Sorghum Value Chain
Dr. E.K. Cheruiyot
KARI Thika, 18th June 2013
Enhancing sorghum production, processing and
marketing for improved small-holder incomes and
livelihoods in Kenya
Overall Project Objective
 To enhance sustainable sorghum production, processing and marketing
for improved incomes and livelihoods in Kenya
1) To improve small-holder sorghum production in Kenya
2) To link sorghum out-growers to a sustainable market
3) To enhance and promote sorghum post-harvest handling and
4) To increase marketing opportunities for sorghum and sorghum
5) To avail and share information targeting different categories of stakeholders in the sorghum value chain
6) To develop an IPM model for sorghum value chain
Collaborating Organizations
 Egerton University, Lead Organization
 University of Nairobi,
 Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University,
 SACRED Africa,
 KARI Biotechnology Centre
Industrial partners
 East Africa Breweries Ltd (EABL)
 Spectre International
 Nakuru Pattisserie Bakery
Focus of presentation
 Achievements
 Lessons learned
 Areas for deepening/up-scaling
Project funding
Total Project Cost - 3 Yrs; = (Ksh.) 23,955,300
Project Year 1 Cost; = (Ksh.) 11,046,150
Achievements for Year 1:
• Site selection and identification of farmerworking groups
 Project working sites identified:
 Rift Valley – Nakuru; Njoro, Rongai, Kampi Ya Moto (and KARI
 Nyanza - Spectre International (Kisumu)
 Eastern - Makueni; Kiboko, Kampi-ya-mawe and Kibwezi
• Base line study to identify production
– Baseline on status and constraints in sorghum
production done in Nakuru; covering Njoro and Rongai
Districts; and Siaya District
– Key outputs:
Sorghum production is low,
Constraints: i) access to seed and market, only 28% of
farmers had easy access to sorghum seed,
ii) High cost of inputs, credit facilities, post harvest
Opportunities: provision of improved sorghum varieties
• Evaluate and identify genotypes for baking,
brewing, ethanol production
• Evaluated 31 hybrids and 60 Lowland OPV and 40
Highland OPV- for yield and suitability for baking,
ethanol yield, malting & brewing.
Genotypes for Baking
• Identified genotypes: 5
for baking (at 12-16%
sorghum in sorghumwheat flour)
• Brown/red sorghum
(the 5 best)
• White sorghum
(better among
white sorghum)
Genotypes for Ethanol
• 25 sweet sorghum
genotypes were
evaluated for brix
content & ethanol yield
• 3 genotypes for ethanol
extraction - from stalk
juice (600-700 litres
ethanol per ha)
Sorghum stalk juice fermentation
Genotypes for Malting & Brewing
• 130 sorghum genotypes
evaluated for malting and
• 2 identified for brewing
(1hybrid = EU 27)
Yield potential 6.23 t/ha
( 1OPV = EU 52)
Yield potential 3.51 t/ha
Set up community based seed multiplication and
distribution centers
– Initiated in Siaya, so far the farmers
have produced 10 bags (≃ 1 ton) of
Develop and evaluate a cost effective method of
threshing and cleaning sorghum grain
– Portable Sorghum
Thresher machine
– Testing in the
workshop done
– Field use targeted
(October –
• Develop and test diverse products
– Lab analysis on baking attributes of 46 genotypes
– Results gave 5 best sorghum genotypes for bread
– Nakuru Pattisserie Bakery to be supplied with
grain to start baking and promotion of bread with
Marketing opportunities for sorghum products
• Conduct market research
– Market research done in Nakuru & Makueni
• Training and capacity building
– Training conducted on quality standards done in
Nakuru & Makueni
– Number of farmers trained were 72 in Makueni
and 69 in Nakuru
• Create linkages and partnerships on markets
– Initiated with EABL, and Scared Africa is in the
process of identifying other partners and markets
• Develop and implement a quality control
– Training farmers on quality standards done with farmers
in Nakuru & Makueni
– Brochure on quality control developed
– Quality control equipment to be given
• Develop a storage and transport system
– Each farmer-group to identify store,
– Do branding, renovation before quality control
equipment can be placed
Sharing information targeting different categories
of stake-holders in the sorghum value chain
• Develop information materials such as brochures
and fliers
▫ Some brochures produced and distributed, but this
task is continuous
• Hold demonstrations, workshops, conference
and field days
▫ Demonstrations were set-up in each site during the
two growing seasons (2011 & 2012),
▫ Field days conducted during the first season (2011)
• Publication on research findings, produce policy
briefs on sorghum
▫ 1 publication is out and 3 more in the review
• Conduct Monitoring and Evaluation
▫ Continuous
Overall Summary of Project Achievements
of Year 1:
• Establishment of base line information on sorghum
production status in Siaya, Nakuru and Makueni:
▫ Key highlights Information
▫ low sorghum production
▫ constraints among them being access to market and
quality seed.
