Chapter 11 Developing Leadership Diversity 1

Report
Chapter 11
Developing Leadership Diversity
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"We may have different religions, different
languages, different colored skin, but we
all belong to one human race."
Kofi Annan
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Ethnocentrism
The belief that one’s own
culture and subculture are
inherently superior to other
cultures
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Biculturalism
The sociocultural skills
and attitudes used by
racial minorities as they
move back and forth
between the dominant
culture and their own
ethnic or racial culture
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Glass Ceiling
An invisible barrier that
separates women and minorities
from top leadership positions
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Diversity
Workforce Diversity
– A workforce made up of people with different human
qualities or who belong to various cultural groups
Diversity
– Differences among people in terms of age, ethnicity,
gender, race, or other dimensions
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Interactive Leadership
A leadership style in which people
develop personal relationships with
followers, share power and
information, empower employees,
and strive to enhance others’ feelings
of self-worth
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Social Value Systems
Power Distance
– How much people accept equality in power;
high power distance reflects an acceptance of
power inequality among institutions,
organizations, and individuals. Low power
distance means people expect equality in
power
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Power Distance
• Low Power Distance
• High Power Distance
– Uncomfortable with
differences in wealth,
status, power and
privilege
– Promote equal rights
– Emphasize
interdependence
– Inequality natural
– Superiors are special
and deserve special
privileges
– Obligated to take care
of subordinates
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Social Value Systems
Uncertainty Avoidance
– The degree to which members of a society
feel uncomfortable with uncertainty and
ambiguity and thus support beliefs and
behaviors that promise certainty and
conformity
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Uncertainty Avoidance
• High
– View uncertainty as a
threat
– Less tolerant
– Believe in written rules
– Seek security
– Give more weight to age
and seniority when
selecting leaders
– Managers seem
unapproachable
– Are more loyal
• Low
– Accept uncertainty as a
fact of life
– Experience less stress
– Take more risks
– Less concerned about
rules
– More likely to trust their
own judgment
– Emphasize interpersonal
relationships
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Social Value Systems
Individualism
– A value for a loosely knit social framework in
which individuals are expected to take care of
themselves
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Social Value Systems
Collectivism
– A preference for a tightly knit social framework
in which people look out for one another and
organizations protect their members’ interests
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Individualism-Collectivism
• Emphasizes needs and goals
of individual
• Respond to material rewards
• Decisions made by individuals
• Leader provides autonomy and
opportunities for growth
• Expect to be told of poor
performance
• Emphasizes group identity
• Prefer team rewards
• Expect mutual loyalty between
organizational leaders and
followers
• New ideas come from the
group
• Manage group behavior
through group norms and
social values
• Leaders nurture followers
• Prefer indirect criticism
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Social Value Systems
Masculinity
– A preference for achievement, heroism,
assertiveness, work centrality, and material
success
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Social Value Systems
• Femininity
– A preference for relationships, cooperation,
group decision making and quality of life.
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Masculinity-Femininity
• Men are assertive,
competitive,
ambitious and
dominant
• Members more
motivated by material
success
• “Live to work”
• Women are
encouraged to serve
• Are better at
interpersonal
relationships
• Put greater emphasis
on intuition
• “Work to live”
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Long-Term/Short-Term Orientation
• Encourage norms and
behaviors that lead to
future rewards
• Sacrifice immediate
gratification for long term
benefits
• Feelings of shame come
from violation of social
contracts and
commitments
• Status relationships
clearly defined
• Respect tradition
• Expect quick results
• Put much less importance
on persistence
• Spend freely and have
lower savings rates
• Under greater pressure to
demonstrate immediate
progress
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Generations
• Veterans: born between 1922 and 1943
(52 million born)
• Baby Boomers: born between 1944 and
1960 (73 million born)
• Generation X: born between 1961 and
1980 (70 million born)
• Generation Y: born between 1981 and
today (70 million born)
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Leadership Styles for Different
Generations
• Veterans
– Gain their trust
– Respect their experience
• Baby Boomers
– Show appreciation of work
– Involve in decision making
– Offer opportunities to serve as mentors
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Leadership Styles for Different
Generations
• Generation X
– Be truthful
– Respect sense of work/life balance
– Respect their experiences
• Generation Y
– Provide structure and leadership
– Clarify long-term goals
– Offer mentoring programs
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Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
… refers to a person’s ability to use
reasoning and observation skills to
interpret unfamiliar gestures and
situations and devise appropriate
behavioral responses.
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Ex. 11.5 Stages of
Personal Diversity
Awareness
Highest Level of Awareness
Integration
Multicultural attitude – enables one to
integrate differences and adapt both
cognitively and behaviorally
Adaptation
•Able to empathize with those of other
cultures
•Able to shift from one cultural perspective to
another
Acceptance
•Accepts behavioral differences and
underlying differences in values
•Recognizes validity of other ways of thinking
and perceiving the world
Minimizing Differences
•Hides or trivializes cultural differences
•Focuses on similarities among all
peoples
Defense
Perceives threat against one’s comfortable
worldview
Uses negative stereotyping
Assumes own culture superior
Lowest Level of Awareness
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Personal Qualities for Leading
Diverse People
• A personal, long-range vision that
recognizes and supports a diverse
organizational community.
• A broad knowledge of the dimensions of
diversity and awareness of multicultural
issues.
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Personal Qualities for Leading
Diverse People
• An openness to change themselves.
• Mentoring and empowerment of diverse
employees.
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