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chapter 4 Yields Class Name Instructor Name Date, Semester Foundations of Cost Control Daniel Traster Opening Questions You have a dinner party for 8 people. The onion tart calls for 4 oz of caramelized onions per person. How many pounds of onions should you order? 2# is not the answer You lose some weight in peeling and some during cooking as water evaporates 2 KEY TERMS As Purchased (AP) form (and measure) of a product as it comes from a purveyor. Edible Portion (EP) form (and measure) of a product after it has been prepped (in some cases, cooked) and waste or loss has been removed. For produce, EP usually refers to pre-cooked yield after trimming and knife work is done. Yield weight or volume of a product remaining after trim and waste are removed. In some cases, includes cooking loss. Yield percent (Y%) ratio of useable product that results on average during the preparation stage. Calculating Yield % 1. Weigh raw produce in AP form. 2. Process the product as you would for a recipe. 3. Weigh the EP result without the waste. 4. Calculate Y% (decimal form) = EP ÷ AP 4 Example 4a You process 17# of cauliflower and get 10# of florets. What is the yield %? EP % = = = 0.588 or 58.5% 5 Example 4b You process 8# of celery and are left with 6# 7oz for crudité. What is the yield %? Convert to all pounds or all ounces. 7 oz ÷ 16 = 0.4375, so 6#7oz = 6.4375# Y% = = = 0.805 or 80.5% 6 Notes on Y% for Produce • Y% changes with type of processing, even on the same vegetable or fruit. • Formula assumes trim is not used elsewhere; Y% is higher if waste is put to use. • Y% should remain consistent for similarly trained employees across days. • Y% for items portioned by count is 100%. • For “each” items bought in a size range assume the lowest number in the range. 7 EP-AP-Y% Graphic Formula EP AP x Y% 8 Example 4c How many oz of broccoli florets can you get from 10# of broccoli if the yield for florets is 68%? EP = AP X Y% = 10# X 0.68 = 6.8# 6.8# X 16 = 108.8 oz 9 Example 4d How many pounds of jicama should you purchase to get 4# of julienne jicama if Y% of julienne jicama is 88%? AP = = = 4.55# or 5# rounded When calculating AP quantity to purchase, always round up to ensure enough EP product 10 Example 4e A chef serves 3 oz portion of sliced beets per customer. She has 12# of AP beets in the walk-in, and Y% for sliced beets is 90%. How many guests can she serve? EP = AP X Y% = 12# X 0.90 = 10.8# 10.8# X 16 oz/# = 172.8 oz 172.8 oz ÷ 3 oz/guest = 57.6 or 57 guests When calculating number of portions, always round down. (Cannot serve a partial portion.) 11 AP vs. EP Cost Because you pay for edible product and its trim/waste when you purchase, the true EP cost of an ingredient is not the same as its AP cost unless the product has 100% yield AP cost (per unit) = AP$ EP cost (per unit) = EP$ 12 AP$-EP$-Y% Graphic Formula AP$ EP$ x Y% 13 Example 4f What is the EP cost per pound for radishes if a 10# case costs $14.40 and Y% is 86%? Cost per # = EP$ = = = $1.44/# = = $1.674 or $1.67/# 14 Example 4g What is the AP cost/# for heirloom tomatoes budgeted at $2.17/# EP cost with a 96% yield? AP$ = EP$ x Y% = $2.17/# x 0.96 = $2.08/# 15 Butcher’s Yield Test The Butcher’s Yield Test calculates EP weight and cost per # or oz. Differs from basic yield test because large cut of meat has by-products of different values (like buying a bag of unlabeled cuts of meat, but you only know the total cost for the bag). 16 Conducting Butcher’s Yield Test 1. Butcher a large cut of meat, keeping main item, byproducts, and scraps in separate piles. Record weight of each pile on spreadsheet. 2. Calculate percent of total weight that each item represents. 3. Research on a purveyor’s price list the price per pound for each useable by-product. 17 Conducting Butcher’s Yield Test 4. Calculate extension or total value of each by-product using the purveyor list price. 5. Calculate the value of the main item as total value of original cut minus value of all by-products. 