Chapter 9

Report
Chapter 9
Race and Ethnicity
What Is Race?

Some people view race as:

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Skin color: the Caucasian “race”,
Religion: the Jewish “race”
Nationality: the British “race”
Entire human species: the human “race”
Race and Biology


A race is a category of people who
have been singled out as inferior or
superior, on the basis of real or alleged
physical characteristics such as skin
color, hair texture, eye shape, or other
attributes.
Race has little meaning biologically due
to interbreeding in the human
population.
The Social Construction of
Race
It is culture, rather than biology that defines
a racial group.
Definitions change with historical and cultural
circumstances.
Characteristics of Ethnic
Groups

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Unique cultural traits.
A sense of community.
A feeling of ethnocentrism.
Ascribed membership from birth.
Tendency to occupy a geographic area.
Dominant (majority) and
Subordinate (minority) Groups


A dominant or majority group is one that is
advantaged and has superior resources and
rights in a society.
A subordinate or minority group is one whose
members are disadvantaged and subjected to
unequal treatment by the dominant group
and who regard themselves as objects of
collective discrimination.
Examples of Minority Groups?
• Race
• Ethnicity
• Gender
• Sexual Orientation
• Age
• Disability
• Religion
Some people experience “Double Jeopardy”
Prejudice

A negative attitude based on
generalizations about members of
selected racial, ethnic, or other groups.


Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to
regard one’s own culture and group as the
standard.
Stereotypes are overgeneralizations about
the appearance, behavior, or other
characteristics of members of particular
categories.
Racism


A set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices used
to justify the superior treatment of one racial
or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of
another racial or ethnic group.
A form of prejudice, where the belief is that
inherited physical characteristics associated
with racial groups determine unequal abilities
and characteristics
Prejudice can be maintained by


The Self-fulfilling prophesy
Social distance
Bogardus Social Distance
Rating Scale
Person expresses a willingness to interact
with minority group member in increasingly close
proximity:
1. As a marriage partner
2. As my close friends
3. As my Neighbors
4. As workers in my company
5. As citizens of my country
6. As visitors to my country
7. Prohibited from entering my country
Theories of Prejudice

Frustration–aggression hypothesis


People who are frustrated in their efforts to
achieve a highly desired goal will respond
with a pattern of aggression toward others.
Authoritarian Personality

Characterized by excessive conformity,
submissiveness to authority, intolerance,
insecurity, a high level of superstition, and
rigid, stereotypic thinking.
Theories of Prejudice,


continued
Socialization and lack of contact
Ideology of the American dream encourages prejudice toward the
socially disadvantaged
Discrimination
While prejudice is an attitude,
discrimination is a behavior.
Merton’s Typology of
Prejudice and Discrimination
Unprejudiced
nondiscriminator
Unprejudiced
discriminator
Prejudiced
Nondiscriminator
Prejudiced
Discriminator
Prejudiced
Attitude?
Discriminatory
behavior?
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Four Major Types of
Discrimination
1.
2.
Isolate discrimination - A prejudiced
judge giving harsher sentences to
African American defendants.
Small-group discrimination - Small
group of white students defacing a
professor’s office with racist epithets.
Four Major Types of
Discrimination
3.
4.
Direct institutionalized discrimination Intentional exclusion of people of color
from public accommodations.
Indirect institutionalized discrimination
– Does not necessarily involve
conscious intent.
Contact Hypothesis

Contact between divergent groups
should be positive as long as group
members:




Have equal status.
Pursue the same goals.
Cooperate with one another to achieve
goals.
Receive positive feedback while interacting.
Contact Hypothesis

Contact between divergent groups
should be positive as long as group
members:




Have equal status.
Pursue the same goals.
Cooperate with one another to achieve
goals.
Receive positive feedback while interacting.
Functionalist Perspectives on
Race and Ethnic Relations


Assimilation
A process by which members of
subordinate racial and ethnic groups
become absorbed into the dominant
culture.
Ethnic Pluralism
The coexistence of a variety of distinct
racial and ethnic groups within one
society.
Conflict Perspectives on Race
and Ethnic Relations


The Caste Perspective views racial
and ethnic inequality as a permanent
feature of U.S. society.
Class perspectives emphasize the
role of the capitalist class in racial
exploitation.
Conflict Perspectives on Race
and Ethnic Relations


Internal Colonialism occurs when
members of a racial or ethnic group are
forcibly placed under the control of the
dominant group.
Split Labor Market - The division of the
economy into a primary sector composed of
higher paid workers in more secure jobs, and
a secondary sector of lower-paid workers in
jobs with little security.
Critical Race Theory

Premises:


The belief that racism is such an ingrained
feature of U.S. society that it appears to be
ordinary and natural to many people.
The belief that interest convergence is a
crucial factor in bringing about social
change.
Racial and Ethnic Groups in
the United States

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Native Americans
White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
African Americans
White Ethnic Americans
Asian Americans
Latinos/as
Middle Eastern Americans
Time Line of Racial and Ethnic Groups in the United
States
Native Americans
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
Most disadvantaged group in the U.S. in
terms of income, employment, housing,
and nutrition.
As a group they have experienced:



Genocide
Forced Migration
Forced Assimilation
Early Contact with Europeans
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
Arrived 12,000 to 50,000 years ago.
Native American populations estimates
vary from 10 to 100 million
Physical and cultural differences were
interpreted ethnocentrically as proof of
“inferiority”
All tribes and nations lumped together
as “Indians”
Two Concerns have
Dominated Government Policy
1.
2.
White takeover of native lands. “Where
there was desirable land, whites eventually
took it.”
Transformation of native lifestyles into
copies of approved white models. Native
culture must be eradicated.
Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1889
“The Indians must conform to the
white man’s ways; peaceably if
they will, forcibly if they must.”
By the beginning of the 20th
century …
The Indian population was unable
to be self sufficient, was
impoverished and at the mercy of
the federal government. It
numbered only about 250,000.
Pervasive Inequality
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84% of national average on high school
graduation
42% of national average on college
education
76% of national average household income
Almost twice as likely to lack health insurance
Nearly twice as likely to live in poverty
African-Americans


