Period 6 Northern Renaissance

Renaissance Politics in Northern
By Loose & Dyson
AP European History
English Politics
• England adapted a national monarchy
• It was a sin against God to not support the King
wherever rulers claimed to rule by "Divine
Right." (And in England, the King was also the
head of the Anglican Church.)
Difference from Middle Ages
• New monarchies
• New commoners section of Parliament
▫ Peasants actually had a voice
• No tax for the middle class
New Monarchies
• At the start of the Renaissance, new monarchies
started forming
▫ Mainly in Western Europe (ex. France, Spain,
• Decisions were made by the king and exercised
through his agents apply to whole state
German Politics
• Religious split was influenced by the political
▫ Various princes had been fighting the Emperor for
many years
French Politics
Charles VII (r. 1422 –1461)
• –Used a royal council made up of middle class men
• –Permanent professional army
• –Removed the English from France
–Gabelle-tax on salt instituted to raise money
–Taille–a tax on the peasant’s land
–King did not use the Estates General to tax
people after 1484 –these two taxes gave him
enough money
Charles I of Spain (r. 1519-1598)
• Protestant Reformation in Germany
• Dynastic conflict with Francis I of France, particularly
for supremacy in Italy
• Ottoman Turks, then at the height of their power. He
also had difficulties with his Spanish subjects, who at
first regarded him as a foreigner.
• Promoting the Catholic Reformation
• Imperialist struggle with France
• Conquest of Mexico and Peru
Henry VIII (r. 1486-1509)
• Did not:
▫ use Parliament to collect
▫ tax the middle class
▫ keep a standing army
• Did:
▫ improve the court systems
▫ use middle class as his chief
▫ led England to prosperity and
Works Cited
Literature of the Northern
Zack Funk
William Shakespeare
The Immortal Bard
• Born in 1564 during the Elizabethan era
• I.E. the time that was considered a peak of
English patriotism and radical advances in
thinking after the defeat of the Spanish Armada
• PLAGIARISED many of his plots from earlier
• Works now the most quoted in the English
language, other than the books of the Bible
Relation to the Northern Rennaisance
• Works such as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and Othello are
based almost purely upon human tendencies and emotions.
(entirely unheard of subject matter until this era)
• “Shakespearean Language” refers to the poetic license with
diction and syntax that characterizes his works.
• Terms such as “doth”, “thou”, “prithee”, “woo”, and “O’er”,
etc- all revolutionized poetic language.
• Iambic Pentameter
• "Two households, both alike in dignity,
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene, ....”
Plays performed across the English Isle (first theatre was
the Globe)
Miguel de Cervantes
• Spaniard
• Born 1547
• Born to a noble family; faced hardship after
father imprisoned for debts
• Enlisted as a soldier
• By this time, knighthood and feudalism had
been phased out of society
The Tale of Don Quixote
• "the knight of the woeful countenance,”
• "lean, lank, meagre, drooping, sharpbacked, and raw-boned…” steed.
• These descriptions highlight the extended
paradoxical, metaphor that not only
ridiculed the ways of old (when such
traditions were to be practiced in his
modern era), but also served to illustrate
the writer’s own trials, tribulations, and
difficulties in life.
Man Is The Measure. N.p.: n.p., 1992. Chapter 12. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
Blocher, Laura. Shakespearean Language. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
Cervantes, Miguel. Don Quixote. N.p.: n.p., 1605. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
Shakespeare, William. Othello. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
• Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
• Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
Women in the Northern
Kayla Clark and Courtney Hart
How It Got Started
• The Italian Renaissance spread to the rest of Europe and
created the Northern Renaissance.
• The main countries of the Northern Renaissance
included England, Germany, Switzerland and France.
• Northern Europe began recovering economically from
the Black Death.
• The population of Northern Europe started to grow back
in 1450.
Women’s Reforms
• Christine de Pizan fought for women’s
▫ Many Europeans could not read or write.
▫ Wealthy families sent only their sons to school.
