Chapter 9 Rotational dynamics

Report
Chapter 9 Rotational
dynamics
9-1 Torque
1. Torque
In this chapter we will
consider only case in
which the rotational
axis is fixed in z
direction.
Fig 9-2 shows an
arbitrary rigid body that
is free to rotate about
the z axis.


M
z

M
O
d

F

r
*

P
A force F is applied at point P, which is located
a perpendicular

distance r from the axis of rotation. F and r lie in x-y plane,
and make an angle  .
The radial component F R  F cos  has no effect
on rotation of the body about z axis.
Only the tangential component F 
a rotation about the z axis.
 F sin 
produces
The angular acceleration also depends on the
magnitude of r
The rotational quantity “torque”  is defined as
(9-1)
  rF sin 
The unit of torque is the Newton-meter
( N m )
When 
=0 ?
  rF sin 
If r=0 -that is the force is applied at or
through the axis of rotation;
If   0 or 180  , that is the force is applied in
the radial direction;
If

F
=0.
2.Torque as a vector
  rF sin 
In terms of the cross product, the torque
is expressed as   
(9-3)

  r F
Magnitude of  : rF sin 
Direction of  : using righ-hand rule

M
z

M
O
d

F

r
*
P

Components of torque:




r  x i  y j z k




F  Fx i  Fy j Fz k



i
j
k
So   r  F  x
y
z
Fx
Fy
Fz






 ( yF z  zF y ) i  ( zF x  xF z ) j  ( xF y  yF x ) k
Sample problem 9-1
Fig 9-5 shows a
pendulum .
The magnitude of
the torque due to
gravity about the
point o is
Fig 9-5
.
x


  Lmg sin 
it has the opposite
direction.
mg
mg
9-2 Rotational inertia and Newton’s
second law
1. Rotational inertia of a single particle
Fig 9-7
Fig 9-7 shows a
single particle of mass
m which is attached
by a thin rod of length
r and of negligible
mass, and free rotates
about the z axis.
y

F
F sin 
r
o

m
x

A force F is applied to the particle in a
direction at an angle  with the rod(in x-y
plane).
Newton’s Second law applied the
tangential motion of the particle gives
F t  ma t  F sin  and a t   z r , we obtain
F sin   m  z r
r F sin   r m  z r

 z  mr  z
2
 z  I  z , I  mr

F  ma
2
We define mr 2 to be the “rotational inertia”
I of the particle about point o.
I  mr
2
(9-6)
The rotational inertia depends on the
mass of the particle and on the
perpendicular distance between the
particle and the axis of rotation.
2. Newton’s second law for rotation
(For system of particles)
Fig 9-8
y
y

P
F
1t

m1

r1
0
T1
T1 r
m1

T2r


m2
F1


F
2t
F1 R

F
2

F
r2 T 2
x
0
m2
2R
x
That is   z


 (  F1 t ) r1

 ( F
1z

2t
2z
(9-7)
) r2
For each particle
F
F
 m 1 a 1t
1t
 m 2 a 2t
2t
Substituting them into Eq(9-7), we obtain
τ
z
 (  F1t )r1  (  F 2t )r 2
 m 1 a 1t r1  m 2 a 2t r2
2
2
 m 1 r1 α z  m 2 r2 α z
2
2
 (m 1 r1  m 2 r2 )α z
 Iα z ,
2
I  m 1 r1  m 2 r2
2
(9-8)
The  z are the same for both particles ,the
total rotational inertia of this two-particle
system:
2
2
I  m 1 r1  m 2 r2
(9-9)
The obvious extension to a rigid object
consisting of N particles rotating about the
same axis is
2
2
I  m 1 r1  m 2 r2         m N r N

m
r
n n
2
2
(9-10)
y

P
For system of particles,
what kinds of force
induce torque?
Fig. 9-8

m1

T1 r
r1 T 1
•Torque of Internal Forces:

   
M In  r1  f 1  r2  f 2


 f1   f 2



 

 M In  ( r1  r2 )  f 1  r12  f 1

T2r

r2 T 2
0
f1

•TensionsT 1 andT 2
x

r12

r1
O

r2
=0
Torque of Internal Forces is zero!!!

m2
have also no torque about o.

