lane_4_19_11

Report
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-tiered
Models of Prevention:
Teaching Positive Social Behavior in a Three-Tiered System
of Support
Kathleen Lane, Ph.D., BCBA-D
Vanderbilt University
Agenda


An Overview of Comprehensive, Integrated,
Three-tiered Models of Prevention
The Importance of Data-based Decision
Making

A Focus on Social Skills Instruction

Question
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tier Model of Prevention
(Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009)
Goal: Reduce Harm
Specialized Individual Systems
for Students with High-Risk
≈
Tertiary Prevention (Tier 3)
≈
Secondary Prevention (Tier 2)
Goal: Reverse Harm
Specialized Group Systems
for Students At-Risk
PBIS Framework
Goal: Prevent Harm
School/Classroom-Wide Systems for
All Students, Staff, & Settings
≈
Primary Prevention (Tier 1)
Academic
Behavioral
Social Skills
Improvement System
(SSiS) - Classwide
Intervention Program
Social
WHAT DO WE EXPECT AS
A SCHOOL FROM OUR
STUDENTS
ACADEMICALLY?
Primary Intervention Plan
Statement
Purpose Statement
School-Wide
Expectations
Area I: Academics
Responsibilities
Students will:
1.
2.
3.
*see Expectation Matrix
Area II: Behavior
Responsibilities
Students will:
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
Students will:
Faculty and Staff will: Faculty and Staff will:
Faculty and Staff will:
Parents will:
Parents will:
Parents will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
HO 2, pg. 1-2
5
Orange Elementary School’s Primary Intervention Plan
The mission of is to facilitate the learning experience while
developing a kind and caring environment to build character.
Purpose Statement
All of the Orange Elementary community, including
administrators, faculty, staff, parents, and students, will work
together to design and implement a variety of programs that
support the specific academic, behavioral, and social needs of
the students served.
School-Wide Expectations 1. Show respect.
2. Be responsible.
3. Give best effort.
*see Expectation Matrix
Area I: Academics
Area II: Behavior
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
Responsibilities
Responsibilities
Students will:
Students will:
Students will:
Meet school-wide
expectations stated in the
expectation matrix
Arrive on time and stay all
day
Participate in class activities
Complete all work to the best
of their ability
Bring all materials, including
daily planners
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
6
ACADEMIC COMPONENT
Statement
Faculty and Staff will: Faculty and Staff will:
Parents will:
Provide a place, materials, and assistance
to completed homework
Sign daily planner
Follow attendance policies
Communicate with schools as requested
(e.g., review progress notes and return to
school)
Encourage students to give their best effort
Administrators will:
Provide faculty and staff with materials to
facilitate instruction
Parents will:
Parents will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
ACADEMIC COMPONENT
Faculty and Staff will:
Provide engaging lessons, linked to the
district standards
Differentiate instruction
Include starter and closing activities as part
of lesson plan
Support students that miss instruction
Engage in positive teacher-teacher and
teacher-student interactions
Encourage the use of daily planners
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
7
WHAT DO WE EXPECT AS
A SCHOOL FROM OUR
STUDENTS SOCIALLY?
•What do we expect from our students socially?
• Cooperation
• Taking turns
• Playing by the rules
• Self-control
Academic
Behavior
Social
Skills
9
MAKING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ACADEMICS, BEHAVIOR AND
SOCIAL SKILLS
Social Skills Expectations