▫ Pizan was highly educated and the first woman to
become a successful writer.
▫ Best known for defending women.
The book creates an imaginary city of
Pizan argues that women have been
viewed unfairly.
The city is still prosperous despite the
lack of men.
• Women were inferior to their
• They could own property, but
could not sell without
• Boys were valued more than
• Poor families would abandon
young girls.
• Girls were considered
expensive because of the
dowry to marry them off.
Role of Women
• Primarily to serve their father and husband.
• They were not meant to be successful on their
• Their father’s had the final decision on their
future and whether they would marry.
• The feelings of women were not highly regarded.
• A woman would inherit her
husband’s property when he
• It was proper to pass the
property on to a son.
• She was under pressure by
society to marry again.
• It was not the norm for a
woman to be in charge of the
Marriage Continued
• The wife’s social status was controlled by the
• The dowry could buy the woman a man with a
higher rank in society.
• When a woman married, her “ownership”
shifted from that of her father to her new
• It was easier to divorce a non-religious man.
Contrasting Views on Women
• Thomas Aquinas
▫ Viewed women as unimportant.
▫ Created only to be a sex object.
Contrasting Views Continued
• Martin Luther
▫ Argued that women were important.
▫ Played an important role in raising the children
and keeping the home tidy.
Different Types of Women
• A noble woman had more
power to govern her
• A woman married to an
artisan would help him run
his business.
• Peasant women worked
throughout their pregnancy
and were expected to return
to work soon after giving
• College study was not an option for women.
• They were considered intellectually inferior to
• They could not have a profession.
Working Women
• Some women had to
work due to money
• Low wages.
• Jobs included spinning,
weaving or clothing
How Women Relate to Regions
• Certain regions of The Holy
Roman Empire valued
women more than others.
• Regions close to the
Mediterranean had poor
views of women.
• Regions in the territories of
Germany considered
women more important
with the success of the
Birth Rates
• Started to decline
• Rumored to have
been a form of
• Oral herbal
medicines that
could limit fertility
• The witch hunt was strong in
Europe during the Northern
• Witches were tortured until
they confessed.
• Faced severe punishments.
“Witches” by
Hans Baldung
A Contrast- Women of the Middle Ages
• They were expected to obey
• If they failed to obey men,
they were beaten and
accused of committing a
crime against their religion.
Women of the Middle Ages Continued
They did receive an education.
It was not school related.
They learned how to maintain a household.
Essentially, it was not to their benefit.
Women of the Middle Ages Continued
• Women were often sent to live with a noble
• They would learn etiquette and how to properly
maintain a residence.
• Marriages were arranged.
• They had no say in the man they married.
“Did Women Have A Renaissance?”
• Joan Kelly
▫ Historian, lecturer, professor.
▫ Challenged the Renaissance.
▫ She thought the power of women
disintegrated during this period.
▫ Kelly said the Renaissance
created something that is still
present today: women’s
dependency on men.
“Did Women
Have A
was published
in 1977.
Do you think the Renaissance has
affected women in society to this day?
"AP European History." - 15th Century. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012. <>.
"The Northern Renaissance." N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
Wagner, Jill E. Christine De Pizan's City of Ladies: A Monumental (Re)construction Of, By, and for Women of All Time. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
"The Book of the City of Ladies." N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012. <>.
"Social Changes at the Time of the Renaissance." N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
"Women's Status in Europe, 1500 to 1700." Women's Status in Europe, 1500 to 1700. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012.
Thomas Aquinas. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
Cranach, Lucas. Germany Holidays: Martin Luther. Digital image. Wunderban! N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
"Middle Ages Women." Middle Ages Women. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012. <>.
Du Pre Argent, Cynthia. Some Related Headdresses of the 15th Century:theories on Construction. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
Create Seperate Clothing Styles for Work and Socializing. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
The Holy Roman Empire map. Digital image. The Judgement. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
"A Short History of Witchcraft." A Short History of Witchcraft. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012. <>.