f2
Thus the torque about o is due only to the

external force P . Thus we can rewrite the
Eq(9-8) as
  ext , z  I  z (9-11)
This is the rotational form of Newton’s
Second law.
Notes:   ext , z , I,  z must be calculated about
same axis.
For rotations about a single axis, I is
scalar.
If many external forces act on the
system, we add up the torques due to all the
external forces about that same axis.
Sample problem 9-2
Three particles of
masses m 1=2.3kg,
m 2 =3.2kg and
m 3 =1.5kg are
connected by thin
rods of negligible
mass, so that they
lie at the vertices
of 3-4-5 right
triangle in the x-y
plane.
Fig 9-9
y
(m)

3
F =4.5N
m2
30
r2
r1
m1

c
r3
m3
4
X (m)
Question:
(a) Find the rotational inertia about each of
the three axes perpendicular to the x-y
plane and passing through one of the
particles.
(b) A force of magnitude 4.5N is applied to
m2 in the xy plane and makes an angles
of 300 with the horizontal. Find the
angular acceleration about oz axis.
(c) Find the rotational inertial about an axis
perpendicular to the xy plane and
passing through the center of mass of
the system
Solution:
(a) consider first axis through m 1
2
I1 
m
r
n n
 ( 2 . 3 kg )  ( 0 m )  ( 3 . 2 kg )  ( 3 . 0 m )  (1 . 5 kg )  ( 4 m )
2
 53 kg  m
2
2
Similarly for the axis through m 2 , we have
I 2  ( 2 . 3 kg )  ( 3 . 0 m )  ( 3 . 2 kg )  ( 0 m )  (1 . 5 kg )  ( 5 . 0 m )
2
 58 kg  m
2
y
(m)
2
For the axis through m 3
I 3  117 kg  m
2
3

F =4.5N
m2
30
r2
r1
m1

c
r3
m3
2
2
(b) Using Eq(9-2)
 z  rF   (3 m )  (4.5 N ) cos 30
z 
z

(3 m )  (4.5 N )
53 kg  m
I1
2
cos 30
(c) Rotational inertial about an axis
passing through the cm.
x cm 
m x
m
m y
m
n
n
 0 . 86 m
n
y cm 
n
n
n
 1 . 37 m
r1
r2
r3
2
2
 x cm
 2 . 62 m
2
 x cm
2
 ( x 3  x cm )  y cm
I cm 
2
 y cm
2
 ( y 2  y cm )
2

m n rn
2
2
 3 . 40 m
2
 11 . 74 m
2
2
2
 ( 2 . 3 kg )  ( 2 . 62 m )  ( 3 . 2 kg )  ( 3 . 40 m )  (1 . 5 kg )  (11 . 74 m )
2
 35 kg  m
2
Icm<I1,I2,I3
2
2
3. The parallel-axis theorem
The result of the previous sample problem
leads us to an important general result,
the parallel-axis theorem:
“The rotational inertia of any body about
an arbitrary axis equals the rotational
inertial about a parallel axis through the
center of mass plus the total mass times
the squared distance between two axes ”.
I  I cm  Mh
2
4. Proof of Parallel-Axis theorem
Fig 9-10 shows a
thin slab in the x-y
plane, the
rotational inertia
about oz is
m r
  m (x
I 
n
y’
y
P
2
n n
n
Fig 9-10
y cm
2
2
 yn )
x n  x cm  x n
'
y n  y cm  y n
'
o
c
X’
h
x cm
x
Substituting these transformations, we
have
I 
m
'
n
'
[( x cm  x n )  ( y cm  y n ) ]
2
2
Regrouping the terms, we can write this
as
2
2
 m (x
 2y  m y
 y n )  2 x cm  m n x n
'
I 
n
cm
'
n
n
'
n
'
 ( x cm  y cm )  m n
 I cm  M h
2
2
2

m
'
'
'
'
m n x n  Mx cm  0
n
y n  My
cm
 0
9-3 Rotational inertia of solid bodies
For a rigid body which is a continuous
distribution of matter. We can imagine it
divided into a large number of small
mass  m n . Eq(9-10) become
2
I   rn  m n
(9-13)
Take this to the limit of infinitesimally
small so that the sum becomes an integral
2
2
I  lim  rn  m n   r dm
(9-15)
m
The integral is carried out over the entire
volume of the object.
n
1. As an example, a
rod rotates about an
axis through its center.
Find its rotational
inertia.
Fig 9-13
dx
dm
dV  Adx
dm   dV   A dx
I 

