Week#8 - mrmilewski

Report
Revolutions 5/13/13
http://mrmilewski.com
• OBJECTIVE: Examine “The Trigger Effect”. MCSS WH6.1.1
• I. Administrative Stuff
-Attendance
• II. CONNECTIONS
-questions on episode#1 “The Trigger Effect”
• III. Homework due Monday 5/20/13
1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473
-Answer questions (1-7)* p.473
2.) Chapter#18 Review
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
• NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due Thursday May 16th
• NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th
Revolutions 5/14/13
http://mrmilewski.com
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the American Revolution. MCSS
WH-6.2.1
• I. Journal#19pt.A
-Examine the map on p.472
-Answer the map questions on p.472
• II. Journal#19pt.B
-notes on the Birth of the United States
• III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13
1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473
-Answer questions (1-7)* p.473
2.) Chapter#18 Review
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
• NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due Thursday May 16th
The Seven Years War
• After the French & Indian
War the colonists were
taxed by Parliament for
the cost of the war.
• The colonists were
unhappy with this.
• Laws passed long before
were enforced & new tax
laws were passed.
http://www.hist-sdc.com/fiw/images/cover.jpg
Boston Massacre
http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en/thumb/0/09/350px-Boston_Massacre.jpg
• In 1770, British soldiers
in Boston open fired on a
crowd throwing rocks &
snowballs at them.
• In 1773, some colonists
dressed up like Indians
and threw tea in Boston
Harbor.
• Parliament passed harsh
laws to punish
Massachusetts.
• The other 12 colonies
took the side of those in
Massachusetts.
War Begins
• In 1775, the shot
heard round the world
was the start of the
revolution.
• On July 4, 1776,
Congress sent a letter
to King George III
that basically said
forget you we are
independent.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/ae/L
exington_Minute_Man_relief_(Basha_Paeff)__Lexington,_MA.JPG/800pxLexington_Minute_Man_relief_(Basha_Paeff)__Lexington,_MA.JPG
Battle of Saratoga
http://artfiles.art.com/images/-/Fauvel/The-Surrenderof-General-John-Burgoyne-at-the-Battle-of-Saratoga7th-October-1777-Giclee-Print-C12637774.jpeg
• The turning point in
the war was when the
American forces
defeated the British at
the Battle of Saratoga.
• This victory
convinced the French
to join the war on the
side of the colonists.
Treaty of Paris
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Treaty_of_Paris_by_Benjamin_West_1783.jpg
• In 1781, with the help of
the French (yes, the
French were a world
power at one point),
Washington forced the
surrender of the British at
Yorktown.
• Two years later,
American, French, and
British signed the Treaty
of Paris that officially
ended the war.
Articles of Confederation
• The national document
set up to run the country
was too weak to govern
the nation effectively.
• In 1787, the nations
leaders met in
Philadelphia and wrote
the Constitution.
• This broad frame work
incorporated the
enlightenment ideas and
has allowed for flexibility
for the last 200 years.
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/constitution-day/images/constitution-01.gif
The Constitution
• It was the most liberal form of government when it
became law in 1789.
• An elected representative body consisting of two houses
was created to make laws.
• An executive was created that was elected as opposed to
being heredity.
• These two parts, plus the judicial branch were derived
from Montesquieu.
• The federal republic was supreme to the state
governments.
• Later the first ten amendments were added, also known as
the Bill of Rights it guaranteed citizens basic rights (Free
speech, free press, trial by jury, and private property).
Revolutions 5/15/13
http://mrmilewski.com
• OBJECTIVE: Begin examination of the French Revolution. MCSS
WH-6.2.1
• I. Journal#20pt.A
-Read “The French Revolution & Napoleon” p.478-479
-Answer the caption question on p.479
• II. Journal #20pt.B
-notes on the beginning of the French Revolution
• III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13
1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473
-Answer questions (1-7)* p.473
2.) Chapter#18 Review
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
• NOTICE: Journals#11-20 Due TOMORROW!
• NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th
Beginnings of Revolution
• In the year 1789 Réveillon was the
casualty of his own ill-digested
reflections on modern economics.