Anguissola, Sofonisba. The Northern Renaissance. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
Grien, Hans Baldung. Witches. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
Eyck, Jan Van. Arnolfini Wedding, 1434. Digital image. The Northern Renaissance. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
"Did Women's Roles Change Dramatically during the Renaissance and the Reformation?" Yahoo! Answers. Yahoo!, n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012.
Boursse, Esaias. Interior with and Old Woman at a Spinning Wheel 1667. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Sept. 2012. <>.
Joan Kelly Collaborative Law Vs Mediation Mediatecom Video." World News. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Sept. 2012.
Relating to the Time Period
Relating to the Time Period
The biggest separating factors of the Renaissance
and the Middle Ages were the decline of the
Feudalism System and the rise of the Humanism
The dwindling of the feudalism* system had a great
impact on the art of Europe.
This, in turn, also had an impact on the Catholic church.
Although that was a bigger problem for Italy, it is
important to note that it brought upon Humanism.
The idea of Humanism* started in Italy and eventually
spread to Northern Europe.
Relating to the Time Period
Feudalism: a system that structures society around rank
determined by the holding of land in exchange for labor.
Humanism: a system of thinking where the prime
importance is to the human rather to a supernatural or
godly being
Northern European Renaissance art
and Middle Ages art were more
similar than you may think….
Example of Medieval Art
The Book Of Kells
Late 8th Century
Illuminated Manuscript
Iona, Scotland
Example of Northern European
These images were dated to the Northern European
renaissance. Both are illuminated manuscripts that share
similar qualities to those of the previous Medieval
Relating to the Region
Relating to the Region
At the time, Italy was dominant in the art aspect of
Northern European artists were prominent- but there
were less of them and harder to find.
Their art, however, took on different forms than the
Italian. Some forms include illuminated manuscripts,
tapestries, and furnishings. (similar to Middle Ages)
In terms of wealth, Burgundy (located around modern
day Belgium) was in close comparison to Italy’s
Burgundy Dukes were great patrons of art and were the
artist’s biggest financial suppliers.
Relating to the Region
Also different from Italy, the Northern
European Artists took more attention to how
the picture looked like rather than the
scientific accuracy behind it.
Color and detail were essential in northern
painting unlike in Italy. The more the better!
The Vitruvian Man: Leonardo Da
Italian Renaissance
Focuses on anatomical structure of
the man entirely. Not much color
or detail was added.
The Arnolfini Marriage
Jan Van Eyck
Northern European Renaissance
There is much detail, includes
many colors, and many objects of
Jan van Eyck
 Developed oil painting
▫ Glazing
▫ Oil paints became more
Arnolfini Marriage Portrait
Limbourg Brothers
The Book of Hours (1412-16)
▫ Illuminated manuscript
▫ Calendar pages
Rogier van der Weyden
Deposition (1435)
▫ Most famous
▫ Intense emotion
▫ Detail
• van Eyck, Jan. The Madonna with Canon van der Paele. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
• va, . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
< >.
• van Eyck, Jan. Arnolfini Marriage. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
• Limbourg, . The Book of Hours. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
• van der Weyden, Rogier. Deposition. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
< >.
• Web. 5 Sept. 2012. < >.
• History World. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
92&HistoryID=ac88#1370 >.
• N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
< >.
• N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Sept. 2012.
Sculptures in Northern Europe:
The Renaissance
By: Brittney Rangel
What is the Northern Renaissance?
• The Northern Renaissance is acknowledged to
be “Renaissance happenings that occurred
within Europe, but outside of Italy.”
• The most innovative art came from France, the
Netherlands, and Germany.
▫ Northern states
Europe in Crisis
• Through the 14th century, much of Europe was in
▫ Earlier prosperity had fostered population growth
 By 1300 had begun to exceed food production.
▫ Series of bad harvests meant famines became
increasingly common.
▫ The Hundred Years War was ongoing.
Europe in Crisis
▫ The Black Death swept across
Europe, wiping out 40% of
the population.
