Using the 9 Instructional Strategies

Report
Effective Classroom Strategies
Effective Classroom Strategies
1
Classroom Instruction That Works
Identifying similarities and differences
Summarizing and note taking
Reinforcing effort and providing recognition
Homework and practice
Nonlinguistic representations
Cooperative learning
Setting objectives and providing feedback
Generating and testing hypotheses
Questions, cues and organizers
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Warm-Up


Which strategy are
you most familiar
with?
Describe how you
have used this
strategy in your
classroom.

Think-Pair-Share

Debrief
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Following Best Practices
o Based on current research
o meta-analysis of 2,455 studies
pertaining to instructional practices
o Includes latest knowledge,
technology and procedures
o Research continues through McRel
o Successful across student
populations
o Applies across content areas
and grade levels
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Classroom Instruction That Works –
Effect Size
Category
Ave. Effect
Size
Percentile
Gain
# of Studies
Identifying similarities and
differences
1.61
45
31
Summarizing and note taking
1.00
34
179
Reinforcing effort and providing
recognition
.80
29
21
Homework and practice
.77
28
134
Nonlinguistic representations
.75
27
246
Cooperative learning
.73
27
122
Setting objectives and providing
feedback
.61
23
408
Generating and testing
hypotheses
.61
23
63
Questions, cues and organizers
.59
22
1251
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Diane Paynter Video Clip

Importance of 30 years of
research

Impact the “Essential 9” can
have on student achievement

If the effect size for
Identifying
Similarities/Differences is
+1.61, resulting in a
percentile gain of 45%, where
would the curve indicating the
average scores of students
be?
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Effect Size and the Normal Curve
2%
16%
50%
84%
Effective Classroom Strategies
98%
99.9%
7
Classroom Instruction That Works
Effect Size


Effect Size is a unit of measure used
with meta-analysis that expresses
the increase or decrease in student
achievement
Cohen simplified the range of effect
sizes



Small: 0.20 to 0.49
Medium: 0.50 to 0.79
Large: 0.80 and above
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The Instructional Strategy Focus for the
Day

Identifying similarities
and differences.
(ES 1.61)





Comparing
Classifying
Metaphors
Analogy
Summarizing and
Note taking
(ES 1.00)
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Getting Acquainted with the Essential 9

Break into groups of 4

Jigsaw the Essential 9 Strategies


As you read underline the most
critical statement for each
Report out to group
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Using the 9 Instructional Strategies
in Lesson/Unit Planning
Beginning of the Unit/Lesson
1.
Clear Learning Goals
(#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
2.
Students identify and
record their own goals
(#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
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During the Unit
Phases of Learning




Blank Lesson Plan Guide
Introducing New Knowledge
6 possible strategies
Monitoring Learning Goals
3 possible strategies
Practicing, Reviewing and Applying
Knowledge
3 possible strategies
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During the Unit
Introducing New Knowledge
1. Guide students to recall what they
already know about the topics.
(#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers)
2. Provide students with ways of
thinking about the topic in advance.
(#9 Cues, Questions, Advance Organizers)
3. Compare new knowledge with what is
known.
(#1 Identifying Similarities and Differences)
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During the Unit
Introducing New Knowledge
4.
Have students keep notes
(#2 Summarizing and Note-taking)
5.
Non-linguistic representations,
share with others
(#5 Non-linguistic Representations)
6.
Have students work individually
and in groups.
(#6 Cooperative Learning)
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During the Unit
Practicing, Reviewing and Applying
Knowledge
1. Assign homework that requires practice, review and
application of learning. Give explicit feedback as to
the accuracy of all homework.
(#4 Homework and Practice, #7 Setting Objectives and
Providing Feedback)
2. Engage students in long-term projects that involve
testing and generating hypotheses.
(#8 Generating and Testing Hypotheses)
3. Have students revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic
representations of knowledge as they refine their
understanding. (# 2 Summarizing and Note taking, #5
Nonlinguistic Representations)
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During the Unit
Monitoring Learning Goals
1.
Feedback and Self-Assessment
2.
Students keep track of
achievement and effort expending
toward goals
(#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
(#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
#7 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback)
3.
Celebrate legitimate progress
toward learning goals
(#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition)
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End of the unit…
Helping students determine how well they
have achieved their goals
(#3 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition, #7 Setting
Objectives and Providing Feedback)