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Second largest minority group in the
U.S., making up some 13% of the
population.
Arrived involuntarily - as slaves.
Most African Americans could trace their
ancestry in America to the early colonial
period.
Epoch One: Slavery

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Why African Americans?
 Physical appearance
 Ethnocentrism: “savages”, “inferior”
 Powerlessness
The Status of “Slave”
 No legal rights
 Property ownership forbidden
 Working for pay forbidden
 Entering into contracts forbidden
 Marriage not legally recognized
 Importance of “social distance”
Racism as an ideological justification
Epoch Two: The Jim Crow Era

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Loss of federal protection after Reconstruction
Loss of voting rights
Jim Crow laws
 Legally enforced segregation
 Housing
 Work
 Education
 Health care
 Transportation
 Religion
 Leisure
Ideology of Social Darwinism
Epoch Three: The Modern Era
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
Important Legislation
 1941 - Racial discrimination in federal jobs prohibited
 End of WWII – Desegregation of the armed forces
 1954 – Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
 1964 – Civil Rights Act
Black Protest
 Non-violence as a tactic to fight segregation
 Black Power as an ideology to fight inequality
 Self-determination
 Self-image
Asian Americans
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4% of the U.S. population.
From Japan, China, South Asia, the
Philippines, and Southeast Asia.
Have the highest average household income
of any major ethnic group.
Japanese and Chinese-Americans surpass
whites in educational attainment.
The History of Discrimination
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The “Yellow Peril”
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
The “Gentlemen’s Agreement” with
Japan, 1907
The Oriental Exclusion Act, 1924
Japanese Internment, 1941
Asian Americans as the
“Model Minority”

Levels of achievement
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Median family income 29% above
national average
44% of Asian Americans have at least
Bachelors degrees (the U.S. average is
24%)
A positive or negative stereotype?
Factors in Asian American
Economic Success
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Innate superiority?
Pre-existing social and occupational standing
Cultural Values (the “achievement syndrome
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The value of education
Work ethic
Family values
Core values of the Confucian and Buddhist traditions:
“Achievement, a cohesive family and hard work.”
Hispanics
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Largest minority group in the U.S.
Majority are of Mexican heritage,
Latinos have also arrived in America
from Cuba, Puerto Rico, and many
Central and South American nations.
Will make up about 20% of the U.S.
population by the year 2050.
Who is “Hispanic”?

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Race or Ethnicity?
Dominant group’s label vs. self perception
Ethnically diverse with different paths of entry

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Mexican
Puerto Rican
Cuban
South and Central American
Hispanics
Rapid growth rates raises concerns:
1.
New immigrants are young and poorly
educated resulting in lower income levels.
2.
Concerns among non-Hispanic Americans over
competition for jobs.
3.
Increasing immigration results in segregation.
Hispanics and the Class
System
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An “In-Between” Position
The hierarchy: Cubans/Mexicans/Puerto
Ricans
Factors inhibiting social mobility
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Education
Age
Language
Changed economy
Hispanic Patterns of
Assimilation
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Acculturation
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Language
Ethnic community
Proximity to country of origin
Assimilation
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Secondary structural assimilation
Primary structural assimilation
Middle Eastern Americans
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Includes immigrants from Egypt, Syria,
Lebanon, Iran, and Jordan.
The Lebanese, Syrians, and Iranians
primarily come from middle class
backgrounds.
Most Iranian immigrants initially hoped
to return to Iran; however, many have
become U.S. citizens.
Why have some ethnic groups “done
better” than others (experienced
“social mobility”)?
Origin of Contact
 Conquest
 Annexation
 Voluntary
Immigration
 Involuntary
Immigration
Degree of
 Ethnocentrism
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Degree of: Physical
difference, Cultural
difference
Competition
Unequal distribution
of power
Racial and Ethnic Diversity in
the United States
Percent Population of the U.S. by Race and Ethnicity
Year
White
African American
Hispanic
Asian
All Other Races
1950
2000
2020
2040
2050
87
10
3
69
13
13
4
3
61
13
18
5
4
54
14
22
7
5
50
15
24
8
5
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2004, "U.S. Interim Projections by
Age, Sex, Race and Hispanic Origin"
Chapter 10
Sex and Gender
Sex and Gender


Sex refers to the biological differences
between females and males.
Gender refers to the culturally and
socially constructed differences
between females and males.
Chapter 10
Sex and Gender
Sex Characteristics


At birth, male and female infants are
distinguished by primary sex
characteristics: the genitalia used in the
reproductive process.
At puberty, an increased production of
hormones results in the development of
secondary sex characteristics: physical
traits that identify an individual’s sex.
Sexual Orientation

An individual’s preference for
emotional–sexual relationships with
members of the opposite sex
(heterosexuality), the same sex
(homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).
Sexual Orientation

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Homosexual and gay are most often used in
association with males who prefer same-sex
relationships.
Lesbian is used in association with females
who prefer same-sex relationships.
Heterosexual individuals, who prefer
opposite-sex relationships, are sometimes
referred to as straight.
Sexual Orientation

An individual’s preference for
emotional–sexual relationships with
members of the opposite sex
(heterosexuality), the same sex
(homosexuality), or both (bisexuality).
Hermaphrodites

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Caused by a hormone imbalance, a
hermaphrodite has a combination of
male and female genitalia.
Western societies acknowledge two
sexes, other societies recognize three:

