered with examples of triumphal nationalism, the notion of the nation as a claim to superiority. When Does Nationalism Become Dangerous? Nationalism Is saying the pledge of allegiance in schools going too far with Nationalism? Territory and Boundaries John Quincy Adams- Sec. of State Accomplishments 1817- U.S. and Canada demilitarize their common border. 1818- compromised with Britain to jointly rule Oregon territory. Adams-Onis Treaty 1819- Spain, too weak to manage colonies, cedes Florida to the U.S. Territory and Boundaries The Monroe Doctrine 1823 Developments in Europe lead to interests in Latin American colonies by European nations. The Monroe Doctrine 1823 Message to Congress by President Monroe Warns European nations not to interfere with affairs in the Western Hemisphere U.S. would consider such action “dangerous to our peace and safety.” The U.S. would not interfere in European affairs or existing colonies. GO WEST! Westward Expansion 1817-1830s Americans headed to the Northwest Territory (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan) Most went for economic gains The Missouri Compromise The Missouri Compromise-1820 When population of a territory reached 60,000 its people could petition for statehood In 1819, there were 11 free states and 11 slave states Missouri petitions for statehood in 1819- slave or free? Hostilities between North and South over Missouri Henry Clay proposes the Missouri Compromise: 1. Maine- admitted as a free state; Missouri- slave state 2. 36 30’ line established for Louisiana Territory-slavery legal south of the line ; illegal north of the line except Missouri The Missouri Compromise Discuss with your partner how the Missouri Compromise was a victory for both the North and South. Predict how the compromise could lead to future problems.