 Depleting the labor force.
 Increased leveraged over
their landlords
 Increased wages of artisans
Crisis in Europe
• The papacy had emerged from its conflict with the
Holy Roman Empire.
▫ Weakened its spiritual authority and brought it into
conflict with other secular powers.
• Along with the Great Schism, Northern Europe was
torn apart by religious sectarianism.
Coming Together
• Despite all the upheaval,
monarchies consolidated their
power over emerging nations
and reformation as well as
humanism were spread across
▫ Embodied a worldview that
focused on human beings
Humanism Impact
• Artists of the Catholic
Reformation produced
sculptures whose expressive
distortions reflect the fervent
spirituality of the era.
• In the Netherlands, iconoclasts
destroyed religious images
▫ religious patronage of art
▫ secular patronage of
sculptures became more
 commodities in a booming
market economy.
Foreign Influence
• Reflected in the sculptures
▫ Mostly Gothic Influence
 Soaring vaults, light, colorful
▫ Little Italian Influence—
absorbed theories/techniques
Mode of Sculptures
• Work had little connection with the classical
style that developed in Italy.
• Instead, northern sculptors continued to use
techniques found in the great Gothic cathedrals.
• They worked with large figures in wood and
stone to exquisite ivory carvings.
▫ The pieces offer a broad range of emotional
expression, from dramatic to sensitive.
Sculpture Characteristics
• Sculpture in the 13-15th
centuries is exemplified by its
‘intimate character.’
• Religious subjects became
more emotionally expressive.
▫ Cult of Chivalry
•Tales of love and
valor were carved
on luxury items to
satisfy the rich,
middle class, and
aristocracy alike.
• Metals such as
gold, silver, and
ivory were
Influential People
• In the 1300s, Northern
European sculptors had
developed a form of realism that
was highly detailed.
▫ Sculptors began creating
precise portraits of particular
• This realism reached it’s peak
with Flemish sculptor Claus
▫ images of biblical figures have
animated expressions, a sense
of movement, and include
details such as signs of aging.
• Another characteristic of
northern European work during
this period is the use of paint on
sculptured surfaces.
Other Areas with Art
• In the 1400s, sculpture in the
realistic style appeared in
Germany and Austria.
• The Dutch artist Nicolaus
Gerhaert, brought the style of
Claus Sluter to the region.
• Notable German sculptural
▫ wooden altarpieces to decorate
▫ Combined sculpture with
Italian Renaissance Influence
In the 1500s, the Italian Renaissance
arrived in northern Europe.
Flemish and German artists, such as
traveled to Italy and brought back
Renaissance ideas and practices.
▫ Albrecht Dürer ,
In France and Spain, the monarchs
were responsible for introducing
Renaissance art.
Commissioned works from leading
Italian masters.
▫ The Italian artist Francesco
Primaticcio adorned the French
royal residence at Fontainebleau
with elegant stucco nudes.
▫ In turn, many French and Spanish
artists adopted Italian artistic
Regression and Resurgence
• The rise of the Protestant Reformation in
German-speaking lands temporarily put an end
to new religious sculpture.
• The more radical Protestant reformers were
strongly opposed to the religious use of images.
▫ However, the followers of Martin Luther accepted
and contributed to the re-emergence of religious
sculpture in Germany in the late 1500s.
Knip, Bastiaan. "Europeans Sculpture." Northern
European Sculpture. N.p., 2009. Web. 4 Sept. 2012.
Northern Renaissance Art, 1400-1600. (OBIS)
Stechow, Wolfgang,Evanston, ILL : Northwestern
University Press, 1989 Art N 6730. N67 1989
Stokstad, Mary. Art History Volume One. Vol. 1.
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson
Education, INC, 2008, 2005. N. pag. 3 vols. Print.
Northern European Renaissance
• The Northern European
Renaissance was very heavily
influenced by the Italian Renaissance architecturally. Northern
Europe followed in Italy’s footsteps toward a more classical
architectural style and began to cut off the gothic architecture
that had been so dominant.