Provide students with clear
assessments of their progress
on each goal.
Have student assess themselves
and compare with the teacher’s
assessment
Ask them to articulate what
they have learned.
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9 Strategies = Results in all subjects


Specific Instructional Strategies can
be matched to specific types of
knowledge.
Different types of learning
sometimes necessitate different
types of instruction.
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Before you start…


Be clear about the
learning that you
want your students
achieve.
Understand which
strategy works best
to accomplish your
learning target.
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Generalizations that enhance student’s
understanding of what is being taught and
their ability to use that knowledge.





Teacher directed – presenting students
with guidance
Asking students to independently engage
in the activity
Use non-linguistic representation
Student generate own explanations and
create non-linguistic representation
Periodically review the accuracy of their
explanations and representations
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Categories of Subject Matter Knowledge

Declarative Knowledge
(Information and Ideas)




Vocabulary
Details
Organizing Ideas
Procedural Knowledge
(Skills and Processes)


Skills and Tactics
Processes
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4 Strategies for Similarities and Differences
Comparing
The process of identifying and
articulating similarities and differences
among items.
Classifying
The process of grouping things into
definable categories on the basis of their
attributes.
Creating
Metaphors
The process of identifying and
articulating the underlying theme or
general pattern in information.
Creating
Analogies
The process of identifying relationships
between pairs of concepts (e.g.,
relationships between relationships).
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Identifying Similarities and Differences:
Comparing Task, Round 1


Venn Diagram
Apples and
Oranges
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Characteristic 1 _____________________
Easy to see that items
are very different for this
characteristic…
Characteristic 2 _____________________
…and very similar for
this characteristic.
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What are the steps in the comparison process?
COMPARING
To
1. Select the items you want to
compare.
2. Select the characteristics of the
items on which you want to base
your comparison.
3. Explain how the items are similar
and different with respect to the
characteristics you selected.
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Our Goals for Student Learning…

Help prepare for further learning

Identify critical relationships


Gain understanding, clear-up
confusion, make new connections
Change in knowledge structure as a result
of instruction
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Tips Related to the Comparison Process
TIP
TIP
One key to a rigorous comparison is to identify items and characteristics
that are meaningful and interesting. To do this, students need
extensive modeling and feedback. If the items and characteristics are
not meaningful, students will not make new distinctions or come to new
conclusions about the targeted knowledge.
Make sure that students understand that the purpose of doing the
comparison is to extend and refine their understanding of the
knowledge they are learning. Asking students to select different
characteristics will help them move beyond the obvious.
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Identifying Similarities and Differences:
Comparing Task, Round 2





In Jigsaw Groups:
Venn Diagram/Comparison Matrix
Apples and Oranges
Learning Goal: How does temperature
and length of growing season effect the
nutritional value of fruit?
How was Round 1 different than Round 2?
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ELA and Math GLCE
…comparing or contrasting?

Comparing is the
process of identifying
similarities and
differences between
or among things or
ideas.


Comparing refers to
identifying
similarities
Contrasting refers to
identifying
differences.
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ELA and Math GLCE Task