 r dm 
M
L
2

x
2
M
 
A dx
AL

L/2
x dx  M L / 12
2
x
M
AL
L/2
2
How
about I of
this axis
Use the parallelaxis theorem
2. Another example:
calculate the rotational
inertia of a uniform solid
rectangular about an axis
perpendicular to the
plate and through its
center.
The plate (3D) can be
divided into a series of
strips, each of which is to
be regarded as a rod.
The mass dm of the strip
is
dm 
M
ab
adx 
M
b
dx
axis of rotation
dx
x
b
a
The rotational inertia of the strip about the
axis is
1
2
2
2
dI  dI cm  dm  x

dm  a  dm  x
12
Substituting for dm yields
dI 
thus
Ma
2
dx 
12 b
I 

1
12
2 b/2
 dx 
12 b
b / 2
M (a  b )
2
2
x dx
b
Ma
 dI 
M
2
M
b
b/2

2
x dx
b / 2
9-4 Torque due to gravity
1. center of gravity
Imagine a body of
mass M (Fig 9-18)
to be divided into a
large number of
particles.
fig 9-18
y
mn
Cg

rn

rcg
o

M g
x
The net torque about arbitrary axis oz due
to gravity acting on all the particles is




g is a
Assume
    ( rn  m n g n )
constant vector.




 (m
 (m
n
rn  g n )

n



rn )  g  rcg  M g
(9-20)
The torque on the body thus equals the
torque that
would be produced by a single

force M g acting
at the center of mass of

the body. rcg is also the location of the
“center of gravity (cg)”.
2.Center of mass (cm) and center of
gravity(cg)
To calculate the center of gravity, we must
know not only the mass distribution ofthe
body, but also the variation of over the
g
body. If
is not constant
over the body,
g
then the cg and cm may not coincide,
because
cannot gbe removed from the
sums in eq. (9-20).





If     ( rn  m n g n )  rcg  M g cg ,
the rcg is the location of the “center of
gravity (cg)”.
3. Find the cg
Fig 9-20
Consider a body of
arbitrary shape
suspended from a point
S (Fig 9-20). If we draw
a vertical line through S,
then we know that cg
must lie somewhere on
the line.
s
s
a
b
c
Repeating the procedure with a new
choice of point S as in Fig 9-20 b, we can
find a second line that must contain the cg.
The cg must lie at the intersection of the
lines. If we suspend the object from the cg
as in Fig 9-20c, and release it, the body
will remain at rest no matter what its
orientation.
9-5 Equilibrium applications of
Newton’s law for Rotation
1.For a body to be in equilibrium both the
net external force and net external torque
must be zero. In this case the body will
have neither an angular acceleration nor a
translational acceleration. We therefore
have two conditions of equilibrium:
(9-22)
F 0

and
(9-23)
  ext  0

ext
The equilibrium condition for the torques
is true for any choice of the axis, when
F 0 .
To prove this statement,we consider
Fig9-21.
ext
In Fig 9-21, many
forces act on a body,
force F is applied at
the point located
at r ,force F at r ,
and so on. The net
torque about an axis
through o is
Fig 9-21

z

F1
1


1


2
r1 - rP

2

r1

o
rP
y




 0   1   2        N




x


 r1  F1  r2  F 2        r N  F N
(9-26)

Suppose a point P is located at rP with
respect to o. The torque about P is










 P  ( r1  r P )  F1  ( r2  r P )  F 2        ( r N  r P )  F N







 ( r1  F1        r N  F N )  [ r P  (  F ext )]   0
where  F  0 for a body in translational
equilibrium. Thus “the torque about any
two points has the same value when the
body is in translational equilibrium.”
ext
Often we deal with problems in which all
the forces lie in the same plane (x-y plane).
Equilibrium condition is then
F
x
F
 0

z
 0
y
 0
(9-27)
(9-28)
2.Equilibrium analysis problems
Here are the procedures you should follow:
1 .Draw a boundary around the system,
so that you can separate the system you
are considering from its environment.
2 .Draw a free-body diagram showing all
external forces that act on the system.
3 .Set up a coordinate system, resolve the
forces into their components.
4 .Set up a coordinate system and axis
for resolving the torque into their
components.
Sample problem 9-7
A ladder whose length L is 12m
and whose mass m is 45kg
rests against a wall. Its upper
end is a distance h of 9.3m
above the ground, as in Fig 923. the cm of the ladder is
one-third of the way up the
ladder. A firefighter of mass
M=72kg climbs halfway up the
ladder. The wall is frictionless.
What forces are exerted on the
ladder by the wall and by the
ground?
Fig 9-23
y