Men
Women
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Berdaches - males who behave, dress,

work,and are treated as women.
http://www.coreymondello.com/Berdache.html
Gender: The Cultural
Dimension
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Most “sex differences” are socially
constructed “gender differences”.
Gender is embedded in the images,
ideas, and language of a society.
Gender is used as a means to divide up
work, allocate resources, and distribute
power.
Sexism toward Women

Three components:
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Negative attitudes toward women.
Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce,
complement, or justify the prejudice.
Discrimination - acts that exclude, distance,
or keep women separate.
Gender Stereotypes

Men
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strong, rational, dominant, independent, less
concerned with appearance
Women

weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious
about appearance
What do we mean by Sexism?
Sexism = Men and women have
biologically different capacities that
form a legitimate reason for unequal
treatment.
Gendered Division of Labor:
Hunting and Gathering
Economic
Characteristics
Hunting game, gathering roots
and berries
Control of Surplus
None
Inheritance
None
Control over
Procreation
None
Women’s Status
Relative Equality
Gendered Division of Labor:
Horticultural and Pastoral
Economic
Characteristics
Control of Surplus
Inheritance
Control over
Procreation
Women’s Status
Planting crops, domestication of
animals for food
Men begin to control societies
Shared—patrilineal and
matrilineal
Increasingly by men
Decreasing in move to
pastoralism
Gendered Division of Labor:
Agrarian
Economic
Characteristics
Control of Surplus
Inheritance
Control over
Procreation
Women’s Status
Labor-intensive farming
Men who own land or herds
Patrilineal
Men—to ensure legitimacy of heirs
Low
Gendered Division of Labor:
Industrial
Economic
Characteristics
Control of Surplus
Inheritance
Control over
Procreation
Women’s Status
Mechanized production of goods
Men who own means of
production
Bilateral
Men—but less so in later stages
Low
Single Mothers with Children
Under 18
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
Between 1990 and
2004, the number of
U.S. families headed by
single mothers
increased by about
25%.
This marks a change in
the roles of many
women, and may
indicate that
“traditional” households
are in decline in
Parents and Gender
Socialization
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
Children's clothing and toys reflect their
parents' gender expectations.
Children are often assigned household
tasks according to gender.
Peers and Gender Socialization

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Peers help children learn genderappropriate and inappropriate behavior.
During adolescence, peers often are
more effective at gender socialization
than adults.
College student peers play an important
role in career choices and the
establishment of long term, intimate
relationships.
Schools and Gender
Socialization


Teachers provide messages about
gender through classroom assignments
and informal interactions with students.
Teachers may unintentionally show
favoritism toward one gender over the
other.
Sports and Gender
Socialization

From elementary school through high
school:

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Boys play football.
Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill
team, and homecoming queens.
For many males, sports is a training
ground for masculinity.
Mass Media and Gender
Socialization
On television:
 Male characters typically are more
aggressive, constructive, and direct.
 Females are deferential toward others
or use manipulation to get their way.
 See page 302 (Grey’s Anatomy and
Desperate Housewives)
The Wage Gap
The Wage Gap
The Wage Gap
Bachelor’s Degrees Earned, by
Field, 1971 and 2000
Field of Study
Business
Computer and information
sciences
Education
Engineering
% Female
1971 2000
9.1
49.7
13.6
28.1
74.5
0.8
75.8
20.4
Bachelor’s Degrees Earned, by
Field, 1971 and 2000
% Female
Field of Study
Health sciences
Home economics
Pre-law
Mathematics
Social sciences and history
1971
77.1
97.3
6.0
37.9
36.8
2000
83.8
87.9
73.0
47.1
51.2
Sex Differences in Earnings
from the Same Occupation
Median Weekly Earnings
Occupation
Males
Females
Accountants
$953
$690
Engineers
1,126
949
Natural scientists
1,007
726
968
868
1,439
1,053
Computer programmers
Lawyers
Views of Division of Labor by
Gender
Theory
View
Functionalism
Women’s roles as caregivers are crucial in
ensuring that societal tasks are fulfilled.
Conflict
Division of labor within families and the
workplace results from male control and
dominance over women and resources.
Structural-functional Theory of
Gender Inequality
Focuses on the functions of gendered
division of labor:
 Reduces competition between men and
women.
 Makes both sexes specialists in their
roles.
 Requires an interdependence of men
and women.
Conflict Theory of Gender
Inequality

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
Subjugation of women to subordinate
roles benefits men and capitalism.
Capitalists benefit from a labor market
that splits the interests of men and
women workers—in favor of men.
Segmented labor market provides a
low-wage female labor reserve.
The Human Capital Model


According to this model, individuals vary
in the amount of human capital they
bring to the labor market.
Human capital is acquired by education
and job training; it is the source of a
person’s productivity and can be
measured in terms of the return on the
investment (wages) and the cost
(schooling or training) .
The Feminist Movement

Up to the mid 19th Century

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
Women
Women
Women
Women
could
could
could
could
not
not
not
not
vote
own property
enter into contracts
testify in court
First wave of feminism concentrated on
gaining legal rights
Second wave focused on extending legal
rights and on gender issues, such as violence
and gender stereotypes
Legislative Changes



19th Amendment: Right to vote for women in
1920
Title VII: 1964 prohibits employment
discrimination based on race, color, religion,
sex and national origin.
Title IX: 1972 guarantees equal rights for
women in education


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Financial aid
Classes
Health insurance
Athletics
Male Disadvantages