o
Find a GLCE at your
grade level and content
area that would be
suitable to compare,
contrast or both.
Would you use Venn
Diagram/Comparison
Matrix/other?
What steps would you
have to take in order for
students to use
comparison with the
GLCE independently?
Think-Pair-Share
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What are the steps in the classifying process?
CLASSIFYING
Birds
Fish
Dogs
1. Identify the items you want to classify.
2. Select what seems to be an important item,
describe its key attributes, and identify other
items that have the same attributes.
3. Create a category by specifying the
attribute(s) that the items must have for
membership in this category.
4. Select another item, describe its key
attributes, and identify other items that have
the same attributes.
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CLASSIFYING
(cont’d)
Birds
Fish
5. Create the second category by specifying
the attribute(s) that the items must have
for membership in the category.
Dogs
6. Repeat the previous two steps until all
items are classified and the specific
attributes have been identified for
membership in each category.
7. If necessary, combine categories or split
them into smaller categories and specify
attribute(s) that determine membership in
the category.
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Content Area: Science
Knowledge:
Understands that different animals
live in different environments.
We have been learning that different animals live in different
environments. Classify the following animals in terms of whether
they live in lakes or oceans, forests, in the soil, or in the
desert.
raccoons
moles
clams
scorpions
squirrels
frogs
bears
lizards
deer
fish
ants
turtles
worms
ducks
snakes
Now, reclassify these animals using another set of attributes. For
example, you might identify attributes that relate to the
animal’s
skin or outer covering (e.g., has fur, scales, has a shell).
You may use a blank classifying graphic or your own chart to do
this task.
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Classification – a strategy for GLCE




ELA- Genre characteristics, poetry,
types of fiction
Math – whole numbers, fractions,
negative numbers, geometrical
figures
Science – habitat, endangered,
geographical location, adaptation
Social Studies – human, economic
and capital resources.
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Creating Metaphors
Identify a general or basic
pattern in a specific topic
and then find another topic
that seems quite different at
the literal level but has the
same general pattern.
Examples…


Counting is a recipe.
Video Clip:

Vocabulary is a map legend.

Instructional Strategies are
onions.
Math
Metaphors
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Steps for Creating Metaphors
1.
Identify the important or basic elements
of the information of situation with
which you are working.
2.
Write that basic information as a general
pattern by:
•
•
3.
Replacing words for specific things with words for
more general things, and
Summarizing information whenever possible
Find new information or a situation to
which the general pattern applies.
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Metaphor Organizer
Element
Literal
Pattern
Abstract
Relationship
Internet
Literal
Pattern
Element
Coffee
shop
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Examples of Metaphors in Content
Areas


Social Studies-America is freedom
and promise
Math-The graph of the sine function
is a roller coaster

ELA-Writing is a process

Science-The cell is a factory
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Recommendations for Classroom
Practice




Giving students a model for the
process.
Using familiar content to teach
students the steps in creating
metaphors
Giving students graphic organizers,
and
Giving students guidance as needed
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Analogies … A question
What is the purpose of
asking students to
create analogies?
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The purpose of analogies in the
classroom

Help make connections between things
that are very different




Pattern is A:B::C:D
A is to B as C is to D
happy:sad::big:small
happy and big are opposites of sad and small
Analogy problems are common in testing
situations – PSAT, SAT, ACT.
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Using Analogies in the Classroom

Help explain an unfamiliar concept
by making a comparison to
something that we understand.
Question… What is this analogy?


One:trillion::one square inch: the
area of the city of Chicago
Pushes students to think about how
items and concepts are related:
how do two things interact, and
how is the relationship similar to
the relationship between the second
pair.
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Analogies Organizer – Great
Depression
A
B
Stock Market
Crash of 1929
AS
C
Is to
U.S. Economy
Something attacks a
system and weakens its
ability to prevent
serious affliction.
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D
43
Bob Marzano says…
“Summarizing has a robust and
long history of research.”
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Task: Strategic questioning



What is the goal or purpose of
engaging students in
summarizing activities?
To what extent do you think the
act of summarizing varies from
grade level to grade level?
From content area to content
area? Why do you think this?
Think-Share-Pair
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Critical questions for
Watching Video Clip


For the student:
 How do I decide what is
important?
 What should I keep?
 What should I substitute?
 What should I delete?
For the teacher:



