Bacteria

Report
BACTERIA
Kingdom Monera
Eubacteria
(peptidoglycan)
Archaebacteria
Methanogens
Thermophiles
Swamps, Intestines
Halophiles
Hydrothermal Vents
Autotrophs or
Heterotrophs
Salt Lake, Utah
CHARACTERISTICS
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Prokaryotes
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Microscopic
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Unicellular
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DNA is a single circular piece of DNA
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Asexual Reproduction
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Binary Fission
Metabolism
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(Eukaryotic cells are at least 10x bigger)
Aerobic
Anaerobic
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Genetic Exchange
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Conjugation –transfer DNA through contact
Transformation – acquire DNA from dead bacteria
Transduction – DNA is transferred from one bacteria to
another using a virus (genetic engineering)
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SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST!!!
Bacteria have been around for 3.5 billion years!! How????
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Cell Walls
Capsules (surrounds cell wall)
Asexual Reproduction, but can still acquire other genes
Inhabit every place on Earth
SUPER FAST REPRODUCTION
ENDOSPORES
allow them to withstand drought, high temps., lack of
food, etc.
BACTERIA ARE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO
SHAPE AND ARRANGEMENT OF CELLS
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Shapes
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Coccus : Spheres
Bacillus : Rods
Spirillum : Spirals
Arrangements
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Strept : Chains
Staph : Clusters
Diplo : Pairs
GRAM STAIN (PG. 529)
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Gram negative
Gram positive
Gram +  simple walls,
large amount of
peptidoglycan
Gram -  less
peptidoglycan, outer
membrane contains
lipopolysaccharides which
are often toxic and
provides additional
protection  more
resistant to antibiotics
Many antibiotics
(penicillens) inhibit
synthesis of cross links in
peptidoglycan and prevent
formation of a functional
wall
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Gram Positive Organisms
Aerobic, Gram-positive cocci
Staphylococcus aureus (fig 1, 2, 3, 4)
Staphylococcus epidermidis (fig 1)
Staphylococcus sp. (Coagulase-negative)(fig 1)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Viridans group)(fig 1, 2, 3)
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B)(fig 1)
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)(fig 1, 2)
Enterococcus sp.(fig 1, 2, 3 )
Aerobic, Gram-positive rods
Bacillus anthracis (fig 1, 2 )
Bacillus cereus (fig 1, 2)
Bifidobacterium bifidum (fig 1)
Lactobacillus sp. (fig 1, 2)
Listeria monocytogenes (fig 1, 2)
Nocardia sp.(fig 1, 2)
Rhodococcus equi (coccobacillus)(fig 1)
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (fig 1)
Corynebacterium diptheriae (fig 1, 2)
Propionibacterium acnes (fig 1)
Anaerobic, Gram-positive rods
Actinomyces sp. (fig 1, 2)
Clostridium botulinum (fig 1)
Clostridium difficile (fig 1)
Clostridium perfringens (fig 1, 2, 3)
Clostridium tetani (fig 1, 2)
Anaerobic, Gram-positive cocci
Peptostreptococcus sp. (fig 1)
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Gram Negative Organisms
Aerobic, Gram-negative cocci
Neisseria gonorrhoeae (fig 1, 2, 3, 4)
Neisseria meningitidis (fig 1; false color of the bacterium., 2)
Moraxella catarrhalis (fig 1)
Anaerobic, Gram-negative cocci
Veillonella sp. (fig 1)
Aerobic, Gram-negative rods
Fastidious, Gram-negative rods
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Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (fig 1)
Acinetobacter baumannii(fig 1 really A. calcoaceticus)
Bordetella pertussis (fig 1, 2)
Brucella sp. (fig 1)
Campylobacter sp.(fig 1)
Capnocytophaga sp.(fig 1, 2)
Cardiobacterium hominis (fig 1)
Eikenella corrodens (fig 1)
Francisella tularensis (fig 1,)
Haemophilus ducreyi (fig 1, 2)
Haemophilus influenzae (fig 1, 2)
Helicobacter pylori (fig 1, 2, 3, 4)
Kingella kingae (fig )
Legionella pneumophila (fig 1, 2, 3)
Pasteurella multocida (fig 1)
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Citrobacter sp. (fig 1)
Enterobacter sp. (fig 1)
Escherichia coli (fig 1, 2)
Klebsiella pneumoniae (fig 1, 2)
Proteus sp. (fig 1)
Salmonella enteriditis (fig 1)
Salmonella typhi (fig 1)
Serratia marcescens (fig 1, 2)
Shigella sp. (fig 1)
Yersinia enterocolitica (fig 1)
Yersinia pestis (fig 1, 2)
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Aeromonas sp. (fig 1)
Plesiomonas shigelloides (fig 1)
Vibrio cholerae (fig 1, 2)
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (fig 1)
Vibrio vulnificus (fig 1)
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Acinetobacter sp. (fig 1)
Flavobacterium sp. (fig 1)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (fig 1, 2)
Burkholderia cepacia (fig 1)
Burkholderia pseudomallei (fig 1)
Xanthomonas maltophilia or Stenotrophomonas maltophila(fig 1)
Enterobacteriaceae (glucose-fermenting Gram-negative rods)
Oxidase-positive, glucose-fermenting Gram-negative rods
Glucose-nonfermenting, Gram-negative rods
Anaerobic, Gram-negative rods
Bacteroides fragilis (fig 1)
Bacteroides sp. (fig 1)
Prevotella sp. (fig 1)
Fusobacterium sp. (fig 1, 2)
Gram-negative spiral
Spirillum minus (minor)- (fig 1)
NUTRITION
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Autotrophic
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Photosynthetic
Chemoautotrophic
(nitrogen fixers)
Heterotrophic
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Decomposer
Parasitic
(Treponema pallidum)
BACTERIA ARE USED TO PRODUCE MEDICINES
INSULIN
FIRST COMMERICAL USE OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING: INSULIN
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Important Recyclers in environment
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Nitrogen cycle
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Bacteria can produce chemicals
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Acetone, Butanol
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Bacteria are used to make food
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Pickles, buttermilk, cheese, sauerkraut, olives, vinegar, sourdough
bread, beer, wine
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Bacteria cause disease
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Produce toxins (Clostridium botulinum)
Metabolize their host (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
History of Microbiology
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1664: Robert Hooke - microscope
1684: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek - microorganisms
1798: Edward Jenner - smallpox vaccination
1864: Louis Pasteur - spontaneous generation
1884: Robert Koch - Koch’s postulates
1889: Martinus Beijerink - concept of virus
1929: Alexander Fleming - discovery of penicillin
1977: Carl Woese - discovery of Archaea
1981: First reports of AIDS
1983: Luc Montagnier - discovery of HIV
1995: Craig Venter - complete genome sequence

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