School-based programs designed to promote character
development of students (Person, Moiduddin, Angus, & Malone,
2009)
The goal is to raise children to become morally responsible, selfdisciplined citizens (Berkowitz & Bier, 2005).
Social Skills programs will help teach children about basic human
values including honesty, kindness, courage, equality, and respect
Considerations:
 Evidence-based program
 Selected according to the 11 principles of effective character
education (Lickona, Schaps, & Lewis, 2007)
 Implemented throughout the county to facilitate consistency
10
SOCIAL SKILLS AND CHARACTER EDUCATION COMPONENT
SOCIAL SKILLS (OR CHARACTER
EDUCATION) COMPONENT
• Olweus, 2000
• $200 per school, $65 per
teacher for materials
Bully-Proofing Your
School
• www.sopriswest.com
• Garrity, Jens, Porter,
Sager, and Short-Camilli,
1994
• $449.49 for entire
program, additional
materials $20 +
Violence Prevention
Bullying
The Bully Prevention
Program
Second Step Violence
Prevention Program
• Committee for Children,
1992
• $159 per grade
(Elementary, Middle, High
School, Families, Spanish)
11
SOCIAL SKILLS AND CHARACTER EDUCATION COMPONENT
Social Skills (or Character Education)
Component: Example Programs
•www.positiveaction.net
•Positive Action is an
evidence-based program
that improves academics,
behavior, and character.
Positive Action uses a
curriculum-based approach
to effectively increase
positive behaviors and
decrease negative
behaviors.
Social Skills
Character Education
Positive Action
Social Skills
Improvement System
(SSiS)
• Elliott and Gresham, 1991
• www.pearsonassessments
.com
• SSiS is an evidence-based
tool for assessing and
teaching social skills that
lead to social and
academic success
12
SOCIAL SKILLS AND CHARACTER EDUCATION COMPONENT
Social Skills (or Character Education)
Component: Example Programs
CHARACTER EDUCATION COMPONENT:
Philosophy addresses the core
POSITIVE ACTION
of each person: “You feel
Positive Action: a K-12 program which aims to
promote character development, academic
achievement, and social-emotional skills and to
reduce disruptive, problem behavior.
Reduces
Improves
•
•
•
•
•
•
Behavior
Academic Achievement
Character
Attendance
Health
Family Literacy
(Positive Action, 2008)
good about yourself when
you think and do positive
actions, and there is always
a positive way to do
everything” (Positive
Action, 2008).
•
•
•
•
•
•
Disciplinary problems
Absenteeism, suspensions,
and truancies
Dropping out
Drug, alcohol, and tobacco use
Violence
Obesity
13
•Positive effects on elementary school students’ behavior and
academic achievement (IES, 2007)
•Statistically significant lower suspension rates, use of alcohol,
being drunk, use of tobacco and illegal drugs (Flay, Acock, Vuchinich, &
Beets, 2006)
•Statistically significant lower rates of violent behavior and
suspension (Flay & Allred, 2003)
Behavior
Academic Achievement
Rating of Effectiveness
Positive Effects
Positive Effects
Improvement Index
Average: +19 percentile
points
Range: -12 to +36 percentile
points
Average: +14 percentile
points
Range: +8 to +36 percentile
points
14
SOCIAL SKILLS COMPONENT
CHARACTER EDUCATION COMPONENT:
WHAT CAN WE CONCLUDE ABOUT POSITIVE ACTION?
WHAT ROLE DO STUDENTS,
TEACHERS, ADMINISTRATORS
AND PARENTS PLAY IN
PROMOTING SOCIAL SKILLS
AND/ OR CHARACTER
DEVELOPMENT?
Orange Elementary School’s Primary Intervention Plan
The mission of is to facilitate the learning experience while
developing a kind and caring environment to build character.
Purpose Statement
All of the Orange Elementary community, including administrators,
faculty, staff, parents, and students, will work together to design and
implement a variety of programs that support the specific academic,
behavioral, and social needs of the students served.
School-Wide
1. Show respect.
Expectations
2. Be responsible.
3. Give best effort.
*see Expectation Matrix
Area I: Academics
Area II: Behavior
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
Responsibilities
Responsibilities
Students will:
Students will:
Students will:
Meet school-wide
Meet school-wide expectations
Meet school-wide
expectations stated in
stated in the expectation matrix
expectations stated in the
the expectation matrix Take responsibility for own actions
expectation matrix
Arrive on time and stay and the affect on others
Participate in monthly
all day
Tell an adult about any unsafe
social skills lessons
Participate in class
behaviors
Participate in the antiactivities
bullying program
Complete all work to
the best of their ability
Bring all materials,
including daily planners
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
16
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
Statement
Parents will:
Post expectation matrix at home
Support social skills program
Support anti-bullying program
Administrators will:
Implement social skills and anti-bullying programs
consistently
17
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
Faculty and Staff will:
Teach social skills curriculum: Character Under
Construction/ Positive Action/ Bullying Program
Model social skills in the school-wide plan
Provide praise and reinforcement to students that
demonstrate social skills
Teach and support anti-bullying program
Contra Costa High School’s Primary Intervention Plan
Purpose Statement
School-Wide
Expectations
The mission of to provide a safe and secure learning environment that allows
students to engage in academics and act respectful and responsibly to both peers
and adults,.
All of the Contra Costa community will work together to design and implement a
variety of programs that include primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of
prevention to support the specific academic, behavioral, and social needs of all
students.
 Arrive on time and ready to learn
 Be respectful to both peers and adults
 Show school pride
*see Expectation Matrix
Area I: Academics
Responsibilities
Students will:
Arrive and leave school
on time
Participate in starting and
closing activities
Produce quality work
Complete all work
Bring all materials,
including daily planners to
class
Area II: Behavior
Responsibilities
Students will:
Meet school-wide expectations stated in
the expectation matrix
Follow the reactive and proactive
components of the behavior plan
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
Students will:
Meet school-wide
expectations stated in the
expectation matrix
Participate in monthly
social skills lesson plans
18
Social Skills COMPONENT
Mission Statement
Parents will:
Enforce expectations consistently
Support social skills program
Administrators will:
Implement social skills consistently
Offer professional development to learn
newly introduced programs
Ensure materials are available to teach
the chosen curricula
19
Social Skills COMPONENT
Faculty and Staff will:
Teach social skills curriculum
Model social skills in the school-wide
plan
Provide praise and reinforcement to
students that demonstrate social taught
Primary Intervention Plan
Statement
Purpose Statement
School-Wide
Expectations
Area I: Academics
Responsibilities
Students will:
1.
2.
3.
*see Expectation Matrix
Area II: Behavior
Responsibilities
Students will:
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
Students will:
Faculty and Staff will: Faculty and Staff will:
Faculty and Staff will:
Parents will:
Parents will:
Parents will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
HO 2, pg. 1-2
20
WHAT DO WE EXPECT AS
A SCHOOL FROM OUR
STUDENTS IN TERMS OF
BEHAVIORAL
PERFORMANCE?
•
Schoolwide consequences for inappropriate
behaviors
2. Proactive
•
•
•
•
•
•
AREA II: BEHAVIOR
Two-Fold
1. Reactive
Clearly stated expectations
Explicitly teach expectations
Model expectations
Give students opportunities to display
expectations
Provide feedback and reinforcement
Monitor behavior
22
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
•Common approach to discipline
•Clear set of positive behavioral expectations
•Procedures for teaching expected behavior
•Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected
behavior
•Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate
behavior
•Procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation
23
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
•3-5 Expectations
• Clearly stated
• Taught
• Reinforced
•Expectations should be explicitly defined for
each school setting.
•Use your Schoolwide Expectations Survey for
Specific School Settings results to establish
school priorities
.
HO 4
24
HOW CAN WE HELP ALL STUDENTS MEET OUR EXPECTATIONS?
School Expectations
Respect
Responsibility
Best Effort
•Follow Directions
•Use kind words
•Control your temper
•Cooperate with others
•Use an inside voice
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
•Arrive to class on time
•Remain in school for the whole day
•Bring your required materials
•Turn in finished work
•Exercise self-control
•Participate in class activities
•Complete work with best effort
•Ask for help politely
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
251
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
WHAT DO YOUR TEACHERS EXPECT?
The Schoolwide Expectation Survey for Specific Settings
Classroom
East Elementary School
26
ELEMENTARY
Classroom
Respect
- Follow
directions
-Use kind words
and actions
- Control your
temper
- Cooperate with
others
- Use an inside
voice
Responsibility - Arrive to class
on time
- Remain in
school for the
whole day
- Bring your
required
materials
- Turn in
finished work
- Exercise selfcontrol
Best Effort
- Participate in
class activities
- Complete work
with best effort
- Ask for help
politely
Settings
Hallway
- Use a quiet
voice
- Walk on the
right side of the
hallway
- Keep hands to
yourself
Cafeteria
- Use an
inside voice
- Use
manners
- Listen to and
follow adult
requests
Playground
- Respect other
peoples’
personal space
- Follow the
rules of the
game
Bathroom
- Use the
restroom and
then return to
class
- Stay in your
own bathroom
stall
- Little talking
Bus
- Use kind
words towards
the bus driver
and other
students
- Listen to and
follow the bus
drivers’ rules
- Keep hands to
yourself
- Walk in the
hallway
- Stay in line
with your class
- Make your
choices
quickly
- Eat your own
food
- Choose a
seat and stick
with it
- Clean up
after yourself
- Play
approved
games
- Use
equipment
appropriately
- Return
equipment
when you are
done
- Line up when
the bell rings
- Walk quietly
- Use your
- Include
- Walk directly table manners others in your
to next location - Use an
games
inside voice
- Be active
- Follow the
rules of the
game
- Flush toilet
- Wash hands
with soap
- Throw away
any trash
properly
- Report any
problems to
your teacher
- Talk quietly
with others
- Listen to and
follow the bus
drivers’ rules
- Remain in
seat after you
enter the bus
- Use selfcontrol
- Take care of
your business
quickly
- Keep
bathroom tidy
- Listen to and
follow the bus
drivers’ rules
- Keep hands
and feet to self
27
WHAT ROLE DO STUDENTS,
TEACHERS, ADMINISTRATORS
AND PARENTS PLAY IN
MAINTAINING DESIRED
BEHAVIOR?
Orange Elementary School’s Primary Intervention Plan
The mission of is to facilitate the learning experience while
developing a kind and caring environment to build character.
Purpose Statement
All of the Orange Elementary community, including administrators,
faculty, staff, parents, and students, will work together to design and
implement a variety of programs that support the specific academic,
behavioral, and social needs of the students served.
School-Wide
1. Show respect.
Expectations
2. Be responsible.
3. Give best effort.
*see Expectation Matrix
Area I: Academics
Area II: Behavior
Responsibilities
Responsibilities
Students will:
Students will:
Meet school-wide
Meet school-wide expectations
expectations stated in
stated in the expectation matrix
the expectation matrix
Take responsibility for own actions
Arrive on time and stay and the affect on others
all day
Tell an adult about any unsafe
Participate in class
behaviors
activities
Complete all work to
the best of their ability
Bring all materials,
including daily planners
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
29
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
Statement
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
Faculty and Staff will:
Display school-wide expectations
Model school-wide expectations
Teach school-wide expectations
Provide praise and reinforcement to students
that display school-wide expectations
Follow the reactive (consequence-based)
discipline plan consistently when infractions of
expectations occur
Foster a safe environment for all students
Parents will:
Post expectation matrix at home
Communicate with teachers and
administrators when necessary
Review and support proactive and reactive
disciplinary components
Administrators will:
Implement the proactive and reactive
behavioral components of the school-wide plan
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
30
Contra Costa High School’s Primary Intervention Plan
Purpose Statement
School-Wide
Expectations
The mission of to provide a safe and secure learning environment that allows
students to engage in academics and act respectful and responsibly to both peers
and adults,.
All of the Contra Costa community will work together to design and implement a
variety of programs that include primary, secondary, and tertiary levels of
prevention to support the specific academic, behavioral, and social needs of all
students.
 Arrive on time and ready to learn
 Be respectful to both peers and adults
 Show school pride
*see Expectation Matrix
Area I: Academics
Responsibilities
Area II: Behavior
Responsibilities
Students will:
Arrive and leave school
on time
Participate in starting and
closing activities
Produce quality work
Complete all work
Bring all materials,
including daily planners to
class
Students will:
Meet school-wide expectations
stated in the expectation matrix
Follow the reactive and proactive
components of the behavior plan
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
31
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
Mission Statement
BEHAVIOR COMPONENT
Faculty and Staff will:
Display posters of school-wide expectations