• The Architecture became more open, more specifically, open
to God. Religion was very influential in architecture, it was
part of the style to leave very much room for light to come in.
Renaissance Architecture
• Architects were very influenced by nature, and wanted to be
done with the dark and gloomy forms of Gothic building. And
though many Gothic structures were already highly decorative,
the new classical architectural style promoted new and better
use of artistic decoration.
• Use of natural light was a major theme during the
The light was symbolic of purity and God, and in turn, was a
major theme of many architectural works.
• The Renaissance in Northern Europe did not happen all at once. It was
generally one country at a time that would join in.
• This meant that architecture would change quickly but all be connected.
• Germany was heavily influenced by Italian architecture, as was Spain.
French and English architecture was very decorative, and Scandinavian
architecture took one formidable manors. All tried to appeal to aesthetics
and classical demand.
• Burghley House,
Cambridgeshire, England
Renaissance Architecture
• For example, The Frederiksborg palace in Denmark.
• Very spacious, highly decorative, and plays off natural light.
• Germany: The St Michael’s church
In Munich, Germany
Built 1583-1597 by William V, Duke
of Bavaria
• Large windows to let in light
• High ceiling
• Lots of open space
• Highly decorative
• Symmetrical
• Palacio de los Guzmanes, designed by
Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón.
• Open courtyard
• Open space
• Symmetrical
• Classical appearance
• Many windows for light
Chateau de Chambord in the
Loire Valley, France
Very spacious grounds, very intricate and
decorative towers
• Elizabethan Architecture was the pinnacle of England’s
renaissance. It was heavily Dutch and Flemish in design.
Wollaton Hall, Nottingham,
• Very open
• Many windows to let in light
• Very classical appeal
• Symmetrical
• Very decorative
Important People
• Sebastiano Serlio: Italian Renaissance figure. He wrote Tutte l’opere
d’architettura, et prospetiva ( “Complete Works on Architecture and
Perspective”), Which was translated from Latin and was hugely influential
on Northern European architecture. His book promoted practical
architecture philosophy as opposed to theoretical architecture philosophy
Important People
• Marcus Vitruvius:
Marcus Vitruvius was a roman was a Roman writer, architect and engineer who
wrote the multi-volume work De Architectura ("On Architecture"). The
rediscovery of Vitruvius' work had a profound influence on architects of the
Renaissance, prompting the rise of the Neo-Classical style. Renaissance
architects, such as Niccoli, Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti, found in
"De Architectura” their inspiration for raising their branch of knowledge to a
science as well as emphasizing the skills of the architect. More specifically in
Northern Europe Renaissance architecture, The English architect Inigo Jones
and the Frenchman Salomon de Caus were among the first to rediscover and
implement those disciplines that Vitruvius considered a necessary element of
architecture: arts and sciences based upon number and proportion. In the
marginalia that Spanish architect El Greco inscribed in his copy of Daniele
Barbaro's translation of Vitruvius' “De architectura”, he refuted Vitruvius'
attachment to archaeological remains, perspective and mathematics. He also
saw Vitruvius' manner of distorting proportions in order to compensate for
distance from the eye as responsible for creating monstrous forms.
• Sebastiano Serlio:
Serlio, Sebastiano. Canon of the 5 orders. 1486. Print.
Serlio, Sebastiano. Tragic Set. 2. 1545. Print.
Hewitt, Barnard, ed. (1958), The Renaissance Stage: Documents of Serlio,
Sabbattini, Furttenbach, Coral Gables, FL: University of Miami Press
Read more:
• Marcus Vitruvius:
Vitruvius, Marcus. De Architectura. Italy: Cesare Cesariano, 1521. Print.
Vitruvius, Marcus. De Architectura. Italy: Daniele Barbaro, 1556. Print
"Vitruvius Pollio." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. 4 Sep. 2012 <>.
• Images:
•[email protected]/489484236

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