The male role does not encourage the
cultivation of emotionally supportive
relationships.
Men may suffer serious stress from
associating self-esteem with net worth.
Differences in Life Chances by
Sex: Health
Ratio of Men to women by Age
Age
14-17
18-24
25-34
35-44
45-54
55-64
65-84
85+
Sex Ratio
106.3
105.3
100.2
98.2
95.6
90
71.8
39.7
Chapter 11
Families and Intimate
Relationships
Chapter 11
Families and Intimate
Relationships
Traditional Definition of Family


A group of people who are related by
blood, marriage, or adoption, live
together, are an economic unit, and
bear and raise children.
Is this definition still relevant today?
New Definition of Family

Relationships in which people live
together with commitment, form an
economic unit and care for any young,
and consider their identity to be
significantly attached to the group.
The family is important throughout
the life course. It structures our
lives and identities
“As we consider our lives from birth to death, we tend
to think of ourselves in family roles. Being a youngster
usually means growing up in a family; being an adult
usually means having a family; being elderly often
means being a grandparent.”
Family Structure and
Characteristics



Kinship refers to a social network of people
based on common ancestry, marriage, or
adoption.
Family of orientation is the family into which a
person is born and in which early socialization
usually takes place.
Family of procreation is the family a person
forms by having or adopting children.
Family Structure and
Characteristics

An extended family is composed of
relatives in addition to parents and
children who live in the same
household.
A nuclear family is composed of one
or two parents and their dependent
children, all of whom live apart from
other relatives.
Polling Question

The strength of the American family is
declining.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Strongly agree
Agree somewhat
Unsure
Disagree somewhat
Strongly disagree
Dating and Mate Selection



Today industrialized societies base
commitment to marriage on love
Romantic vs. familial love
How do we “fall in love”?

Sternberg’s “Triangle of Love”


Intimacy+passion+decision/commitment = consummate
love
Reiss’s “Wheel of Love”

Rapport, Self revelation, mutual need dependency,
personality need fulfillment
Marriage



Legally recognized arrangement
between two or more individuals that
carries certain rights and obligations.
Monogamy is the only form of marriage
sanctioned by law in the United States.
Establishes a system of descent so
kinship can be determined.
Monogamy


A marriage between two partners,
usually a woman and a man.
Through a pattern of marriage, divorce,
and remarriage, some people practice
serial monogamy—a succession of
marriages in which a person has several
spouses over a lifetime but is legally
married to only one person at a time.
The reflection of traditional
gender roles




The median age at first marriage for women
is 25.3 and for men, 27.1
78% of wives have lower levels of education
than do their husbands (for cohabiting
couples, the number is 71%)
98% of all stay at home parents are women
Wives are more than twice as likely to be
involved in eldercare responsibilities than are
their husbands
Polgamy

The concurrent marriage of a person of
one sex with two or more members of
the opposite sex.


The most prevalent form of polygamy is
polygyny—the concurrent marriage of one
man with two or more women.
Polyandry is the concurrent marriage of
one woman with two or more men.
Patterns of Unilineal Descent


Patrilineal descent traces descent
through the father’s side of the family.
Matrilineal descent is a system of
tracing descent through mother’s side
of the family.
Bilineal Descent


Tracing kinship through both parents.
The most common form is bilateral
descent.

A system of tracing descent through both
the mother’s and father’s sides of the
family.
Power and Authority in
Families



A patriarchal family is a family structure
in which authority is held by the eldest
male.
A matriarchal family is a family structure
in which authority is held by the eldest
female.
An egalitarian family is a family
structure in which both partners share
power and authority equally.
Household Composition:
1970 and 2000
1970
Married couples with
children
Married couples without
children
Persons living Alone
Other family Households
Other nonfamily
households
2000
40.3% 24.1%
30.3% 28.7%
17.1% 25.5%
10.6% 16%
1.7%
5.7%
Residential Patterns



Patrilocal residence refers to a married couple
living in the same household as the husband’s
family.
Matrilocal residence refers to a married
couple living in the same household as the
wife’s parents.
Neolocal residence refers to a married couple
living in their own residence apart from the
husband’s and the wife’s parents.
Endogamy and Exogamy

Endogamy is the practice of marrying
within one’s own group.


In the United States, most people marry
people who come from the same social
class, racial–ethnic group, religious
affiliation, and other categories considered
important within their own social group.
Exogamy is the practice of marrying
outside one’s own social group or
category.
Theoretical Perspectives On
Families
Theory
Functionalist
Conflict/
feminist
Focus
Role of families in maintaining
stability of society and
individuals’
well-being.
Families as sources of
conflict and social inequality.
Functionalist Perspective:
Four Functions of Families
1.
2.
3.
4.
Sexual regulation
Socialization
Economic and psychological support
for members.
Provision of social status and
reputation.
Conflict Perspective



Families in capitalist economies are
similar to workers in a factory:
Women are dominated at home the
same way workers are dominated in
factories.
Reproduction of children and care for
family members reinforce subordination
of women through unpaid labor.
Cohabitation



Refers to two people who live together,
and think of themselves as a couple,
without being legally married.
A recent study of 11,000 women found
that there was a 70% marriage rate for
women who remained in a cohabiting
relationship for at least 5 years.
Of the women in that study who
married their partner, 40% became
divorced within a 10-year period.
Domestic Partnerships

Household partnerships in which an
unmarried couple lives together in a
committed, sexually intimate
relationship and is granted the same
rights and benefits as those accorded to
married heterosexual couples.
Homagamy

The pattern of individuals marrying
those who have similar characteristics,
such as race/ethnicity, religious
background, age, education, or social
class.
Housework and Child-Care
Responsibilities



Today, more than 50% of all marriages in the
United States are dual-earner marriages—
marriages in which both spouses are in the
labor force.
in 2004 more than 74% of employed mothers
with children under age 6 worked full time
Many married women work a full day then go
home to perform hours of housework and
child care.