Model school-wide expectations
Teach school-wide expectations
Provide praise and reinforcement to students that
display school-wide expectations
Follow the reactive (consequence-based) discipline
plan consistently when infractions of expectations
occur
Foster a safe environment for all students
Parents will:
Be familiar with and post school-wide expectations
Communicate with teachers and administrators when
necessary
Review and support proactive and reactive
disciplinary components
Support students in problem solving by discussing
issues as home in a positive manner
Administrators will:
Implement the proactive and reactive behavioral
components of the school-wide plan consistently
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
32
Primary Intervention Plan
Statement
Purpose Statement
School-Wide
Expectations
Area I: Academics
Responsibilities
Students will:
1.
2.
3.
*see Expectation Matrix
Area II: Behavior
Responsibilities
Students will:
Area III: Social Skills
Responsibilities
Students will:
Faculty and Staff will: Faculty and Staff will:
Faculty and Staff will:
Parents will:
Parents will:
Parents will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
Administrators will:
HO 2, pg. 1-2
33
HOW CAN WE HELP ALL
STUDENTS MEET OUR
EXPECTATIONS?
Teaching
Faculty and Staff
Students
Parents and Community
Procedures for Teaching
Faculty and Staff:
Students:
Parents/ Community:
HO 2, pg. 3
36
• Faculty and Staff
•
•
•
•
•
•
Implementation Manual
Expectation Matrix
Bookmarks
Team Planning Meetings
Posters
Ticket Tip Sheet
• Students
• Lessons (Monthly and Settings)
• Posters (Setting, Expectation, Tickets)
• Videos
• Parents and Community
• Letters to Parents
• Home Expectation Matrix
• Contacts with community businesses
37
PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING
How will the school-wide expectations be
taught to all stakeholders?
Setting
- Have your necessary
supplies/material
- Be in seat ready to learn
Classroom
- In the classroom, seated, prepared to
learn when the bell rings
Arrival/Dismissal
-Get materials the first time you go
through line
- Line up quietly with your hands
to yourself and stay in your space
Cafeteria
- Arrive on time
- Go straight to class
- Report problems to teacher
-Clean your area
- Put trash in appropriate
place
- Report problems to
teacher
38
Expectation
Be Ready
Be Responsible
- Bring supplies
- Ignore peer distractions
- Attend to instruction
- Accept consequences
- Complete and turn-in
assignments
- Keep area clean
- Use your best effort while
working
- Report problems to teacher
- Zone 1
- Walk
- Eat only your food
- Listen to and follow adult request
- Use manners
How do I participate?
A packet of Bear Bucks can be found attached to the
bookmark. Please complete a Bear Buck for each of the
appropriate student behaviors you observe throughout
the day.
Responsible, Respectful, Ready!
- Carry backpacks
- Walk to your classroom
Purpose:
X’s program is focused on teaching and modeling,
through positive reinforcement, the following traits:
1.Respect
2.Responsibility
3.Readiness
- Follow directions
- Listen attentively
- Participate
- Positive attitude
- Control temper
- Use kind words and actions
- Use an inside voice
What is a Comprehensive Model of Prevention:
It is a multi-level strategic intervention system that
includes academic, social, and behavior support to all
students. Based on the three school wide rules – Be
Responsible, Be Respectful and Be Ready –the
program outlines behavior expectations in a variety of
school settings.
Be Respectful
Elementary: Positive Behavior Support
Bus Driver Bookmark
Ticket Tip Sheet
Weekly Emails
1.When giving a ticket for positive behavior, always
pair behavior specific praise. Example, “Lori, thank
you for walking down the hallway with a quiet voice
and your hands at your side. For showing
responsibility, you have earned a PAWS ticket.”
6. Explain to students that they need to fill out all of the
required information on the ticket in order for it to be used.
2.In the first days and weeks of implementing a
Positive Behavior Support system, flood students
with tickets to increase effectiveness. Overtime fade
tickets and provide intermittent reinforcement.
8. Students should be able to earn tickets for appropriate
behavior (meeting the school expectations) in various settings
such as: arrival/dismissal, bus, cafeteria, hallway, playground,
library, office, classroom, and specials (PE, art, etc.)
3.School staff should try to be consistent with ticket
distribution. Portions of staff meetings can be used to
discuss ticket distribution.
9. School-wide staff (teachers, administrators, bus drivers,
custodial and culinary staff, librarians, nurse, etc.) should
distribute tickets intermittently when appropriate behavior is
displayed.
4.To ensure student buy-in, survey students to gain an
understanding of what reinforcements are desired.
5. Explicitly teach students how tickets can be earned
and what tickets can be used for once they are
received.
7. Once a student has earned a ticket, never take the ticket
back!
10. Tickets can also be used to reinforce appropriate behavior
displayed in some while decreasing inappropriate behavior in
others (you see a group of students walking down the hall, the
first four students are talking and laughing and the others are
quiet so you give the students in the back tickets and thank
them for walking down the hall quietly).
39
•First day of school Kick-off Assemblies
•Teach setting expectations in the first two weeks of school – one
lesson per setting
•Videos (during school and on website)
•Modeling
•Posters of expectations
•Posters detailing the expected behavior in each setting
•Using Behavior Specific Praise
•Student handbook
•Back to school boot camp
•Student Ambassadors for students new to the school during the year
•Expectation-themed contests: Poster, Oratorical, Art
40
PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING: STUDENTS
TEACHING STUDENTS
East Elementary School
41
Positive Behavior Support at Elementary School
Cafeteria Expectations Lesson Plan
An Instructional
Approach
Objective: The student will demonstrate the ES cafeteria expectations (show respect
to all, own my own behavior, always follow instructions, and ready to do my best)
Show Respect to All includes:
Tell
1. Introduce the cafeteria expectations and ask
1.Use an inside voice.
questions about them.
2.Use manners.
Today we’re going to talk about ways you can show
3.Listen to and follow adult directions.
SOAR characteristics in the cafeteria.
wn My Behavior includes:
•What are some things that happen in the cafeteria
that cause problems for you and for others?
1.Make your choices quickly.
•How do you usually react in these situations?
2.Eat your own food.
•What are some good ways to act in order to keep
3.Do not exchange food or money.
these things from happening?
4.Choose a seat and stay with it.
2. Define the skill and discuss the key terms.
5.Clean up after yourself.
•Showing respect to all in the cafeteria means: using
lways Follow Instructions includes:
an inside voice, using manners, and listening to and
1.Follow cafeteria procedures
following adult directions.
2.Follow the table sign.
•Own my behavior in the cafeteria means: Making
your choices quickly, eating your own food, not
eady to do My Best includes:
exchanging food or money, choosing a seat and
1.Get all necessary items before sitting down.
staying with it, and cleaning up after yourself.
2.Follow the table sign.
O
A
R
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
42
Positive Behavior Support at Elementary School
Cafeteria Expectations Lesson Plan continued…
•Always follow instructions in the cafeteria means: Following cafeteria procedures and following the table sign.
Tell,theShow,
Do
•Ready to do my best in the cafeteria means: Getting all necessary items before sitting down and following
table sign.
3. Discuss why this is important.
•You, your friends, or adults can get hurt if we are not respectful and responsible.
•If you show respect to others, they are more likely to show respect to you.
•The cafeteria needs to be a place where we feel safe and enjoy time away from class.
Show/Discuss
Using one of the following situations, model, role-play, or discuss the following situations. For negative modeling, respond in one
of the following ways: not listening, not following instructions, raising your voice, arguing, getting upset, and so on. For positive
modeling, respond by engaging in one of the expectations above (e.g., using positive and supportive language) and encouraging other
to do so as well.
Situations
•An adult in the cafeteria asks you to pick up a wrapper on the floor. But you didn’t drop the wrapper, and the wrapper isn’t yours.
What should you do?
•You forgot to do your homework last night and had planned to do it during lunch. Unfortunately, you are the last one in the lunch
line. You are in a big hurry. What should you do?
•You forgot your lunch money and you are so hungry! Your “friend” says that he steals food all of the time. “It’s no big deal,” he says.
You are feeling really pressured to steal, especially because you are so hungry. What should you do?
Do
Ask students to:
•State the expectations.
•Tell why the expectations are important.
•Think of ways to help them remember the expectations when they are in the cafeteria.
Follow Through and Practice
1. Generate and Role-Play or Discussion Situations
Invite students to generate additional situations that result in problems in the cafeteria. Role-play or discuss several of these. You
may want to go into the cafeteria and re-enact some situations.
2. Use Incidental Teaching
Whenever a conflict situation arises in the cafeteria, use that situation to review the skill.
43
Cafeteria Expectations
Show Respect to all
•Use an inside voice
•Use manners
•Listen to and follow adult
directions
elementary school
44
•Back to School Night
•Parent Handbook with Expectation Matrix
•Email or phone call blasts
•Monthly Calendar or Newsletter Updates
•Character Fair (demonstration of student made projects)
•Host pot-luck or community discussion groups
•Thank you posters for community sponsors
•Refrigerator Magnets (with Expectations)
•Parenting Seminars (how to tie the school expectations to
home)
45
PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING: PARENTS AND COMMUNITY
TEACHING PARENTS and COMMUNITY
PROCEDURES FOR TEACHING: PARENTS AND COMMUNITY
A Parent Letter
46
TEACHING PARENTS AND COMMUNITY
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
47
Thank you for helping
to make
Our Middle School’s
Positive Behavior
Support Plan a Success!
Thank you posters
hanging in local
businesses build
community awareness!
48
Procedures for Teaching
Faculty and Staff:
Students:
Parents/ Community:
HO 2, pg. 3
49
HOW DO WE REINFORCE
OUR PLAN?
Procedures for Reinforcing
REINFORCING
PROCED
URES
FOR
REINFO
RCING
Procedures for Reinforcing
How will you reinforce?
• Students for:
Preferred Seating at Lunch
• Demonstrating the expectations across
Academic, Behavioral and Social Skill Domains
• Faculty and Staff for:
• Participation and support
Movie Tickets
• Modeling the school expectations
• Taking an instructional approach to behavior
• Parents and Community for:
• Supporting Students
• Reinforcing Expectations
Classroom Helper
51
• Tickets
• Determining Appropriate Reinforcers
• Tangibles and Non-Tangibles
• Tips for Reinforcing
• Think about: What, How, Who, When?
52
REINFORCING STUDENTS
PROCED
URES
FOR
REINFO
RCING
Procedures for Reinforcing Students
Student Name: _______________________________
Teacher Name: _________________ Date: ________
Location:
□ Classroom
□ Cafeteria
□ Bathroom
□ Office
□Hallway
□ Other
Mark the Skill That Was Observed
EXPECTATIONS
□ Be Respectful
□ Be Responsible
□ Best Effort
53
REINFORCING STUDENTS
Greenfield Elementary
• Tangible reinforcers: Items worth monetary
value such as school supplies, toys, comic books,
coloring books, or gift cards
• Non-tangible reinforcers: Non-material items
such as: lunch with the principal, a homework
pass, or front of the lunch line pass
While tangible reinforcers are typically desired by
young students, it is important to begin to pair nontangible reinforcement with tangible reinforcement
and decrease the use of tangible reinforcers
over time.
54
REINFORCING STUDENTS
PROCED
URES
FOR
REINFO
RCING
Procedures for Reinforcing Students:
Determining Appropriate Reinforcers
Ask your
students! (HO 6)
•Consider:
•What is rewarding to the student?
•Is the student seeking attention or trying to avoid it?
• Is the student seeking to participate in something
or trying to avoid it?
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
55
REINFORCING STUDENTS
•Seeking: Positive Reinforcement
•Avoiding: Negative Reinforcement
PROCED
URES
FOR
REINFO
RCING
Procedures for Reinforcing Students:
Determining Appropriate Reinforcers
Implementation Calendar
Sun.
Mon.
Tues.
Wed.
Thurs.
Fri.
Sat.
1
2
3
4
5
8
9
10
Monthly
Meeting
11
12
13
Teach
Social Skills
Lesson
14
15
16
6th Grade
Prize
Drawing
17
18
19
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Teach
Social Skills
Lesson
State of Tennessee Technical Assistance Grant IRB # 100756
6
Assembly
@ 2:50
20
7
28
Fundraiser
Lock-in
56
• Who will be in charge of ticket distribution?
• Where will tickets be kept?
• By teachers
• By staff
• By team
• What will students do with tickets?
• How often will prizes be awarded?
57
REINFORCING STUDENTS
Procedures for Reinforcing Students:
Ticket Logistics
•Reinforce Parents and Community for:
• Supporting Students
• Reinforcing Expectations
• Consider the following reinforcements:
• Postcards home
• Recognition of donations or volunteers in school
newsletter
• Thank you posters in school and community
58
REINFORCING FACULTY AND STAFF
Procedures for Reinforcing
Parents and Community
Gigi’s Flowers
Thank you for helping to make
Eastland School’s
Positive Behavior Support Plan a
success!
Eastland School Faculty and Staff
59
REINFORCING FACULTY AND STAFF
Procedures for Reinforcing
Parents and Community
HOW DO WE MONITOR
OUR PLAN?
Procedures for Monitoring
Purpose