What strategies do you teach students to help them become
proficient in summarizing?
To what extent do you think these strategies support them in
identifying what they should keep, substitute, and delete?
How do you know if engaging in these strategies is really
helping students to deepen their understanding of the
content?
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A Model for Summarizing
Steps for Rule-Based
Summarizing
1.
2.
3.
4.
Delete trivial material that is
unnecessary to
understanding.
Delete redundant material.
Substitute super-ordinate
terms for more specific
terms (e.g., use fish for
rainbow trout, salmon, and
halibut).
Select a topic sentence or
invent one if it is missing.
Steps in Rule-Based
Summarizing for Younger
Students
1.
2.
3.
4.
Take out material that is not
important to your
understanding.
Take out words that repeat
information
Replace a list of things with
a word that describes the
things in the list (e.g., use
trees for elm, oak, and
maple).
Find a topic sentence. If you
cannot find a topic sentence,
make one up.
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The word photography comes from the Greek word
meaning “drawing with light”….Light is the most
essential ingredient in photography. Nearly all
forms of photography are based on the fact that
certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they
change in some way when exposed to light.
Photosensitive materials abound in nature; plants
that close their blooms at night are one example.
The films used in photography depend on a limited
number of chemical compounds that darken when
exposed to light. The compounds most widely used
today are called halogens (usually bromine,
chlorine, or iodine.
Microsoft Encarta
Encyclopedia
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The word photography comes from the Greek word meaning
“drawing with light”….Light is the most essential ingredient in
photography. Nearly all forms of photography are based on
the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive- that is, they
change in some way when exposed to light. Photosensitive
materials abound in nature; plants that close their blooms at
night are one example. The films used in photography depend
on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when
exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are
called halogens (usually bromine, chlorine, or iodine.
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia
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Research generalizations on
summarizing
• Students must delete some information,
substitute some information, and keep some
information.
• To effectively delete, substitute, and keep
information, students must analyze the
information at a fairly deep level.
• Being aware of the explicit structure of
information is an aid to summarizing
information. Summary Frames
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The Six Summary Frames
Narrative Frame
Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame
Definition Frame
Argumentation Frame
Problem/Solution Frame
Conversation Frame
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A summary is …
1)
A summary:

Is an essential condensation in your own words.

Answers the question “what is the author really saying?”

Is the result of careful “listening” to the author.

Remains faithful to the author’s emphasis and
interpretation.

Does not disagree with or critique the author’s opinion.
2)
A summary is a comprehensive but brief statement of what has
been stated previously in a longer form.
3)
A summary is a wrap-up----a general picture of the
information--- much like TV networks produce at the end of a
year.
4)
Summaries provide a quick overview of a subject without
having the reader wade through a lot of facts and details.
Summaries help readers and writers boil information down to
its most basic elements.
5)
Encyclopedias, almanacs, and digests provide good examples of
summaries.
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Procedural Knowledge
Summarizing is “procedural
knowledge.” If students are
expected to become
proficient in procedural
knowledge, they need to be
able to “practice.”
Mastering a skill or process requires a
fair amount of focused practice.
Practice sessions initially should be
spaced very closely together. Over
time, the intervals between sessions
can be increased. Students also need
feedback on their efforts.
While practicing, students should adapt and
shape what they have learned.
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A Rubric for Summarizing
4
The student identifies the main pattern running
through the information along with minor patterns.
3
The student identifies the main pattern running
through the information.
2
The student addresses some of the features of the
main pattern running through the information but
excludes some critical aspects.
1
The student does not address the main pattern running
through the information.
0
Not enough information to make a judgment.
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Planning for Summarizing
What knowledge will students be
learning?
What specific information will
students need to summarize?
 film or video
 chapter
 lecture
 story
 article
 event
 other_______________
What strategy will I ask students to use?
 Rule-based Summarizing Strategy
 Summary Frames
 Narrative or Story
 TRI
 Definition
 Argumentation
 Problem/Solution
 Conversation
 Group Enhanced Summary Strategy
 Other ___________
Do I need to set aside time to teach
them the strategy? When and how?
How much guidance will I provide them?
How will I monitor how well students are
doing?
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Summary and the GLCE


o
Find a GLCE at your grade level and
content area that would be suitable
to summarize.
What steps would you have to take
in order for students to use
summary with the GLCE you chose
independently?
Think-Pair-Share
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For Information on Summary Frames
please visit the Saginaw Midland
Intermediate School District Website.
http://www.sisd.cc/departments/HOUS
SEmainpage_003.htm
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A Call to Arms…
Leading Change – What can you do?
Teachers need to have…
• Adequate modeling and
practice
• Feedback
• Allowances for differences in
implementation
• Celebration
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