6. Calculate cost per useable pound as value of main item ÷ weight of main item in pounds. Divide result by 16 to get cost per useable oz. 18 Conducting Butcher’s Yield Test 7. Determine cost multiplier as cost per useable pound ÷ AP cost per pound Cost multiplier (CM) allows chef to calculate cost per useable pound for this cut in the future as AP cost/# changes. To calculate new cost per useable pound in future, multiply new AP cost/# X CM 19 Example 4h Item: Turkey; Grade A. Weight: 16# 4 oz AP price/#: $0.79/# Total Cost: $12.84 Product Weight Step 1 % of total Purchase Step 2 price/# Step 3 Total Value Step 4 Thighs 2# 11oz 16.5% $0.58/# $1.56 Wings 1# 3oz 7.3% $0.42/# $0.50 Bones 7# 12oz 47.7% $0.39/# $3.02 Scraps 3oz 1.2% No value $0 Trimmed Breast 4# 7oz 27.3% $7.76 Step 5 Total 16# 4oz 100% $12.84 Cost per useable # Cost per useable oz Cost Mult. (CM) $1.75 Step 6 $0.11 Step 6 2.22 Step 7 Example 4i: Using the Cost Multiplier (CM) Turkey is now selling for $1.09/#. The cost multiplier for the breast meat is 2.22. What is the new cost per useable pound and per useable ounce for the breast meat. Cost/useable # = AP$/# x CM = $1.09÷ (# x 2.22) = $2.42/# Cost/useable oz = cost/useable # ÷ 16 = $2.42/# ÷ 16 = $0.15/oz 21 Notes on Butcher’s Yield Test • Cost per useable pound generates cost multiplier. • Cost per useable ounce helps determine cost per portion (usually known in oz). • CM allows chef to adjust cost/oz or # without redoing entire yield test. 22 Notes on Butcher’s Yield Test • Reasons to redo test: the butcher’s skill has changed or the price of by-products has changed significantly in relation to AP$ of whole cut. • Test results are relevant only to that cut with same specs. • Test allows chef to determine the better deal – butchering in-house or buying pre-fab. 23 Cooking and Trim Loss Tests Account for loss during cooking and during postcooking portioning. • Usually for large roasts • Irrelevant for items sold by pre-cooked weight • Cooking loss = oven-ready weight – cooked weight 24 Example 4k 12# 4oz roast cooks down to 10# 15oz fully cooked. Calculate cooked weight % and cooking loss % in relation to oven-ready roast. Percent = = = 0.893 or 89.3% Cooking loss % = 100% - 89.3% = 10.7% 25 Tips to Minimize Cooking Loss • Do not overcook • Cook at low temp for longer time period • Allow sufficient resting time before carving • Consider brining to increase meat’s original ovenready weight 26 Trim Loss • Mirrors butcher’s yield test except that the roast is already cooked • Portion available for service after trimming is called “saleable weight” • If all trim is lost as “waste,” the test is similar to the yield test for produce. • If trim is used elsewhere in the kitchen, the test is similar to the butcher’s yield test. 27 Example 4l Cooked roast weighs 8# 4oz, but 1# 8oz is lost during trimming. What is saleable weight as percent of cooked roast? Saleable weight = Cooked weight - Trim loss = 8.25# - 1.5# = 6.75# % = = = 0.818 or 81.8% 28 True EP$ = total cost ÷ saleable wt. 29 Example 4m A 6# 2oz roast cost $28.83 per butcher’s yield test. After cooking and trimming, saleable wt. is 4# 12oz. What is EP cost/oz? EP$/oz = total cost ($28.83) ÷ total oz (76 oz) = $0.38/oz 30 Useable Trim If trim from portioning is used elsewhere in the kitchen, the value of the trim must be deducted from the total value of the oven-ready roast before calculating EP cost per pound (similar to butcher’s yield test process). 31 Example 4n 4# 7oz oven-ready turkey breast has value of $7.76. Cooked breast weighs 3# 10oz. Most is sliced but 4oz of trim (valued at $1.99/#) is transferred for use in ravioli. What is EP$/# for sliced turkey breast? Trim $ = weight x cost per pound = 0.25# X $1.99/# = $0.50 Value of sliced turkey = oven-ready $– trim $ = $7.76 - $0.50 = $7.26 32 Example 4n (cont.) Saleable weight = cooked weight – trim = 3.625# - 0.25# = 3.375# EP$ per # = = = $2.15 per # 33 EP Cost Multipler from butcher’s yield test EP CM = EP$ per # AP Value per # When AP$ per # changes: New EP$ per # = EP$ CM AP $ per # 34 Cooking Loss Test Spreadsheet Review Figure 4.4 in the text. Notice: • Total value of butchered wt. and value/# come directly from butcher’s yield test • EP total value must be adjusted with a “rebate” if trim is used elsewhere in kitchen • All yield percents are in relation to total AP wt. 35 Example 4o Primal pork shoulder costs $1.27/#. After tests, EP cost multiplier is determined to be 1.68. What is EP cost per oz for saleable braised pork shoulder if AP price for pork shoulder drops to $1.04/#? EP$/# = AP$/# X EP CM = $1.04 X 1.68 = $1.75/# $1.75/# ÷ 16 = $0.11/oz 36 Final Notes • Butcher, cooking loss, and trim loss tests are conducted for accuracy in costing, but cost multipliers allow for adjustment to AP price fluctuations without having to redo tests. • Information is only relevant when AP cuts, how they are butchered, and the use of scraps all remain the same • A chef will always save money by utilizing scrap and trim instead of trashing it. 37