Many school systems are adopting three-tiered
models of prevention (e.g., Response to Intervention
and Positive Behavior Support) to support an
increasingly diverse student population (Sugai &
Horner, 2002).
A central feature of these models is that data are
monitored to determine responsiveness.
We offer this session as a guide for using multiple
sources of data to support students with reading
and behavioral challenges.
Academic Screening Tools
DIBELS
AIMSweb
Edusoft
Benchmark Assessment System
STAR
Curriculum-based Measurement
(CBM)


Allows teachers to identify students who may need
to be monitored closely to be sure they are
benefitting from instruction
Should be:
 Brief
and easy to administer
 Standardized
 Reliable
Curriculum-based Measurement
(CBM)

Examples of commercially available data
management tools include:
 DIBELS
(Good & Kaminski, 2002)
 AIMSweb (Pearson)
 Edusoft (Houghton-Mifflin)
 Benchmark Assessment System (Fountas and Pinnell;
Heinemann Publishers)
 STAR (Renaissance Learning)
AIMSweb (Pearson)
AIMSweb (Pearson)



AIMSweb was designed for use within a
Response to Intervention model.
Web-based benchmarking and progress
monitoring system
Measures available in language arts, reading,
mathematics, and behavior.
AIMSweb (Pearson)

Provides:
 Benchmark
assessments (screenings)
 Progress monitoring assessments for frequent and
continuous student assessment

Results can be reported to students, parents,
teachers, and administrators using its web-based
data management and reporting system.
Screenshot of AIMSWEB Graph:
Words Read Correctly Per Minute
Math Concepts and Applications 5th
Grade Probe
Data Management Systems for Screening and Progress
Monitoring: Academic Outcomes
Heinemann
The Fountas & Pinnell Benchmark Assessment
System Series
http://www.heinemann.com/series/90.aspx
Houghton Mifflin
Edusoft©
http://www.edusoft.com/corporate/products.html
Pearson
AIMSweb
http://www.aimsweb.com
University of Oregon
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills
https://dibels.uoregon.edu
Renaissance Learning, Inc. STAR
http://www.renlearn.com/STARproducts.aspx
Curriculum-based Measurement (CBM)

Whether you use a commercial product or
design your own assessment tools, the goal is
to carefully evaluate student progress related
to both academics and behavior to:
 Monitor
the level of risk in the school overtime,
 Determine which students may need additional
supports or instruction (Tier 2 or Tier 3)
Behavior Screening Tools

Serve as a screening practice for identifying students who
may require additional supports.
Early Screening Project (ESP; Walker, Severson, & Feil,1994)
 Social Skills Improvement System: Performance Screening Guide
(SSiS; Elliott & Gresham, 2007)
 BASC2 Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS;
Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007)
 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997)
 Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS; Drummond,1994)
 Systematic Screener for Behavior Disorders (SSBD; Walker &
Severson, 1992)

Behavior Screening Tools:
A Closer Look
Elementary School Screening Tools
SSBD; Walker & Severson (1992)
SRSS; Drummond (1994)
SSiS; Elliott & Gresham, (2007)
SDQ; Goodman (1997)
BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds (2007)
Systematic Screener for Behavior Disorders
(SSBD, Walker & Severson,1992)



Teacher completed
Validated for the Elementary School
Three Stage screening process




Teacher nomination and ranking
Rating scales (6 students: 3 with internalizing and 3 with
externalizing)
Direct Observation
Students who meet the specified criteria for each stage
move to the next stage.
SSBD Screening Process
Pool of Regular Classroom Students
TEACHER SCREENING
on Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral
Dimensions
3 Highest Ranked Pupils on Externalizing and
on Internalizing Behavior Criteria
PASS GATE 1
TEACHER RATING
on Critical Events Index and Combined
Frequency Index
Exceed Normative Criteria on CEI of CFI
PASS GATE 2
DIRECT OBSERVATION
of Process Selected Pupils in Classroom and
on Playground
Exceed Normative Criteria on AET and PSB
PASS GATE 3
Pre-referral Intervention(s)
Child may be referred to
Child Study Team
Stage 1: Rank order students who most closely
match the description of each behavior pattern.
Mutually
Exclusive Lists
Stage 2: Externalizing - Teacher rating for
high intensity low frequency behavior



Critical Events Index
completed for students
ranked 1, 2, and 3 on
Stage 1 for Externalizing
So, 3 students per class
33 items mark as presence
for absence
And lower intensity, high frequency
behaviors





Combined Frequency Index
for Adaptive and
Maladaptive Behavior
12 items – Adaptive
11 items – Maladaptive
5-point Likert-type scale
1 = Never to 5 = Frequently
Stage 2: Internalizing -Teacher rating for
high intensity low frequency behavior



Critical Events Index
completed for students
ranked 1, 2, and 3 on
Stage 1 for Externalizing
So, 3 students per class
33 items mark as presence
for absence
And lower intensity, high frequency
behaviors





Combined Frequency Index
for Adaptive and
Maladaptive Behavior
12 items – Adaptive
11 items – Maladaptive
5-point Likert-type scale
1 = Never to 5 = Frequently
SSBD: Risk Status for Nominated Students:
Externalizing and Internalizing
Winter 2007 - 2009
Externalizing Winter
Winter
2007
Winter
2008
2009
Internalizing
Winter
2007
Winter
2008
Winter
2009
47
63
57
46
55
60
7
9
17
13
6
13
Note. The numbers represent totals for the students for whom the SSBD was completed.
Winter 2009-2010 Critical Need
Comparison by Grade Level
Grade
Level
K
1st
2nd
Total
Number of
Students
Screened
72
*5
66
*9E/ 8I
60
*10
Students
Students
Nominated
24
24
18
w/ Critical
Need
Critical
Critical
Internalizing Externalizing
4
1
3
(5.56%)
(1.39%)
(4.17%)
1
0
1
(1.54%)
(0.00%)
(1.54%)
3
2
1
(5.00%)
(3.33%)
(1.67%)
* Students missing
Winter 2009-2010 Critical Need
Comparison by Grade Level
Grade
Level
3rd
4th
5th
Total
Number of
Students
Screened
80
*6
78
*17
60
*17
Students
Students
Nominated
24
24
18
w/ Critical
Need
Critical
Internalizing
Critical
Externalizing
2
1
1
(2.50%)
(1.25%)
(1.25%)
3
1
2
(3.84%)
(1.28%)
(2.56%)
2
1
1
(3.34%)
(1.67%)
(1.67%)
* Students missing
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)