Sociologist Arlie Hochschild refers to this as the
second shift.
Deciding to Have Children


Sociologists suggest fertility is linked
not only to reproductive technologies
but also to women’s beliefs about
whether they have opportunities that
are viable alternatives to childbearing.
The desire not to have children often
comes in conflict with our society’s
pronatalist bias,which assumes having
children is the norm.
Infertility


Defined as an inability to conceive after
a year of unprotected sexual relations.
Infertility affects nearly five million U.S.
couples, or one in twelve couples in
which the wife is between the ages of
fifteen and forty four.
Adoption


A legal process through which the rights
and duties of parenting are transferred
from a child’s biological and/or legal
parents to a new legal parent or
parents.
This gives the adopted child all the
rights of a biological child.
Infertility


Defined as an inability to conceive after
a year of unprotected sexual relations.
Infertility affects nearly five million U.S.
couples, or one in twelve couples in
which the wife is between the ages of
fifteen and forty four.
Teen Pregnancy

The United States has the highest
rate of teen pregnancy in the
Western industrialized world.
Primary Reasons for Teen
Pregnancy: Microlevel




Many sexually active teens don’t use
contraceptives.
Teenagers may receive little accurate
information about the use of
contraception.
Some teenage males believe females
should be responsible for contraception.
Some teenagers view pregnancy as a
way to gain adult status.
Single Parenting


42% of white children and 86% of
African American children spend part of
their childhood in a single parent
household.
Lesbian and gay parents are often
counted as single parents, however
many share parenting with partner.
U.S. Marital Status:15 and
over by Ethnicity
Characteristics of Those Likely
to Get Divorced




Marriage at an early age.
A short acquaintanceship before
marriage.
Disapproval of the marriage by relatives
and friends.
Limited economic resources.
Characteristics of Those Likely
to Get Divorced (continued)



Having a high-school education or less.
Parents who are divorced or have
unhappy marriages.
The presence of children at the
beginning of the marriage.
Divorce


The legal process of dissolving a
marriage that allows former spouses to
remarry if they so choose.
Recent studies have shown that 43 %
of first marriages end in separation or
divorce within 15 years.
Blended Families

Some people become part of blended
families, which consist of a husband
and wife, children from previous
marriages, and children (if any) from
the new marriage.
Chapter 12: Education and
Religion
Sociological Perspectives on
Education


Functionalists suggest that education
contributes to the maintenance of
society and provides opportunity for
upward social mobility.
Conflict theorists argue that
education perpetuates social inequality.
Functions of Education





Socialization
Transmission of
culture
Social control
Social placement
Change and
innovation
Conflict Perspective



Education reproduces existing class
relationships.
Unequal funding is a source of
inequality in education.
Access to colleges and universities is
determined not only by academic record
but also by the ability to pay.
Cultural Capital and Class
Reproduction

According to the sociologist Pierre
Bourdieu, students come to school with
different amounts of cultural capital.


socially approved dress and manners,
knowledge about books, art, music
The educational system teaches and
reinforces values that sustain the elite’s
position in society.
Dropping Out


About 10% of people between the ages
of 14 and 24 left school before earning
a high school diploma.
Dropout Rates:




Latinos/(Hispanics) - 24%
African Americans - 12.2%
non-Hispanic whites - 7.9%
Asian Americans - 1%
Community Colleges

In 1948 a presidential commission
report called for the establishment of a
network of public community colleges
that would:




charge little or no tuition
serve as cultural centers
be comprehensive in their program
offerings
serve the area in which they were located.
Community Colleges

According to the American Association of
Community Colleges (2005):





There are 1,166 community colleges in the U.S.
They enroll almost 12 million students.
Community college enrollment accounts for 46%
of U.S. undergraduates.
Almost 40% of community college students
receive financial aid.
Women make up 58% of community college
students.
Religion and the Meaning of
Life



Religion seeks to answer important questions
such as why we exist, why people suffer and
die, and what happens when we die.
Religion seeks to explain suffering, death,
and injustice in the realm of the sacred.
Things that people do not set apart as sacred
are referred to as profane—the everyday,
secular or “worldly” aspects of life.
Functionalist Perspective
Religion has 3 functions:
1. Providing meaning and purpose to life.
2. Promoting social cohesion and a sense
of belonging.
3. Providing social control and support for
important norms.
Conflict Perspective


Religion as an “ideology”
According to Karl Marx, religion is the
"opiate of the people."
Major U.S. Denominations
That Self-identify As Christian
Religious Body
Roman Catholic
Southern Baptist
Convention
United Methodist
Church of God in
Christ
National Baptist
Convention,USA
Members
67,260,000
Churches
19,431
16,440,000
42,972
8,251,000
35,102
5,500,000
15,300
5,000,000
9,000
Major U.S. Denominations
That Self-identify As Christian
Religious Body
Church of Jesus Christ
of Latter Day Saints
Evangelical Lutheran
Church in America
National Baptist
Convention of America
Presbyterian Church
(U.S.A.)
Members
Churches
5,503,000
12,112
4,985,000
10,657
3,500,000
N/A
3,241,000
11,064
U.S. Religious Bodies
Membership
Religious Body
Members
Protestants
91,500,000
Roman Catholics
Muslims
Jews
Orthodox Christians
Buddhists
Hindus
63,683,000
6,000,000
5,602,000
5,631,000
1,864,000
795,000
U.S. Religious Bodies
Membership
Religious Body
Members
Protestants
91,500,000
Roman Catholics
Muslims
Jews
Orthodox Christians
Buddhists
Hindus
63,683,000
6,000,000
5,602,000
5,631,000
1,864,000
795,000
Consequences of
Religiosity
People with higher levels of religious affiliation tend
to be friendlier, happier, cooperative, and more
satisfied with their lives than others.
Religious affiliation has also been linked to socially
conservative and authoritarian attitudes that
maintain the status quo.
College women who regularly attend church are less
likely to become pregnant and have fewer sexual
partners
Chapter 13
Politics and the Economy in Global
Perspective
Politics, Power and Authority