Fw
firefighter

M g


N
mg

a/3
a/2
f
o
x
Solution:
Fig 9-23 shows a free-body diagram. The

wall exerts a horizontal force F w on the
ladder. It can not exert vertical force
because the wall-ladder contacts is
assumed to be frictionless. The ground
exerts a force with a horizontal component
f due to friction and a vertical component
N: the normal force.
The distance a from the wall to the foot of
ladder is
a
L h
2
2

(12 m )  ( 9 . 3 m )  7 . 6 m
2
2
Using Eq(9-27) (  F  0  F  0
),we have
F w  f  0 and N  Mg  mg  0
y
x
N  (M  m ) g
 ( 72 kg  45 kg )  ( 9 . 8 m / s )
2
 1150 N
Taking torque about an axis through the
point o and parallel to the z direction, then


Fw gives a negative torque, m g and M g
give positive torques. Multiplying each
force by its moments arm, we find
Mga
mga
 Fw h 

0
(9-32)
F w  [ ga (
2
M
2
3

m
)] / h
2
( 9 . 8 m / s )  ( 7 . 6 m )( 72 kg / 2  45 kg / 3 )
2

9 .3 m
 410 N
9-6 Nonequilibrium applications of
Newton’s Law for rotation
In this section we will analyze
problems involving angular
acceleration produced by a nonzero
net torque applied to an object with
a fixed axis of rotation.
Sample problem 9-9
A playground merry-go-round 
is pushed by a 
parent who
exerts a force F of magnitude
115N at a point P on the rim a
distance of r=1.5m from the
axis. The force is exerted in a
direction at an angle 32  below
the horizontal, and the
horizontal component of the
force is in a direction 15 
inward from the tangent at P.
Fig 9-25
Horizontal
component
1.5m
r
P
15
32



F
tangent
at P
(a) Find the torque .
(b) Assuming that the merry-go-round
can be represented as a disk 1.5m in
radius and 0.40cm thick and that the child
riding on it can be represented as a 0.25kg “particle” 1m from the axis of rotation,
find the resulting angular acceleration of
the system.
Solution:
(a) F   F cos 32  cos 15   94 . 2 N
 z  rF   (1 . 50 m )  ( 94 . 2 N )  141 N  m
(b)
I  (
1
MR
2
 mr )
2
2

1
( 223 kg )  (1 . 5 m )  ( 25 kg )  (1 . 0 m )
2
2
2
 276 kg  m
z 
z
I

2
141 N  m
276 kg  m
2
 0 . 51 rad / s
2
Sample problem 9-10
Fig 9-26 shows a pulley,
which can be considered as
a uniform disk of mass
m=2.5kg and radius
R=20cm,mounted on a fixed
frictionless horizontal axis. A
block of mass m=1.2kg
hang from a light cord that
is wrapped around the rim
of the disk. Find the
acceleration, tension in the
cord.
Fig 9-26
0
R
T
T

mg
Solution:
Fig 9-26 shows the system and its freebody diagram. We choose the y axis to be
positive downward. We have
mg  T  ma
TR  I  
a  R
1
MR 
2
2
Because the cord does not slip or stretch
a must equal  R . Combine the equations to
obtain
a 
and
2m
M  2m
T  mg
g  4 .8 m / s
M
M  2m
2
 6 .0 N
We see also that the acceleration and
tension depend on the mass of the disk
but not the radius. As a check, we note
that the formulas predict a=g and T=0 for
the case of a massless disk (M=0). This is
what we expect: the block simply falls as
a free body.
9-7 Combined rotational and
translational motion
In general, an object simultaneously
undergoes both rotational and
translational displacements, and the
translational and rotational motions may
be completely independent. It has only
rotational and no translational motion, or
it has only translational and no rotational
motion.
1. In a special case of a rolling wheel: or
(1) the axis of rotation passes through the
center of mass (2) the axis always has the
same direction in space. If these two
conditions are valid, we may apply Eq(9-11)
(  z  I  z) to the rotational motion.
Independent of the rotational motion, we
may apply Eq(7-16)(  F  M a ) to the
translational motion.


