Policy gaming A different intervention Petru Sandu MD, PhD(c) July 8, 2014 Outline Gaming/Simulation Policy games - Definition Gaming applications The REPOPA project experience Resources Gaming/Simulation - History Early war games: Czar Peter the Great (Toy army); WWII – The East Coast War Games Council – National Gaming Council (Duke, 2011; Geurts, 2007) Serious games: defense industry, education, scientific exploration, health care, emergency management, city planning, engineering, politics Gaming/Simulation - Functions Groups motivation Ice-breaking activities Training/Education in schools or organizations Policy making (Duke, 2004) Gaming – objectives Gaming is a strategic tool for organizations which are required to enter uncharted territory • Provide an “as real as possible” learning opportunity for the development of core competencies and skills. • Help develop confidence and ownership • Reduce fear of the unknown • Make strategies doable in the eyes of the doers Policy Games - Definition “Safe environments” where people who have a key role in confronting major problems can bring their knowledge and skills to the forefront of the strategic debate. Simulation created to aid policy makers with a specific issue of strategic management. (Duke RD, Geurts J, 2004) Policy Games – policy analysis Methodology for participatory policy analysis (PPA) Policy analysis: process aimed at producing and transforming policy relevant information so that it may be utilized in political settings to resolve policy problems. (Dunn, 1988) Participatory: a greater involvement in policy analysis of those who affect and are affected by a policy problem. (Durning, 1993) From real life to policy game • Selection of critical variables • Face-to-face groups • Role playing • Time compression • Scale reduction of the phenomena • Simplification • Use of analogies • Replication Games - Examples Strategy Making in a University Hospital – How was the Hospital to work more closely with local health institutions? Globalization and Pharmaceutical Research & Development—Should the company attempt to increase productivity by developing an R&D facility in Europe? (Duke RD, 2011) Can Gaming of Social Policy Issues Help Translate Good Intentions into Change? (RAND Drug Policy Research Center, 1993) REPOPA Project Experience Thinking in systems Systems analysis Game development Conducting the game Game evaluation Thinking in systems • First step in building a policy game • Analyze the real-life situation that has to be simulated • Local Health Enhancing Physical Activity Policymaking – Structure – Process • Aim of the game: Increase contact and collaboration between local level stakeholders Systems analysis • Who are the actors involved in local HEPA policymaking in Romania? • What are the actors’ HEPA related goals and responsibilities? • Who do they interact with in the policy process? • What are the relations between actors? (subordination, financial aid, collaboration, etc.) • Leadership and driving forces in HEPA policymaking Game Development • • • • Determine game topic Recruit participants Develop game materials Organize the team: lead, co-lead, observers • Logistics Conducting the game • Project presentation • Policy gaming presentation: topic, dynamics • Micro cycle 1 (μC1) • μC1 – evaluation: internal and external • Micro cycle 2 (μC2) • μC2 – evaluation: internal and external • Final evaluation/debriefing Policy game evaluation • Pre-post intervention questionnaires to participants • Debriefing session with observers • Analyzing observation sheets Resources The International Simulation and Gaming Association http://www.isaga.com/ Simulation & Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Practice and Research http://intl-sag.sagepub.com/ Resources Bibliography 1. Duke RD. Gaming - The Future’s Language, Sage Publications, 1974 2. Duke RD, Geurts J. Policy Games for Strategic Management, Dutch University Press, 2004. 3. Guerts J, Duke RD, Vermeulen AM. Policy Gaming for Strategy and Change. Long Range Planning 2007, (40): 535-558 References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Guerts J, Duke RD, Vermeulen AM. Policy Gaming for Strategy and Change. Long Range Planning 2007, (40): 535-558 Duke RD, Geurts J. Policy Games for Strategic Management, Dutch University Press, 2004. Dunn WN. Methods of the second type: Coping with the wilderness of conventional policy analysis. Policy Studies Review 1998, 7(4), 720±737. Durning D. Participatory policy analysis in a social service agency: A case study. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 1993, 12 (2), 297±322. Kahan JP, Greenwood PW, Rydell CP, Schwabe W, Williams BR. Can Gaming of Social Policy Issues Help Translate good Intentions into Change? Rand Drug Policy Research Center, 1993. (http://www.rand.org/pubs/issue_papers/IP122.html) Duke RD. Origin and Evolution of Policy Simulation: A Personal Journey. Simulation & Gaming, 2011. Thank you! Questions?