No-cost, brief systematic screening tool originally designed to
identify K-6 elementary-age students at risk for antisocial
behavior
Teachers use a one-page instrument to evaluate students on 7
items using a 4 point Likert-type scale:
- Steals
- Low Academic Achievement
- Lies, Cheats, Sneaks - Negative Attitude
- Behavior Problems - Aggressive Behavior
- Peer Rejection

Student Risk is divided into 3 categories:
-
Low
Moderate
High
0–3
4–8
9 - 21
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
Percentage of Students Screened
SRSS Fall 2007 to Fall 2010
n=636
n=654
n=714
n=675
2 Students were not rated
SRSS By Grade Level
Fall 2010
Grade
Level
K
1
2
Number of
Students
Screened
Low
Moderate
High
N=93
84
6
3
(90.32%)
(6.45%)
(3.23%)
100
8
0
(92.59%)
(7.41%)
(0.00%)
94
3
1
(95.92%)
(3.06%)
(1.02%)
N=108
N=98
SRSS By Grade Level
Fall 2010
Grade
Level
3
4
5
Number of
Students
Screened
Low
Moderate
High
N=125
109
14
2
(87.20%)
(11.20%)
(1.60%)
98
13
8
(82.35%)
(10.92%)
(6.72%)
127
5
0
(96.21%)
(3.79%)
(0.00%)
N=119
N=132
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
How reliable and valid is the SRSS for use at the
elementary school?
Elementary Level Results:
ROC Curves
Externalizing
.952
1.0
AUC = 0.952
0.8
Sensitivity
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
1 - Specificity
0.6
0.8
1.0
Elementary Level Results:
ROC Curves
Internalizing
.802
1.0
AUC = .802
0.8
Sensitivity
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
1 - Specificity
0.6
0.8
1.0
Behavior Screening Tools:
A Closer Look
Middle School Screening Tools
SRSS; Drummond (1994)
SDQ; Goodman (1997)
SSiS; Elliott & Gresham, (2007)
BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds (2007)
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)


No-cost, brief systematic screening tool originally designed to
identify K-6 elementary-age students at risk for antisocial
behavior
Teachers use a one-page instrument to evaluate students on 7
items using a 4 point Likert-type scale:
- Steals
- Low Academic Achievement
- Lies, Cheats, Sneaks - Negative Attitude
- Behavior Problems - Aggressive Behavior
- Peer Rejection

Student Risk is divided into 3 categories:
-
Low
Moderate
High
0–3
4–8
9 - 21
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
SRSS Behavior Screeners Over Time
Middle School: Fall 2004 through Fall 2009
INCREDIBLE!
PBIS –
That’s the ticket!
n=8
Percentage of Students
n = 37
n = 431
n=534
n=502
n=454
n=470
n=477
Screening Time point
n=476
SRSS By Grade Level
Fall 2009
Grade Level
Number of
Students
Screened
Low
Moderate
High
6
163
149
12
2
(91.41%)
(7.36%)
(1.23%)
144
10
5
(90.57%)
(6.29%)
(3.14%)
138
15
1
(89.61%)
(9.74%)
(0.65%)
7
8
159
154
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
How reliable and valid is the SRSS for use at the
middle school?
Middle School Study 1: Behavioral & Academic
Characteristics of SRSS Risk Groups
Variable
Risk
Low
(n = 422)
M (SD)
Moderate
(n = 51)
M (SD)
High
(n = 12)
M (SD)
Significance
Testing
ODR
1.50
(2.85)
5.02
(5.32)
8.42
(7.01)
L<M<H
In-School
Suspensions
0.08
(0.38)
0.35
(1.04)
1.71
(2.26)
L<M<H
GPA
3.35
(0.52)
2.63
(0.65)
2.32
(0.59)
L>M, H
M=H
Course
Failures
0.68
(1.50)
2.78
(3.46)
4.17
(3.49)
L<M, H
M=H
(Lane, Parks, Kalberg, & Carter, 2007)
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
(Goodman, 1997)
More information can be
found at:
www.SDQinfo.com
Middle School: Two Raters
Core and Related Arts Teachers
Total Difficulties
n = 20
n =15
n = 23
n = 23
n= 318
n= 285
n = 361
n = 308
Winter 2009 Core
Winter 2009 RA
Scale
Number
of
Students
Screened
Cor
e
RA
Total Difficulties
N=95
N=77
Emotional
Symptoms
N=95
Conduct Problems
N=95
Hyperactivity
N=95
Peer Problems
N=95
Prosocial Behavior
N=94
N=77
N=77
N=77
N=77
N=77
Normal
Core
RA
Borderline
Core
RA
Abnormal
Core
RA
N=86
N=68
N=5
N=2
N=4
N=7
(90.53%)
(88.31%)
(5.26%)
(2.60%)
(4.21%)
(9.09%)
N=94
N=71
N=1
N=3
N=0
N=3
(98.95%)
(92.21%)
(1.05%)
(3.90%)
(0.00%)
(3.90%)
N=89
N=70
N=0
N=2
N=6
N=5
(93.68%)
(90.91%)
(0.00%)
(2.60%)
(6.32%)
(6.49%)
N=83
N=69
N=5
N=0
N=7
N=8
(87.37%)
(89.61%)
(5.26%)
(0.00%)
(7.37%)
(10.39%)
N=86
N=69
N=4
N=4
N=5
N=4
(90.53%)
(89.61%)
(4.21%)
(5.19%)
(5.26%)
(5.19%)
N=86
N=70
(90.91%)
N=6
N=4
N=2
N=3
(6.38%)
(5.19%)
(2.13%)
(3.90%)
(91.49%)
Behavior Screening Tools:
A Closer Look
High School Screening Tools
SRSS; Drummond (1994)
SSiS; Elliott & Gresham, (2007)
SDQ; Goodman (1987)
BESS; Kamphaus & Reynolds (2007)
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
SRSS Winter 2008 to Winter 2009
(2nd period Raters)
39(2.29%)
20 (1.12%)
169 (9.94%)
99 (5.54%)
1492 (87.76%)
1667 (93.34%)
*These numbers and percentages are representative of the students rated.
SRSS Winter 2008 to Winter 2009
(7th period Raters)
60 (3.41%)
19 (1.06%)
159 (9.04%)
75 (4.17%)
1539 (87.54%)
1703 (94.77%)
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
How reliable and valid is the SRSS for use at the
high school?
High School: Behavioral & Academic
Characteristics of SRSS Risk Groups Using SRSS
Time 1 to Year 2
Instructional Rater
Variable
ODR
GPA
Risk
Low
Moderate
High
(n = 348) (n = 54) (n = 19) Significance
M (SD)
M (SD) M (SD)
Testing
3.87
6.89
9.89
L < M, H
(6.27)
(6.34)
(8.23)
M=H
3.10
2.51
2.16
L > M, H
(0.86)
(0.80)
(0.83)
M=H
(Lane, Kalberg, Parks, & Carter, 2008)
High School: Behavioral & Academic Characteristics of
SRSS Risk Groups Using SRSS
Time 1 to Year 2
Non-Instructional Rater
Variable
ODR
GPA
Low
(n = 328)
M (SD)
3.53
(5.53)
3.10
(0.82)
Risk
Moderate
(n = 52)
M (SD)
8.27
(7.72)
2.45
(0.84)
High
(n = 35)
M (SD)
8.97
(9.39)
2.38
(0.88)
(Lane, Kalberg, Parks, & Carter, 2008)
Significance
Testing
L < M, H
M=H
L > M, H
M=H
Measure
Early Screening
Project
Authors
Ordering Information
Walker, Severson, & Feil Available for purchase
(1994)
from Sopris West
Systematic Screening
Walker & Severson
for Behavior Disorders (1992)
Student Risk Screening
Scale
Strengths and
Difficulties
Questionnaire
Behavior and
Emotional Screening
System
Social Skills
Improvement System:
Performance Screening
Guide
Drummond (1994)
Available for purchase
from Cambium Learning/
Sopris West
Free
Goodman (1991)
Free online at
http://www.sdqinfo.com/
Kamphaus & Reynolds
(2007)
Available for purchase
from Pearson/ PsychCorp
Elliott & Gresham,
(2007)
Available for purchase
from Pearson/ PsychCorp
Behavior and Emotional Screening
System
(Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007;
Pearson)
Behavioral and Emotional Screening
System