• “Since bread was the foundation of
our national economy' its
distribution should be deregulated,
permitting lower prices. That in turn
would allow lower wage costs,
lower manufacturing prices and
brisk consumption.”
• On April 28, 1789 his mansion was
destroyed, all the wallpaper, glue,
http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/4/47/350px-Montgolfiere_1783.jpg
furniture and paintings were burned,
FYI: October 19, 1783, First
except 2,000 bottles of wine.
hot air balloon launch from • Réveillon and his family escaped.
• It was a bloody day, some say 25
Reveillon’s garden.
other believe 900 people died. The
rioters were savagely repressed, in
an opening episode of the French
Revolution.
The Riot
• Aristocrats returning from the race track
through the neighborhood where the riot
had occurred thought those responsible
would be hung and life would continue as
it had.
• WRONG!! By July, the hungry,
unemployed, or poorly paid residents of
Paris had taken up arms.
The French Revolution
• The corrupt
governments of
Louis, XIV, XV, &
XVI had racked up a
huge debt, and caused
an economic crisis.
• The French people,
were divided into 3
estates. The first two
paid no taxes.
http://www.wga.hu/art/c/callet/louis_16.jpg
The Estates
• The Old Regime
• 1st estate – Clergy
-owned 10% of the land & paid no taxes
• 2nd estate – Nobility
-owned 20% of the land & paid no taxes
-had land, but no money
• 3rd estate – “Peasants”
27 million people
98% of the population
-divided into 3 parts
The
rd
3
Estate
• Part I – The Bourgeoisie
-prosperous middle class
-were rich, but had no political power
• Part II – Rural Peasants
-9 out of 10 people in France
-some were rich land owners, but not part of the nobility
-most were poor tenant farmers & day laborers
• Part III – Urban Workers
-poorest members of French society
-most were unemployed & turned to crime to survive
The Haves v. the Have-nots
• The Haves
-1st estate
-2nd estate
-3rd estate Pt.I
• The Have-nots
-3rd estate (most of pt.II)
-3rd estate pt.III
The Lives of the Have-nots
http://www.alons.geomerx.com/grfx/MediaVault/product26_1739.jpg
• Low wages meant the
slightest rise in the price of
bread could lead to starvation
• They paid all the taxes in the
nation
• They had no voice in
government
• They were technically free,
but the nobility re-imposed
manor fees.
• They had no right to hunt
even the animals that ate their
crops.
Formula
• Social unrest (Enlightenment ideas)
• +financial crisis (deficit spending)
• REVOLUTION!
4 phases of the French Revolution
http://www.revelation-today.com/FrRev02.jpg
• National Assembly
-(1789-1791)
-Constitutional Monarchy
• Reign of Terror
-(1792-1794)
-Radical Phase
• Directory
-(1795-1799)
-Reaction to Extremism
• Age of Napoleon
-(1799-1815)
-Consolidation of Change
Revolutions 5/16/13
http://mrmilewski.com
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the Old Regime & the
beginnings of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1
• I. Administrative Stuff
-attendance
-Journals#11-20 Due!
• II. CONNECTIONS
-questions on episode#2:
• III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13
1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473
-Answer questions (1-7)* p.473
2.) Chapter#18 Review
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
• NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th
Revolutions 5/17/13
http://mrmilewski.com
• OBJECTIVE: Examine the Old Regime & the
beginnings of the French Revolution. MCSS WH-6.2.1
• I. Journal#21pt.A
-Examine the Chart on p.481
-Answer questions (1-2) p.481
• II. Journal#21pt.B
-notes on the French Revolution
• III. Homework Due Monday 5/20/13
1.) Read Chapter#18 section#4 p.470-473
-Answer questions (1-7)* p.473
2.) Chapter#18 Review
*Pick 4 questions of your choice
• NOTICE: Chapter#18 Test Monday May 20th
The French Economic Crisis
• The corrupt governments of Louis,
XIV, XV, & XVI had racked up a
huge debt, and caused an
economic crisis.
• Louis XVI was weak and
indecisive, but he made a wise
decision in choosing Jacques
Necker to be his financial advisor.
• He advised the king to cut
spending and tax the 1st & 2nd
estates.
• The nobles were outraged and
forced the King to dismiss Necker.