Politics is the social institution through
which power is acquired and exercised
by some people and groups.
Government is the formal organization
that has the legal and political authority
to regulate relationships among
members of a society and between the
society and those outside its borders.
Ideal Types of Authority

Traditional


Charismatic


Kings, Queens, Emperors, religious
dignitaries
politicians, soldiers, entertainers
Rational–legal

elected officials
Both “mom” and the state
have power …
But they differ in the basis of their
power, the range of their jurisdiction
and the ways in which they can
enforce their decisions.
Power and the State
While other social institutions (such as the
family or religion) or organizations (such as
the workplace) or people may have power
over us, the state exercises power over the
society as a whole. It trumps the other bases
of power.
Political Systems in Global
Perspective



Political institutions emerged when
agrarian societies acquired surpluses
and developed social inequality.
When cities developed, the city-state
became the center of political power.
Nation-states emerged as countries
acquired the ability to defend their
borders.
Nation-states



Approximately 190 nation-states
currently exist throughout the world.
Today, everyone is born, lives, and dies
under the auspices of a nation-state.
Four types of political systems are
found in nation-states: monarchy,
authoritarianism, totalitarianism, and
democracy.
Types of Political Systems


Monarchy - A political system in
which power resides in one person or
family and is passed from generation to
generation through lines of inheritance.
Authoritarianism - A political system
controlled by rulers who deny popular
participation in government.
Types of Political Systems


Totalitarianism - A political system in which
the state seeks to regulate all aspects of
people's public and private lives.
Democracy - A political system in which the
people hold the ruling power either directly or
through elected representatives.
Functionalist Perspectives:
Pluralist Model

The functions of government:




maintain law and order
plan and direct society
meet social needs
handle international relations
Conflict Perspectives: Elite
Models



Power in political systems is in the
hands of a small group of elites and the
masses are relatively powerless.
Decisions are made by the elites, who
agree on the basic values and goals of
society.
The needs and concerns of the masses
are not often given full consideration by
the elite.
Voter Apathy



10% of the voting-age population
participates at a level higher than
voting.
Over the past 40 years, less than half
the voting-age population has voted in
nonpresidential elections.
In many other Western nations, the
average turnout is 80 to 90% of all
eligible voters.
Why Eligible Voters Don’t Vote
Conservative argument:
 People are satisfied with the status quo, are
uninformed and lack an understanding of
government processes.
Liberal argument:
 People feel alienated from politics due to
corruption and influence peddling by special
interests and large corporations.
Voter Preferences in the 2004
Presidential Election
Gender
Republican
Democrat
Men
55%
44%
Women
48
52
Voter Preferences in the 2004
Presidential Election
Race
/Ethnicity
Whites
African Americans
Latinos/as
Asian Americans
Republican
Democrat
58%
11
43
41%
88
56
41
58
Voter Preferences in the 2004
Presidential Election
Age
Republican
Democrat
18–29
45
54
30–44
53
46
45–59
51
48
60 and older
54
46
Voter Preferences in the 2004
Presidential Election
Education
Republican
Democrat
Did not graduate
from high school
49%
50%
High school
graduate
52
47
Some college
54
46
College graduate
52
46
Voter Preferences in the 2004
Presidential Election
Region
Republican
Democrat
Eastern U.S.
44%
56%
Midwest
51
49
Southern U.S.
57
43
Western U.S.
49
51
Voter Preferences in the 2004
Presidential Election
Income
Republican
Democrat
Under $15,000
36%
63%
$15,000–$29,999
42
57
$30,000–$49,999
48
50
Over $50,000
56
43
The Economy



The social institution that ensures the
maintenance of society through the
production, distribution, and
consumption of goods and services.
Goods are objects that are necessary
or desired.
Services are activities for which people
are willing to pay.
Characteristics of Industrial
Economies
1.
2.
3.
New forms of energy, mechanization,
and the growth of the factory system.
Increased division of labor and
specialization among workers.
Universal application of scientific
methods to problem solving and profit
making.
Characteristics of Industrial
Economies
3.
4.
Introduction of wage labor, time
discipline, and workers’ deferred
gratification.
Strengthening of bureaucratic
organizational structure.
Characteristics of the
Postindustrial Economy
1.
2.
3.
Information displaces property as the central
preoccupation in the economy.
Workplace culture shifts away from factories
and toward diverse work settings, the
employee, and the manager.
The conventional boundaries between work
and home are breached.
Capitalism
Four distinctive features:
1. Private ownership of the means of
production.
2. Pursuit of personal profit.
3. Competition.
4. Lack of government intervention.
The United States is actually not a
pure “capitalist” society
Social welfare
Social security
Progressive taxation
Public education
Labor laws

Socialism
Three distinctive features:
1. Public ownership of the means of
production.
2. Pursuit of collective goals.
3. Centralized decision-making.
Example of a Democratic
Socialist Nation
Sweden
Five Characteristics of
Professions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Abstract, specialized knowledge
Autonomy
Self regulation
Authority
Altruism
SAT Scores by Parents’
Income and Education, 2004
Types of Unemployment



Cyclical - result of lower rates of
production during recessions.
Seasonal - result of shifts in the
demand for workers based on holidays.
Structural - skills needed by
employers do not match skills of
unemployed.
Labor Unions and Strikes