Features
 Systematic
 Comprehensive
 Identifies
strengths in addition to weaknesses
 Grades preK-12
 Reliable
 Quick
and easy to complete
 Rating
forms range from 25-30 items
 Takes about 5 minutes to rate each student
 45 min- 1 hr per class
(Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007; Pearson)
Behavioral and Emotional Screening
System



Screening Indicates overall risk level
 Normal
 Elevated
 Extremely elevated
The BASC-2 Rating Scales can then be used for students above
Normal Risk to further determine areas of need.
 Internalizing problems
 Externalizing problems
 School problems
 Adaptive skills
Reported results include a single total score
 Reliable and accurate predictor of a broad range of problems
(Kamphaus & Reynolds, 2007; Pearson)
Source: Neithercott & Hanken (2008). Behavioral and Emotional Screening System a Tier 1 Solution.
Presented at the Kansas Association of School Psychologists/ Council for Exceptional Children Conference.
Social Skills Improvement System
(Gresham & Elliott, 2007; Pearson)
SOCIAL SKILLS IMPROVEMENT SYSTEM


The SSiS is a comprehensive, multi-tiered program for
improving social behavior.
The SSiS consists of:
Primary Level


SSiS: Performance Screening Guides for Class-wide
Screening (Elliott & Gresham, 2007)
SSiS: Class-wide Intervention Program (Elliott & Gresham, 2007)
Secondary or Tertiary Level


SSiS: Rating Scales (Gresham & Elliott, 2008)
SSiS: Intervention Guide for targeted supports (Elliott &
Gresham, 2008)
SSiS: PERFORMANCE SCREENING GUIDE

Three levels are available (ages 3-18 yrs):
Preschool
 Elementary
 Secondary



Focus on keystone classroom behaviors and skills
Four key areas are assessed:
 Prosocial
Behavior
 Motivation to Learn
 Reading Skills
 Math Skills
(Elliott & Gresham, 2007; Pearson)
EXAMPLE: Performance Screening Guide
(Elliott & Gresham, 2007; Pearson)
Example: Performance screening guide results
Students
Scoring a 1 in
any area &
Suggested
Action
Students Scoring
a 2 or 3 in any
area &
Suggested
Action
Columns to evaluate
each skill area
(Elliott & Gresham, 2007; Pearson)
Class roster of
student names
Illustration of schoolwide data display
SSiS: Performance Screening Guide
SSIS: Peformance Screening Guide
Data: Jamison Middle School (N=880)
Fall 2009
900
Number of Students
800
5.2% (46)
10.1% (89)
700
5.8% (51)
21.5%
(189)
7.6% (67)
6.2% (54)
12.7%
(112)
12.8%
(113)
In need of direct
instructional
actions
(Kettler, Elliott,
Davies, & Griffin,
2009)
600
500
400
300
84.7%
(745)
72.7%
(640)
Math
Reading
79.7%
(701)
81.0%
(713)
200
100
0
Prosocial Behavior Motivation to Learn
Domain
Meets or Exceeds Expectations
Caution
Action Needed
Source: Lane, Menzies, Oakes, & Kalberg (in preparation). Systematic screenings of behavior
to support instruction: From preschool to high school.
In need of
additional
instruction,
teacher
attention,
monitoring
(Kettler, Elliott,
Davies, & Griffin,
2009)
SSiS Products
1.
2.
3.
4.
• SSiS Performance Screening Guide
• Classwide Intervention Program
• Social Skills Improvement System
Rating Scales
• Social Skills Intervention Guide
Selected
Intervention
SSiS Rating
Scales &
Other
Assessments
SSiS
Intervention
Guide
(Small
Group)
Targeted
Assessment
(Tier 2)
SSiS Rating
Scales &
Other
Assessments
Targeted
Intervention
Individual
Interventions
(SSiS
Resource
Guide)
Diagnostic
and
Functional
Behavior
Assessments
Exit
Exit
Exit
Special
Education
Referral
Exit
Modified from Figure 7.1 SSiS Multitiered Assessment and Intervention
Model (page 5) SSiS Rating Scales Manual (Gresham & Elliott, 2008).
SPED Referral
Selected
Assessment
(Tier 2)
Essential Components of
Primary Prevention Efforts
1
2
• How do you monitor student
performance over time?
• How do we identify students for secondary and
tertiary supports within the context of
integrated, three-tiered models of prevention?
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tier Model of Prevention
(Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009)
Goal: Reduce Harm
Specialized Individual Systems
for Students with High-Risk
≈
Tertiary Prevention (Tier 3)
≈
Secondary Prevention (Tier 2)
Goal: Reverse Harm
Specialized Group Systems
for Students At-Risk
PBIS Framework
Goal: Prevent Harm
School/Classroom-Wide Systems for
All Students, Staff, & Settings
≈
Primary Prevention (Tier 1)
Academic
Behavioral
Social Skills
Improvement System
(SSiS) - Classwide
Intervention Program
Social
A Systematic Approach to Designing a
Secondary Intervention Plan


Step 1: Construct your assessment schedule
Step 2: Identify your secondary supports


Step 3: Determine entry criteria


Pre and post tests, CBM, etc.
Step 5: Identify exit criteria


Nomination, academic failure, etc.
Step 4: Identify outcome measures


Existing and new interventions
Reduction of discipline contacts, academic success, etc.
Step 6: Consider additional needs
Procedures for Monitoring: Assessment Schedule
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
School Demographics
*Student Demographics
Student Outcome Academic Measures
Report Card (MS/HS)
*GPA
*Course Failures
Student Outcome Behavior Measures
*SRSS - Screener
X
X
X
Discipline *ODR
X
X
*Attendance (Tardies/
Unexcused Absences)
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Referrals
SPED and S-TEAM
Program Measures
For Consented Teachers Only
*Social Validity (PIRS)
*SET/Treatment Integrity
(TI) Interval
*TI -Observations
X
X
X
X
X
X
A Systematic Approach to Designing a
Secondary Intervention Plan


Step 1: Construct your assessment schedule
Step 2: Identify your secondary supports