cm
Fig 9-30
T
T
v cm
c
c

v cm

R
T
c

R
B
(a)
v cm
B
B
(b)
(c)
2 v cm
v cm
2. If the wheel rolls across a surface in the
way that there is no relative motion
between the object and the surface at the
instantaneous point of contact, this case is
called “rolling without slipping”. Fig 9-30
shows one way to view rolling without
slipping as a combination of rotational and
translational motions.
In pure translational motion (Fig 9-30a),
the center of mass c (along with every
point on the wheel) moves with velocity
v cm to the right. In pure rotational motion
(Fig 9-30b) at angular speed  , every
point on the rim has tangential speed  R .
When the two motions are combined, the
resulting velocity of point B (at the bottom
of the wheel) is v cm   R .
For rolling without slipping, the point
where contacts the surface must be at
rest; thus
v cm   R  0
v cm   R
or
(9-36)
Superimposing the resulting translational
and rotational motions, we obtain
Fig 9-30c. v T  2 v cm ( at point T)
3.Another
instructive way to
analyze rolling
without slipping:
we consider the
point of contact B
to be an
instantaneous axis
of rotation, as
illustrate in Fig 931.
Fig 9-31
0

B
At each instant there is a new point of
contact B and therefore a new axis of
rotation, but instantaneously the motion
consists of a pure rotation about B. the
angular velocity of this rotation about B is
the same as the angular velocity of the
rotation about the center of mass. Since
the distance from B to T is twice the
distance from B to C, we conclude
that v  2 v .
T
cm
Sample problem 9-11
A solid cylinder of mass
M and radius R starts
from rest and rolls
without slipping down
an inclined plane of
length L and height h
(Fig 9-32). Find the
speed of its center of
mass when the cylinder
reaches the bottom.
c

h
L

a cm
(a)
N

f
(b)

Mg
Fig 9-32
Solution:
The free-body diagram of Fig 9-32b,
N  mg cos 
Mg sin   f  Ma cm
The net torque about the cm
 cm  fR  I cm  z
and
thus
a cm   z R
f 
I cm  z
(

R
a cm 
2
3
I cm 
g sin 
1
1
MR )  (
2
2
MR
2
a cm
R
2
)

1
R
v cm 
Ma
2
2 ba cm 
4
3
cm
Lg sin 
Sample problem 9-12
A uniform solid
cylinder of radius
R=12cm and mass
M=3.2kg is given
an initial (clockwise)
angular velocity  0
of 15 rev/s and
then lowered on to
a uniform
horizontal surface
(Fig 9-33).
z

(a)
a cm
0
y

c
(b)
N
x
mg

Fig 9-33
f
The coefficient of the kinetic friction
between the surface and the cylinder
is  k  0 .21 .Initially the cylinder slips as it
moves along the surface. But after a time
t pure rolling without slipping begins
(1) What is the velocity v cm of the cm at
the time t ?
(2) t=?
Solution :
(a)  F y  0
 Fx  f
During the interval from time 0 to time t
while slipping occurs, the forces are
constant and so the a cm must be constant,
v fx  v cm
v ix  0
a cm  a x 
f  Ma
cm
v cm  0
t
 M

v cm
t
v cm
t
The torque about cm is  z  fR . With
 i    0  f   v cm / R ( the negative sighs
indicating that the cylinder is spinning
clockwise ), then
z 

t
 z  fR 
then
v cm 
(b)
1
3


f
 i

 v cm / R   0
t
Mv cm
t
0R 
f   k Mg
t
R  I z 
1
1
2
2
MR (
 v cm / R   0
)
t
(15 rev / s )( 2  rad / rev )( 0 . 12 m )  3 . 8 m / s
3
t 
v cm
k g

3 .8 m / s
2
( 0 . 21 )( 9 . 80 m / s )
 1 .8 s

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