In recent years, strike activity has
diminished as workers fear losing their
jobs.
In 2002 only 19 strikes involving more
than 1,000 workers were reported.
Number of workers involved in the
actions declined from more than 2.5
million in 1971 to 192,000 in 1995.
Employment For Persons With
A Disability


Workers with a disability make 85%
(men) and 70% (women) of what
coworkers without disabilities earn.
A survey of executives responsible for
making hiring decision for their
companies found that the average cost
of workplace modifications to
accommodate employees with a
disability was less than $500.
Chapter 14
Health, Health Care, and Disability
Health, Health Care, and
Medicine



Health is a state of physical, mental,
and social well-being.
Health care is any activity intended to
improve health.
Medicine is an institutionalized system
for the scientific diagnosis, treatment,
and prevention of illness.
Social Epidemiology

Study of the causes and distribution of
health, and disease in a population:



Disease agents – insects, bacteria,
nutrient agents, pollutants, and
temperature.
Environment - physical, biological and
social environments.
Human host -demographic factors such
as age, sex, and race/ethnicity.
John Snow and the London
Cholera Epidemic of 1854
On proceeding to the spot, I found that nearly all the deaths had taken place within a short
distance of the [Broad Street] pump. There were only ten deaths in houses situated
decidedly nearer to another street-pump. In five of these cases the families of the deceased
persons informed me that they always sent to the pump in Broad Street, as they preferred
the water to that of the pumps which were nearer. In three other cases, the deceased were
children who went to school near the pump in Broad Street...
With regard to the deaths occurring in the locality belonging to the pump, there were 61
instances in which I was informed that the deceased persons used to drink the pump water
from Broad Street, either constantly or occasionally...
The result of the inquiry, then, is, that there has been no particular outbreak or prevalence
of cholera in this part of London except among the persons who were in the habit of
drinking the water of the above-mentioned pump well.
I had an interview with the Board of Guardians of St James's parish, on the evening of the
7th inst [Sept 7], and represented the above circumstances to them. In consequence of
what I said, the handle of the pump was removed on the following day.
Demographic Factors: Age


Rates of illness and death are highest among
the old and the young.
After age 65, rates of chronic diseases and
mortality increase rapidly.


Chronic diseases are long term or lifelong and
develop gradually or are present from birth.
Acute diseases strike suddenly and cause dramatic
incapacitation and sometimes death.
Demographic Factors: Sex



Prior to the 20th century, women had
lower life expectancies because of high
mortality rates during pregnancy and
childbirth.
Women now live longer than men.
For babies born in the United States in
2003, life expectancy at birth was 74.8
years for males and 80.1 years for
females.
Demographic Factors:
Race/Ethnicity and Social Class


According to a study by the Stanford Center
for Research in Disease Prevention, people
have a higher survival rate if they live in
better-educated or wealthier neighborhoods.
People of color are more likely to have
incomes below the poverty line, and the
poorest people receive less preventive care
and less management of chronic diseases.
Lifestyle Factors: Alcohol and
Tobacco


Chronic heavy drinking or alcoholism
can cause permanent damage to the
brain or other parts of the body.
Tobacco is responsible for about one in
every five deaths in this country.
Lifestyle Factors: Illegal Drugs



High doses of marijuana smoked during pregnancy
can result in congenital abnormalities and
neurological disturbances.
Some studies found an increased risk of cancer and
lung problems associated with marijuana because its
smokers are believed to inhale more deeply than
tobacco users.
People who use cocaine over extended periods of
time have higher rates of infection, heart problems,
internal bleeding, hypertension and stroke.
Lifestyle Factors: Sexually
Transmitted Diseases



Sexual activity can result in the transmission of
sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including AIDS,
gonorrhea, syphilis, and genital herpes.
Prior to 1960, the incidence of STDs in this country
had been reduced sharply by barrier-type
contraceptives and the use of penicillin as a cure.
In the 1960s and 1970s the number of cases of STDs
increased rapidly with the introduction of the birth
control pill, which led to couples being less likely to
use barrier contraceptives.
AIDS/HIV



In 2006, there are approximately one million
persons in the U.S. with HIV/AIDS
40,000 new infections will occur this year
Global Adult prevalence of AIDS





U.S.: About 1 in 100
Western and Central Europe: About 1 in 300
Middle East and North Africa: About 1 in 500
Sub-Saharan Africa: About 1 in 17
Highest risk groups in the U.S. is gay black
men
Human Papilloma Virus HPV
may be the most common
STD in the United States
It is also the major cause of
cervical cancer.
Study of HPV on a College
Campus
604 college women were
administered a questionnaire to
obtain personal and sexual
behavior information. They were
also given a pelvic examination
and Pap smear.
Findings:



27.8% of the subjects were positive for
HPV
Three main areas of risk:
Having multiple male sex partners


The partner’s level of promiscuity
The prevalence of HPV in the woman’s
sexual pool


Black or Hispanic ethnicity
Currently not attending college
Other Findings:




Living with persons who smoked
increased the risk of HPV infection
Sex while intoxicated was a risk factor
Attending religious services frequently
was associated with a lowered risk
Only vaginal sex was related to a higher
incidence of infection
The Flexner Report



Abraham Flexner met with the leading faculty at the
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine to
develop a model of medical education.
The model included the belief that a medical school
should be a research-oriented, laboratory facility that
devoted all of its energies to teaching and research,
not to the practice of medicine.
He visited each of the 155 medical schools then in
existence, comparing them with the model.
The Flexner Report



As a result of the Flexner report (1910), all but two
African American medical schools were closed, and
only one medical school for women survived.
As a result, white women and people of color were
largely excluded from medical education for the first
half of the 20th century.
Until the civil rights movement and the women’s
movement of the 1960s and 1970s, most physicians
were white, male, and upper- or upper-middle class.
Types of Heath Care Delivery
Systems



Universal Health Care
Socialized Medicine
Fee for Service
Paying for Medical Care in the
U.S.