• As the crisis got worse, the nobles
pressured the king to summon the
Estates General.
http://www.swisscastles.ch/vaud/coppet/coppetphoto/JaNecker.JPG
Estates General
• The Estates General was similar
to Parliament in England, but it
never gained the same amount of
power.
• The body was more advisory
than governing.
• The Estates General called by
Louis XVI was the first one to
met for 175 years.
• The reasons why the King didn’t
call them was because they were
afraid that the throne could
possibly lose some of the
absolute power it had.
• Reform minded nobles sought to
use the Estates General in 1789
to protect their privileged status,
establish a Constitution, and
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Ouverture_des_États_généraux_de_1789_à_Versailles.jpg
make the king a limited monarch.
Estates General
om/images/-/Jan-Bulthuis/Opening-of-the-Estates-General-at-Versailles-5th-May-1789-Giclee-Print-C12067230.jpeg
• In May 1789, the Estates General
met at Versailles.
• The estates brought their list of
grievances (cahiers) to the
meeting.
• Among the demands were fairer
taxes, freedom of the press, and
regular meetings of the Estates
General.
• From the beginning, the Estates
General was at an impasse over
voting.
• Traditionally each estate met
separately and voted as a group.
This allowed the 1st & 2nd estate
to out vote the 3rd estate 2 to 1.
• The 3rd estate wanted to meet
together.
National Assembly
http://sourcebook.fsc.edu/history/tenniscourtoath.jpg
• The 3rd estate took a bold step
after weeks of stalemate.
• They formed the National
Assembly, invited members of the
other estates to join them in
drawing up a constitution.
• A few reform minded clergy &
nobles joined them.
• The National Assembly found
themselves locked out of their
meeting place.
• On June 20, 1789, they met on the
tennis court and took the famous
“Tennis Court Oath” in which
they vowed not to disband until
they had written a constitution.
Problems Continue
http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/kat_anna/bastille_c%20copy1.jpg
• As the financial crisis
worsened, the King brought
back Necker in early July.
• Food shortages got worse as
the full effect of the poor
harvest of 1788 were felt.
• On July 14, 1789, 800
Parisians assembled outside the
Bastille & demanded weapons
& gunpowder because it was
rumored that royal troops were
going to occupy the capital.
• The commander of the Bastille
refused and ordered the troops
to open fire on the crowd.
Bastille Day
http://www.sophiesdiary.net/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/bastille-2.gif
• After many people were
killed, the mob was able to
break through the defenses,
kill the commander, 5
guards, and released some
prisoners, but they found
no weapons.
• When Louis XVI found
out, he asked “Is this a
revolt?” A noble replied,
“No sire, it is a
revolution.”
• This was seen as a major
step against tyranny and is
celebrated as a national
holiday in France (July
14th)
Famine
http://revolution-francaise.net/images/reichardt/15.jpg
• As the political crisis grew,
the food shortage grew
worse.
• Starving peasants from the
countryside flocked to cities
were they joined the growing
ranks of the unemployed.
• Those with jobs had to spend
up to 80% of their income on
bread.
• Rumors of bands of starving
peasants terrorizing
townspeople and stories of
troops seizing crops led to
what became known as the
“Great Fear”
Marquis de Lafayette
• Peasant attacks on nobles and riots
in Paris led to the creation of the
National Guard.
• The head of this mostly middle
class militia that was organized in
response to the arrival of royal
troops in Paris was headed by the
aristocrat Marquis de Lafayette.
• He was seen as a hero of the 2nd &
3rd estates.
• He had fought side by side with
George Washington in the
American Revolution.
• As a more radical group, the Paris
ad.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/26/Marquis_de_Lafayette_3.jpg/492px-Marquis_de_Lafayette_3.jpg
Commune replaced the royalist city
government whole neighborhoods
could be mobilized for protests or
violent actions.
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
• The uprisings and the storming
of the Bastille forced the
National Assembly to act.
• On August 4, 1789, the nobles
voted to end their special
privileges (manor dues, hunting,
special legal status, & tax
exempt status).
• In late August, the assembly
issued the Declaration of the
Rights of Man.
• It was the first step to writing a
constitution and was based on
the American Declaration of
Independence.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a0/Declaration_of_Human_Rights.jpg

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