Chapter 9 – Intelligence and Creativity

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Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Chapter 9
Intelligence and Creativity
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
•
Chapter 9 – Intelligence and Creativity
What is intelligence?
– Adaptive thinking or
behavior (Piaget)
– Ability to think
abstractly, solve
problems?
(Sternberg)
•
RAISED
TOGETHER
RAISED
APART
IDENTICAL
TWINS
.86
.72
FRATERNAL
TWINS
.60
.52
Genetics x Environment
(interaction)
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Theories and Tests of Intelligence
• IQ tests
– Intelligence quotient (IQ) tests attempt to
measure an individual’s probable
performance in school and similar settings.
Binet (1857-1911) and Simon created 1st IQ
←
test in 1905
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Theories and Tests of Intelligence
• The Stanford-Binet test
– The Stanford-Binet test - V (2-85)
– The mean or average IQ score for all age
groups is designated as 100 ± 15 (85-115).
– Given individually
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Normal Distribution
Normal Distribution
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Individual Intelligence Tests
The Wechsler Scales
Overall IQ and also verbal and performance IQs.
(WPPSI-III) Wechsler Preschool and Primary
Scale of Intelligence-Revised. Ages 2 ½ to 7
years, 3 months
(WISC-IV) Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children-Revised. Ages 6 to 16 years, 11 months
(WAIS-III) Wechsler Adult Intelligence ScaleRevised
Ages 16-89
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
WPPSI-III
WPPSI
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
•
•
•
•
•
WISC-IV
Word Reasoning—measures reasoning with verbal material; child
identifies underlying concept given successive clues.
Matrix Reasoning—measures fluid reasoning a (highly reliable subtest
on WAIS® –III and WPPSI™–III); child is presented with a partially filled
grid and asked to select the item that properly completes the matrix.
Picture Concepts—measures fluid reasoning, perceptual organization,
and categorization (requires categorical reasoning without a verbal
response); from each of two or three rows of objects, child selects
objects that go together based on an underlying concept.
Letter-Number Sequencing—measures working memory (adapted from
WAIS–III); child is presented a mixed series of numbers and letters and
repeats them numbers first (in numerical order), then letters (in
alphabetical order).
Cancellation—measures processing speed using random and
structured animal target forms (foils are common non-animal objects).
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Theories and Tests of Intelligence
•
Raven’s Progressive Matrices
– Psychologists created “culture-reduced” tests
without language. It tests abstract reasoning
ability (non-verbal intelligence or performance IQ)
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Figure 9.2 Items similar to those in Raven’s Progressive Matrices test. The instructions
are: “Each pattern has a piece missing. From the eight choices provided, select the one
that completes the pattern, both going across and going down.” (You can check your
answers against answer A on page 339.)
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
The Psychometric Approach
Intelligence • A single attribute?
– Spearman (1863-1945)
2 – factor theory of intelligence
“g” = general ability
“s” = special abilities
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Figure 9.3 According to Spearman (1904), all intelligent abilities have an area of overlap,
which he called (for “general”). Each ability also depends partly on an s (for “specific”)
factor.
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Figure 9.4a Measurements of sprinting, high jumping, and long jumping correlate with
one another because they all depend on the same leg muscles. Similarly, the g factor
that emerges in IQ testing could reflect a single ability that all tests tap.
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
• Many attributes?
– Thurstone: 7 primary mental abilities
• Spatial ability, perceptual speed,
numeric reasoning, verbal meaning,
word fluency, memory, inductive
reasoning
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
What is Intelligence?
• Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
– Cattell & Horn believed that the “g” factor has
two components:
- Fluid intelligence is the power of reasoning,
solving unfamiliar problems, seeing relationships
and gaining new knowledge
- Crystallized intelligence is acquired knowledge
and the application of that knowledge to
experience.
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Concept Check:
A 16-year-old is learning to play chess and is
becoming proficient enough to be accepted into
the school’s chess club. Is this fluid or
crystallized intelligence?
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Concept Check:
• Ten years later, the chess player achieves
grandmaster status. Is this a result of fluid or
crystallized intelligence?
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9

Savant Syndrome
 condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental
ability has an exceptional specific skill
 Calculation abilities
 Drawing
 Musical
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
•
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Contextual Component (“street smarts or practical”)
– Adapting to the environment
• Experiential Component: (creative)
– Response to novelty
– Automatization
• Componential Component (“academic or analytical”)
– Information processing
– Efficiency of strategies
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Figure 9.2
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
TABLE 9.2 Four theories of intelligence
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
The Infant
• Developmental Quotients (DQ)
– Bayley Scales: Ages 2-30 months
– Correlations with Child IQ – low to 0
– Useful for diagnostic purposes
• *Best predictors
– From measures of information processing
– E.g., attention, speed of habituation,
preference for novelty
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
The Child
•
•
DQ does not predict
later IQ
CORRELATIONS
WITH IQ
AT AGE 9
CORRELATION
WITH IQ
AT AGE 12
4
.46
.42
7
.81
.69
9
----
.80
IQ gains
– Parents foster
achievement
•
AGE OF
CHILD
– Neither strict nor lax
parenting
IQ drops: Poverty
– Cumulative deficit
hypothesis
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
The Adolescent
• Brain growth spurt at age 11/12 (puberty)
•
•
•
– Formal operational thinking
– Improved memory and processing skills
– Stability of IQ evident
IQ score a good predictor of school
achievement
+.50 correlation between IQ score and grades
Adolescents with high IQ less likely to drop out
of high school and more likely to go to college
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
The Adult
• Strong relationships between
– IQ and occupational prestige
– IQ and job performance
– IQ and good health/longevity
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
Mental Retardation
• Below-average intellectual functioning: IQ 75
• Limited adaptive behavior: before age 18
– Self-care and social skills
• Below age-appropriate expectations
• Causes
– Organic: e.g., Down syndrome
– Cultural-familial: genes & environment
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9
The Dynamics of Intelligence
Life-Span Human Development, Fifth Edition, Carol K. Sigelman and Elizabeth A. Rider
Chapter 9

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