Private Health Insurance: cited as
the main reason for medical inflation,
gives doctors and hospitals an incentive
to increase costs.
Public Health Insurance: projections
call for Medicaid spending to double
and Medicare spending to triple in the
next few years.
The U.S. Health Care System


Health Maintenance Organizations:
provide total care with an emphasis on
prevention.
Managed care: monitors and controls
health care providers' decisions,
insurance company has the right to
refuse to pay for treatment.
Increase in Cost of Health
Care, 1970–2004
Persons Not Covered by
Health Insurance, by State
Holistic and Alternative
Medicine


Holistic medicine focuses on prevention
of illness and disease and is aimed at
treating the whole person rather than
just the part or parts in which
symptoms occur.
Alternative medicine includes healing
practices inconsistent with dominant
medical practice.
The Sick Role




The sick are not responsible for their
condition.
The sick are temporarily exempt from
their normal role obligations.
The sick must want to get well.
The sick must seek help from a medical
professional to hasten their recovery.
Sociological Perspectives on Health
and Medicine
Functionalist:
The sick role
People who are sick are exempt from
obligations, but must want to get well
and seek competent help.
Conflict:
Inequalities in
health and
health care
Problems in health care are rooted in
the capitalist system, exemplified by
the medical–industrial complex.
Disability




Disability refers to a reduced ability to perform tasks
one would normally do at a given stage of life and
that may result in or discrimination.
Estimated 49.7 million people in the U.S. have one or
more physical or mental disabilities.
Less than 15% of persons with a disability are born
with it.
Accidents, disease, and war account for most
disabilities in this country.
% of U.S. Population With Disabilities
Characteristic
%
With a disability
20.8
Severe
13.7
Not severe
7.0
Americans with Disabilities Act
Protection from employment
discrimination
Disabilities and Employment
Status
Chapter 15
Population and urbanization
Changes in Population
Changes occur as a result of three
processes:
 Fertility (births)
 Mortality (deaths)
 Migration
Demographic Transition
Theory
Stage 1: Preindustrial Societies - little population
growth, high birth rates offset by high death rates.
Stage 2: Early Industrialization - significant
population growth, birth rates are relatively high,
death rates decline.
Stage 3: Advanced Industrialization and
Urbanization - very little population growth
occurs, birth rates and death rates are low.
Stage 4: Postindustrialization - birth rates decline
as more women are employed and raising children
becomes more costly.
Demographic Transition
Theory
Growth in the World’s
Population
Population



World’s population of 6.5 billion in 2006 is
increasing by more than 76 million people per
year.
Between 2000 and 2030, almost all of the
world’s population growth will occur in lowincome countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin
America.
By 2025 more than 8 in 10 people will live in
Africa, Asia or Latin America.
Almost all population growth over
the next 20 years will occur in
those nations least able to afford
this growth
97 percent of the projected world
population increase of 1.3 billion
people will occur in less developed
nations
Cultural norms, change and
desired family size

Ghana: 4.6 children per woman




Traditional role of women
Economic resource
Old age insurance
Europe: 1.4 children per women


Women’s social status similar to that of
men
Government support (disability, health
insurance, pensions)
Consequences for Europe include
Difficulty funding pensions
Need for immigrant labor
Nationalistic fears and anti-immigrant
violence

What about population growth in the
U.S?




Birth rates are around replacement level (low,
but higher than those in Europe)
Birth rates are higher in lower income groups.
As with Europe, much of this difference is
explained by the changing role of women in
the middle and upper middle classes.
Population continues to grow through
immigration
One result of this pattern of growth will be an
increasingly diverse society (perhaps
becoming a multi-lingual society
Population Pyramid

A graphic representation of the
distribution of a population by sex and
age.
Theories of Population Growth



The Malthusian Perspective
The Marxist Perspective
Demographic Transition Theory
Malthusian Perspective

If left unchecked, the population
would exceed the available food
supply.
Marxist Perspective




Using technology, food can be produced for a
growing population.
Poverty is caused, not by overpopulation, but
by expropriation of resources by the powerful
Overpopulation will lead to the eventual
destruction of capitalism.
Workers will become dissatisfied and develop
class-consciousness because of shared
oppression.
The City
As recently as 200 years ago, only 3% of the
world’s population lived in cities. Today, that
figure is 50% and is expected to grow to two
thirds of the world’s people by 2050.
Three Models of the City
Georg Simmel's View of City Life



Urban life is stimulating; it shapes
people's thoughts and actions.
Many urban residents avoid emotional
involvement with each other and try to
ignore events taking place around
them.
Urban living can be liberating - people
have opportunities for individualism and
autonomy.
The diversity of the city:
Gans's Urban Villagers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cosmopolites are students, artists, writers,
musicians, and professionals who live in the city to
be close to its cultural facilities.
Unmarried people and childless couples live in the
city to be close to work and entertainment.
Ethnic villagers live in ethnically segregated
neighborhoods.
The deprived are poor people with dim future
prospects.
The trapped are downwardly mobile persons, older
persons, and addicts who cannot escape the city.
Suburbs


Since World War II, the U.S. population
has shifted as people moved to the
suburbs.
Suburbanites rely on urban centers for
employment but pay property taxes to
suburban governments and school
districts.
Conflict Perspective on City Growth
Capitalism and
urban growth
The capitalist class chooses locations for skyscrapers
and housing projects, limiting individual choices by
others.
Conflict Perspective on Global Growth
Global patterns of
growth
Capital investment decisions by core nations result in
uneven growth in peripheral and semiperipheral
nations.
The World’s Ten Largest
Metropolises

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