Step 3: Determine entry criteria


Pre and post tests, CBM, etc.
Step 5: Identify exit criteria


Nomination, academic failure, etc.
Step 4: Identify outcome measures


Existing and new interventions
Reduction of discipline contacts, academic success, etc.
Step 6: Consider additional needs
Secondary Intervention Grid
Support
Description
School-wide
Data:
Entry Criteria
Data to Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Inclusion Criteria – Fourth Grade Class
Meet inclusion criteria: SRSS –Behavior Problem rated as 2 or 3 and High Risk (9+).
Secondary Intervention Grid
Support
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Data to
Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Reading
Enrichment and
Behavior Contract
Self-selection of topic or book to complete activity:
presentation, song, cartoon, play, display, written
response. Choice of activity selected by student.
Behavior contract for activity completion and self
directed behavioral expectations agreed on and
signed by teacher, student, and parent when
possible.
Academic: DIBELS CBM
Meeting end of year
benchmark goal in
reading
Behavior:
SRSS – moderate (4 – 8)
or high risk (9– 21)
Meeting Criteria in
Contract; Student reports
daily activities toward goal
to teachers.
Successful completion of
class work.
Academic:
Completion of contract (may
enter into another contract
upon successful completion)
Behavior:
SRSS – low risk (0 – 3)
Social Skills
Intervention
Small group social skill
instruction. Skills were
identified using the students’
Social Skills Rating System
(Elliott & Gresham,
1990)results (rated as 0 on
frequency - never and 3 on
importance – critical) to
address specific performance
deficits that were critical to
success. Curriculum used –
Social Skills Intervention
Guide: Practical Strategies for
Social Skill Training (Elliott &
Gresham, 1991).
30 min two times per week for
10 weeks
Behavior:
SRSS: High
Risk (9 – 21)
AND
SRSS: Item –
Problem
Behavior – 2
(sometimes)
or 3
(frequently)
Treatment
Integrity Data
(to ensure
intervention is
used as
designed)
Direct
Observation:
Total disruptive
behaviors (TDB)
and academic
engaged time
(AET); negative
social
interactions
(NSI) on the
playground.
Academic: Oral
Reading Fluency
Completion of
the 10 social
skills
instructional
intervention.
Social Skills
Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of social
skills training for elementary students at-risk
for antisocial behavior who were unresponsive to
primary intervention efforts.
Lane, K. L., Wehby, J., Menzies, H. M., Doukas, G. L., Munton, S. M., &
Gregg, R. M. (2003). Social skills instruction for students at risk for antisocial
behavior: The effects of small-group instruction. Behavioral Disorders, 28,
229-248.
Student Characteristics
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
Gender
M
M
M
F
M
M
F
M
Ethnicity
H
H
H
H
AA
AA
AA
H
Age
9.59
9.32
9.74
8.05
7.28
8.48
9.14
8.48
Grade
4
4
3
2
2
3
4
3
IQ
76.8
82.6
73.9
71.0
.
108.7
68.0
82.6
SSRS: SS 80
86
68
72
77
86
72
77
PB 118
112
135
130
127
133
131
123
AC 79
76
74
83
83
112
92
82
3
9
7
.
3
4
3
CEI
2
Group 1: Yellow
Group 2: Purple
Group 3: Green
Inclusion Criteria
• Student Risk Screening Scale (SRSS;
Drummond, 1994)
– Time 1: High (9+)
– Time 1: Moderate (4-8)
• Grades 2 - 4
Time 2: High (9+)
Time 2: High (9+)
Intervention: Content & Training
• Social Skills Intervention Guide: Practical strategies
for Social Skills Training (Elliott & Gresham, 1990)
• Acquisition deficits rated as highly important by
teachers
– Frequency scores = 0
– Importance scores = 2
• Intervention leaders received training on the social
skills curriculum and assessment procedures prior to
and during the intervention phase
• Treatment integrity was collected on 25% of the
social skill lessons
– mean approximately 90%
– Assessed by PI and other intervention leaders
Social Skills Acquisition Deficits
Rated by teacher using Social Skills Rating System
(SSRS-T; Gresham & Elliott, 1990)
• Controlling temper in
conflict situations
with peers & adults
• Responding
appropriately to
teasing, hitting, and
pushing by peers
• Responds well to peer
pressure
• Giving compliments
•
•
•
•
Using free time wisely
Finishing assignments
Transitioning
Volunteering in
classroom
• Receiving criticism
well
• Ignoring peer
distractions in the
classroom
• Saying nice things
about themselves
Intervention Logistics
• 20 lessons led by 3 graduate students
• 2 times a week; 30 min. sessions (10 hrs)
• Students were grouped into 3 groups with
2-3 target children and 2 model students
• 3 review sessions (lessons #6, #12 & #20)
Outcome Variables
• Collected for target
students only
• Used to assess
changes in classroom
and playground
behavior
• Measured by a
graduate student who
was not the
intervention group
Children’s Intervention
leader
Rating Profile
• Negative Social
Interaction (NSI) on
the playground
• Total Disruptive
Behavior (TDB) in the
classroom
• Academic Engaged
Time (AET) in the
classroom
Experimental Design and
Statistical Analysis
• Multiple baseline design
–
–
–
–
–
Baseline
During Intervention Phase
Post Intervention Phase
Short-term Follow Up Phase
Long-term Follow Up Phase
• Statistical Analysis by:
– Visual Inspection
– Mean Changes by Phase
– Effect Sizes
Phase
Measure
Group
Group 1
Group 2
Group 3
AET
M (SD)
TDB
M (SD)
NSI
M (SD)
Baseline
53.89 (16.47)
23.07 (18.62)
0.60 (0.43)
Intervention
65.07 (20.18)
1.90 (3.26)
0.38 (0.50)
Post
86.83 (11.41)
0.17 (0.29)
0.00 (0.00)
Follow Up I
87.67 (13.05)
0.00 (0.00)
0.00 (0.00)
Follow Up II
97.67 (4.04)
0.50 (0.87)
0.17 (0.29)
Baseline
60.00 (19.13)
9.75 (9.31)
2.85 (2.16)
Intervention
90.20 (7.81)
0.65 (1.42)
0.45 (0.76)
Post
96.00 (6.93)
0.33 (0.58)
0.00 (0.00)
Follow Up I
23.70 (4.93)
0.00 (0.00)
0.00 (0.00)
Follow Up II
96.00 (1.73)
0.33 (0.58)
0.00 (0.00)
Baseline
65.87 (17.72)
13.23 (15.08)
1.17(1.91)
Intervention
87.85 (12.79)
10.20 (28.65)
0.45 (1.12)
Post
87.67 (7.01)
3.00 (5.20)
0.00 (0.00)
Follow Up I
93.17 (3.18)
0.00 (0.00)
0.50 (0.87)
Follow Up II
85.33 (16.07)
28.17 (1.61)
0.00 (0.00)
Effect Sizes
• Effect sizes calculated by individual
and group
• Formula:
Mean (TX) - Mean (BL)
____________________
SD (Pooled)
Students
Group 1
S1
S2
S3
Group 2
S4
S5
S6
Group 3
S7
S8
AET
1.13
2.31
0.46
-0.26
2.95
3.79
*
1.82
1.72
0.86
1.62
Measures
TDB
-2.33
-1.52
-1.09
-2.27
-5.87
-1.72
*
-1.15
-1.09
-0.38
-0.89
NSI
-0.59
-0.74
2.32
-3.48
-1.31
-1.26
*
-0.95
-1.22
-0.51
-1.15
VISUAL EFFECT SIZES
AMOUNT OF CHANGE
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
GROUP 1
GROUP 2
GROUP 3
AET
TDB
NSI
Results
• Students were responsive to the
secondary intervention efforts
– Higher rates of academic engaged time
– Lower rates of disruptive behavior
during classroom instructional time
– Lower rates of negative social
interactions on the playground
Limitations
• Intervention sessions were not
conducted in the general education
classroom
• Limited observation time (<1 hour)
Elementary School Example – End of Quarter 1
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
AIMSweb
1 (at benchmark)
2 (some risk)
3 (at risk)
Increase Rates ofSmall Group Reading Instruction with Small Group Reading Suppor
Reinforcement; Behavioral Support (Self Monitoring)
Self graphing of progress
Counseling Supports
Reading Enrichment; Behavior Contract
Middle School Example – End of 1st Semester
Student Risk Screening Scale
(Drummond, 1994)
Counseling Supports;
Check in/ Check out;
Study Hall Tutoring
Social Skills Instruction;
Behavior Contract
Check In Check Out (Mentoring);
Study Hall Tutoring
Sample Secondary Intervention Grid: Elementary
Support
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Data to
Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Project WRITE Improving the writing skills
of students with behavioral
concerns and poor writing
skills
Behavior: (SRSS:
SSBD) – high or
moderate risk
and
Academic:
TOWL (<25)
Weekly
Writing probes
Story elements of 5+
more (stable)
Selfmonitoring
Behavior: SDQ abnormal range
on Hyper. and
Conduct Problem
scales
Academic: 1 or
more course
failure; or at risk
on CBM (math or
reading)
Work
completion and
accuracy of the
academic area
of concerns:
passing grades
Passing grade on
report card in the
academic area of
concern
Improving the academic
production (completion/
accuracy) and engagement
of students with high
hyperactivity (H) and
conduct problems (CP) who
also are not achieving
academically.
Sample Secondary Intervention Grid: Elementary
Support
Reading
Enrichment
and
Behavior
Contract
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Data to
Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Self-selection of topic or
book to complete activity:
presentation, song, cartoon,
play, display, written
response. Choice of activity
selected by student. Behavior
contract for activity
completion and self directed
behavioral expectations
agreed on and signed by
teacher, student, and parent
when possible.
Academic:
DIBELS CBM
Meeting end
of year
benchmark
goal in
reading
Behavior:
SRSS –
moderate (4 –
8) or high risk
(9– 21)
Meeting
Criteria in
Contract;
Student
reports daily
activities
toward goal
to teachers.
Successful
completion
of class
work.
Academic:
Completion of
contract (may
enter into another
contract upon
successful
completion)
Behavior:
SRSS – low risk (0
– 3)
Sample Secondary Intervention Grid: Elementary
Support
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Data to Monitor
Progress
Reading Enrichment
and Behavior
Contract
Self-selection of topic or book to complete activity:
presentation, song, cartoon, play, display, written
response. Choice of activity selected by student.
Behavior contract for activity completion and self
