State of the Pacific 2014 19 June 2014 Australian National University Glenda Stanley, Principal Cultural Diversity Officer Cultural Diversity Queensland | South East Queensland (South) 1 Pacific Island Peoples in Queensland Country of Birth is not a good indicator for Pasifika communities as a significant number were born in Australia and New Zealand Ancestry reveals that in 2011 there were over 96,000 claims of Pasifika ancestry (2.2% of the Queensland population) Of these groups Maori were the largest ancestral group, followed by Samoan, Papua New Guinea, Cook Islands, Fijian and Tongan Queensland has the largest Pasifika population in Australia Brisbane, Logan and Gold Coast are the LGAs with the largest numbers of Pasifika peoples in Queensland. One of the the most culturally diverse regions in Queensland with 26.7% (or over 200,000) of the population born overseas (c.f Queensland at 20.5%) Pasifika in Queensland and NSW* *Selected Pasifika Groups only Pasifika in South East Queensland (South) SEQS has a significant and growing Pasifika community • 215 ethnic communities in Logan City (Logan City Council 2013) • Samoan is the most frequently spoken non-English language in Logan City • Pasifika students comprise more than 50% of the student population at some schools in South East Queensland. • This includes a significant number of people of Pasifika heritage who are New Zealand citizens. • Logan City has the highest number of humanitarian refugees in Queensland Post-Secondary Pathways for Pacific Island Young People in South East QLD Dr Judith Kearney & Dr Matthew Glen [email protected] [email protected] School of Education & Professional Studies Research Focus • Where do young people go after secondary school? • What differences emerge for these young people based on citizenship (NZ compared with Australian), ethnicity (PI/Maori compared with Caucasian)? • What are the main factors influencing post-secondary pathways for these young people? Methodology & Participants • Survey with 490 respondents – target group post-18 year olds attending church groups in the Brisbane, Logan, Ipswich, Gold Coast LGA. • 70% Pacific Islander/Maori (80% of these Samoan)– 26% Caucasian (control group). • One third from low SES suburbs (SEIFA index) • Focus groups (4) with PI groups and selected individual interviews. • Trained pool of young co-facilitators who lead focus groups in selected locations. What we know about education outcomes for PI young people. Majority (90%) are completing Year 12. Just over half (54%) have certificate level qualifications (Cert I-IV). Higher level of certificate qualifications (54% to 30%) than Caucasian group • Low completion rate of tertiary diploma/degree qualifications: NZ PI …… AUST PI ……… Caucasian group.. 10% 21% 37% Type of education or training by citizenship and ethnicity Type of education or NZ & PI/M training N=243 AUS & PI/M N=125 AUS & Caucasian N=121 None undertaken 76% 60.5% 40% Trainee/cadetship 4.5% 4% 2% Apprenticeship 4% 1.5% 3% TAFE cert/diploma 11.5% 21% 10% Undergrad. degree 7% 13% 42% Post-grad. degree - 1% 5% University participation rates are significantly lower for all PI groups whether NZ or AUST citizens. AUST PI more likely to be engaged in training pathways than their peers. What we know about employment outcomes for PI young people. Employment status Full-time work (> 36+ hrs per week) Part-time work (< 25 hrs per week) Not employed as fulltime student Not employed – looking for work Not employed – NOT looking for work Not able to work NZ & PI/M N=243 AUS & PI/M N=125 AUS & Caucasian N=121 44% 30.5% 35% 28% 25% 39% 5.5% 7% 9% 20.5% 23.5% 11% 1% 8% 2.5% 1% - - 1% 5% 3.5% Other AUST PI young people have lowest level of work engagement and marginally higher level of unemployment than their NZ PI peers. What we know about factors influencing PI young people in education & career choices? Rotated Component Matrix I am very interested or motivated to continue my education I have plans to undertake further education or training for my career I feel confident to undertake further education I think it is important for my future to obtain as much education as possible Positive attitudes 0.834 0.820 0.816 0.748 I believe I have the ability to be successful with further study I want to improve my qualifications by further study I know how to obtain advice on the career that best suits my skills I am unable to continue with further education due to a lack of finances Further education is too expensive for me My parents expect me to work to help with family finances Many of my friends have continued with their education after high school 0.730 0.707 0.539 In my family, studying after Year 12 is considered very important In high school, my teachers encouraged me to continue my education. Other members of my family have completed further education Cronbach’s Alpha 0.312 Negative attitudes Important others 0.272 0.914 0.899 0.807 0.700 .872 .850 0.688 0.681 0.680 .658 Whilst most PI young people have positive attitudes towards education, their level of participation is largely influenced by financial constraints – a combination of HECS ineligibility for NZ PI and parental expectations about putting work before education. What we know about context factors that support and constrain PI young people + Plus + • Some young people highly motivated to become successful in improving career options. • Small number of parents very supportive and willing to sacrifice to assist who were studying. • Strong positive influence and encouragement of peers, friends, teachers and church leaders. • Those ‘first in family’ to attend university felt pressure to fulfil expectations – skilled mentors have critical role in first year. - Minus • Parental expectations were very high, and somewhat unrealistic, for those studying and caused distress if outcomes were less than expected. • Many parents had difficulty understanding the higher education environment and often limited by poor English language skills – communication complexity. • Poor study environment in the home and lack of appreciation about the time demands for tertiary level study. • PI young people entering university are often under-prepared for tertiary study – fear of failure/shame.