• Mobilization of farmer-groups
▫ knowledge sharing
▫ participate in collective production and marketing
▫ Farmer-training on farmer organization for better
price bargains
Summary Achievements cont
• Evaluation of sorghum genotypes for targeted uses;
(malting and brewing, baking and ethanol yield)
▫ A total of 130 for malting & brewing , and baking
▫ 25 sweet sorghum for ethanol yield
▫ Malting & Brewing = 18 potential, 8 submitted to
EABL and 2 outstanding.
▫ Baking = out of 30 potential, 5 produced quality bread
▫ Ethanol = 25 evaluated and 3 potentially good with
600-700 litres ethanol per ha
2 Lessons Learned
a) Socio-cultural issues influence uptake a technology
– farmers with religious background opposed to
cultivating sorghum for brewing
b) Involving relevant stakeholders in development of
technology hasten achievement of results
c) Engaging students in project work hasten the
achievement of results and enhanced quality of
output. Future funding should consider a deliberate
inclusion of Masters’ degree students with adequate
Lessons learned cont.
• d) Confidence in engagement ; i) between project
financiers and project implementers, and ii)
amongst implementers (between collaborators).
 When flow of funds from KAPAP was temporarily halted,
some collaborators in this work almost pulled out and
their confidence went low.
 We have also realized that where there is close working
relationship, substantial achievement have been
registered and almost nil where a collaborator is less
involved in the team.
• This clearly show that there is need to cultivate and
build confidence among all players.
Future Plan
• i) We plan to avail sorghum seed for the identified
uses to both industry and farmers. Some are already
in the National Performance Trial, but we hope
KAPAP can facilitate our initiative to produce
breeder seed as we await certification
• ii) Sorghum bread need to be taken to the market.
We are waiting for the entrepreneur to start
production and will assist in promotion of the
• iii) Complete the other planned activities as
scheduled in the proposal
3) Areas for Deepening/up-scaling
• i) Sorghum seed production and availability
• Priority:
▫ EU 27, EU 52
▫ EU 110, EU 121,
▫ EU 11, EU 10, EU 17
• Multiply and produce breeder and foundation seeds
of identified genotypes to enhance seed availability
• Bulk the seed as Quality Declared Seed and
enhance adoption and access through linkages
with stakeholders
• Variety promotion – demonstration in major
target catchment
ii) Postharvest grain handling
• Grain quality status is of concern for the
industrial products entering market
• Its acceptable quality standards should be
upheld to allow for increase uptake in sorghum
production and marketing
• There is need to establish its quality status after
harvesting and determine conditions likely to be
detrimental, as a strategy for formulating
acceptable postharvest handling technologies
iii) Sorghum for feed
• To address the need for feed under mixed
farming set-up
• It’s an emerging need for both livestock farmers
and feed industry
• Strategy:
▫ Link farmers with feed manufacturers
▫ Promote silage technology for sorghum
KAPAP for financial support
Collaborators and Industrial partners
Ministry of Agriculture
Egerton University and collaborating institutions for
smooth implementation of the project

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