directed behavioral expectations agreed on and
signed by teacher, student, and parent when
possible.
Academic: DIBELS CBM
Meeting end of year
benchmark goal in
reading
Behavior:
SRSS – moderate (4 – 8)
or high risk (9– 21)
Meeting Criteria in
Contract; Student reports
daily activities toward
goal to teachers.
Successful completion of
class work.
Small group
Reading
Intervention
and Selfmonitoring
Fundations (Wilson Reading);
3-4 students with classroom
teacher or specialist; 30 min
4 x per wk (in addition to 90
min reading block). Self
monitoring form to monitor
engagement & meeting
behavioral expectations.
Schoolwide ticket earned at
the end of each session for
goal met (1) and for
matching teacher rating (2).
Two tickets per day possible.
Academic:
DIBELS CBM
At risk at
benchmark
Behavior:
SRSS –
moderate (4 –
8) or high risk
(9– 21)
Academic:
DIBELS
progress
monitoring
probes
(weekly)
Exit Criteria
Academic:
Completion of contract (may
enter into another contract
upon successful completion)
Behavior:
SRSS – low risk (0 – 3)
Academic:
DIBELS
benchmark met
at next screening
OR 5 weeks of
at or above
trend toward
Behavior:
end of year
Days
benchmark
behavioral
Behavior:
goals are met. SRSS - Low risk
(0- 3) at next
screening time
point
Sample Secondary Intervention Grid: Middle School
Support
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Data to
Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Check,
Connect,
and Expect
This program involves
checking in with a mentor
at the beginning and end
of the day to receive a
performance goal for the
day.
Behavior: SRSS
Moderate or High
Risk on screening
Academic: overall
GPA < 2.5 or 2 or
more course failures
at any report card
Daily BEP
Progress
Reports
Students who have
met there goal
consistently for 3
weeks will move to
the self-monitoring
phase.
Behavior
Contract
A written agreement
between two parties used to
specify the contingent
relationship between the
completion of a behavior
and access to or delivery of a
specific reward.
Contract may involve
administrator, teacher,
parent, and student.
Behavior: SRSS mod to high risk
Academic: 2 or
more missing
assignments with in
a grading period
Work
completion, or
other behavior
addressed in
contract
Successful
Completion of
behavior contract
Sample Secondary Intervention Grid: High School
Support
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Mentoring
Program
Focus is on academic
achievement, character
development, problemsolving skills, improving
self-esteem, relationships
with adults and peers, and
school attendance. Solicit
teachers (volunteers) to
serve as mentors.
10th/11th graders
Behavior: SRSS:
High (9-21) or
Moderate (4-8)
by either 2nd or
7th period
teacher;
ODR ≥ 2
Academic:
GPA ≤ 2.75
Increase of
GPA
Decrease of
ODR
Yearlong support
Students who no
longer meet criteria
next fall
Enrichment
Clusters
Direct instruction related to
specific content area with
the intent being exposure,
depth and performance in
a specific field.
Student must
meet criteria for
fieldtrip criteria
Self selected
enrichment cluster
(Writing, Science,
et cetera)
Participation in
Cluster
Self-selection
Type I: Initial exposure
Type II: The how to of the trade
Type III: Performing like a
practicing professional
Data to
Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Sample Secondary Intervention Grid: High School
Support
Description
Schoolwide
Data: Entry
Criteria
Data to
Monitor
Progress
Exit Criteria
Star
Counseling
Individual or group
counseling (as deemed
appropriate by STARS
Specialist) to focus on skills
to create school success.
Counseling services will be
determined by STARS
intake paperwork and
individual specific needs.
9th -12th graders
Behavior: SRSS:
High (9-21) or
Moderate (4-8)
by either 2nd or
7th period
teacher;
ODR ≥ 2
Academic:
GPA ≤ 2.75
Participation in
interventions
recommended
by the STARS
counselor.
STARS counselor
determination
Community
Talent Pool
Group of local community
members facilitating
individual or group
relationships with students
to explore professional
interests, personal talent
and various other
opportunities relevant to
student interest.
Self-selection
Club/
Organization
involvement
Self-selection
Comprehensive, Integrated, Three-Tier Model of Prevention
(Lane, Kalberg, & Menzies, 2009)
Goal: Reduce Harm
Specialized Individual Systems
for Students with High-Risk
≈
Tertiary Prevention (Tier 3)
≈
Secondary Prevention (Tier 2)
Goal: Reverse Harm
Specialized Group Systems
for Students At-Risk
PBIS Framework
Goal: Prevent Harm
School/Classroom-Wide Systems for
All Students, Staff, & Settings
≈
Primary Prevention (Tier 1)
Academic
Behavioral
Social Skills
Improvement System
(SSiS) - Classwide
Intervention Program
Social
Sample Tertiary Intervention Grid
Support
Description
Method Currently
Used to Identify
Students
Schoolwide Data:
Entry Criteria
Data to Monitor
Progress: School
wide data?
Other?
Exit
Criteria
1:1 Peer
Tutoring
Reading between
younger student
and older student
or higher level and
lower level
Based on needs
represented in
individual classroom
DRA level reaches
point of concern
Benchmarks not met
Based on needs
represented in
individual classroom
DRA level reaches
point of concern
Benchmarks not met
Classroom teacher
progress notes
Systematic Reading
Recovery program
testing
Passing grades
in all subjects
Intensive
Evidence
based
reading
instruction
1:1 between
reading specialist
and individual
student
IAI scores
TCAP
DIBELS, DRA
IAI scores
TCAP
DIBELS, DRA
IAI scores (Winter)
Teacher constructed
tests
Teacher observations
Continual
instruction
throughout
year.
Reach mastery
criteria.
Academic
Homework
Club
Academic support
dropping recess
time between
teacher and
student (1:1)
Missing homework
Failure to follow
behavior contract
Missing homework
Failure to follow
behavior contract
Informal observation
Rate of homework
completion
Completion of
contract
successfully
Turning in all
homework
FBA/ BIP
Consultation with
the behavior
specialist to
conduct a FBA,
BIP and strategies
Unsuccessful with SAT
interventions
Prior 504 data
Data from SAT team
meetings
Unsuccessful with
SAT interventions
Prior 504 data
Data from SAT team
meetings
Data collection on
replacement behavior
(method to be
determined based on
behavior)
Consistent prosocial behavior
and academic
success.
Sample Tertiary Intervention Grid
Support
Description
Functional
Assessment
-Based
Intervention
Individualized
interventions
developed by
the behavior
specialist and
PBS team
School-wide Data:
Entry Criteria
Data to Monitor
Progress
Students who:
Data will be collected
Behavior
on both the (a)
scored in the high risk
target (problem)
category on the Student Risk
behavior and (b)
Screening Scale (SRSS), or
replacement
scored in the clinical range on
(desirable)
one following Strengths and
behavior
Difficulties (SDQ) subscales:
identified by the
Emotional Symptoms,
team on an onConduct Problems,
going basis.
Hyperactivity, or Prosocial
Weekly teacher
Behavior,
report on
earned more than 5 office
academic status
discipline referrals (ODR) for ODR data collected
major events during a
weekly
grading period
or Academic
identified at highest risk for
school failure: recommended
for retention; or scored far
below basic on state-wide or
district-wide assessments
State of Tennessee DOE Technical Assistance
Grant IRB # 090935
Exit Criteria
The functionbased
intervention will
be faded once a
functional
relation is
demonstrated
using a validated
single case
methodology
design (e.g.,
withdrawal
design) and the
behavioral
objectives
specified in the
plan are met.
Fast Track
Designed for the prevention of chronic and
severe conduct problems. It is comprised of
several components, including parent
training, social skills training, academic
tutoring, and classroom intervention.
•
(Lane, Kalberg & Menzies, 2009)
•http://www.fasttrackproject.org/index.html
157
Multisystemic Therapy (MST)
•An intensive family- and community-based
treatment program designed to make positive
changes in the various social systems (home,
school, community, peer relations) that contribute
to the serious antisocial behaviors of children and
adolescents who are at risk for out-of-home
placement.
Henggeler, Scott W., and others. Multisystemic Treatment of Antisocial
Behavior in children and Adolescents. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
http://www.minddisorders.com/Kau-Nu/Multisystemic-therapy.html
158
First Step to Success
•An early intervention that helps children who are
at risk for developing or who demonstrate antisocial or aggressive behaviors get off to the best
possible start in school.
•Incorporates the use of a trained behavior coach
who works with each student and his or her class
peers, teacher, and parents for approximately 50 to
60 hours over a 3-month period.
https://firststeptosuccess.sri.com/
159
A Systematic Approach to Designing a
Tertiary Intervention Plan


Step 1: Construct your assessment schedule
Step 2: Identify your secondary supports


Step 3: Determine entry criteria


Pre and post tests, CBM, etc.
Step 5: Identify exit criteria


Nomination, academic failure, etc.
Step 4: Identify outcome measures


Existing and new interventions
Reduction of discipline contacts, academic success, etc.
Step 6: Consider additional needs
Logistical Considerations for
Screening
Questions to Consider






When to do them?
Who should prepare them?
Who should administer them?
Who completes them?
Who should score them?
When and how should the results be shared?
Contact Information
Thank you for your time!
Questions?
Kathleen L. Lane, Ph.D., BCBA-D
[email protected]
Wendy P. Oakes, Ph.D.
[email protected]

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