DIAGNOSING READING PROBLEMS: WHAT DO YOUR STUDENTS NEED? TRAINING OVERVIEW RTI model of reading Taking DIBELS to the next level Using new accuracy formula Pile protocol Using a diagnostic screener (DDS) Administering & scoring the DDS Using the data to diagnose specific areas of need Next steps LEARNING TARGETS I can say what RTI means. I can use the pile protocol to find students that need extra instruction. I can administer and score the DDS diagnostic screener I know what to do with the DDS diagnostic screener after I have my student’s scores. I know what my next steps are for administering an intervention model in my classroom or building. RTI MODEL RTI RTI is not a program, it’s a philosophy/tool/framework RTI stands for Response To Intervention (sometimes Response to Instruction) In the past, we’ve had a “wait to fail” model. RTI is Preventative Model RTI CORE PRINCIPLES Use all available resources to teach all students – minimize silos Universal screening for prevention instead of waiting for intervention Multi-tier model of service delivery Explicit & systematic instruction Data based decisions using a problem solving or standard protocol approach Monitor student progress frequently Multiple assessment measures Monitoring implementation fidelity 3 TIERED MODEL Tier 3: Students who need intensive or individualized support. 5% Tier 2: Students who do not make progress in Tier 1 are provided with more intensive interventions 15% Tier 1: All students receive high quality instruction as well as regular progress monitoring 80% 3 TIERED MODEL Tier 3: Tier 2: Tier 1: District Adopted Curriculum (Read Well or Reading Street) 90 minutes at Instructional Level Scientifically Based Practices Data Driven Decision Making (Progress Monitoring) Differentiated Instruction 3 TIERED MODEL Tier 3: Tier 2: Pull aside Added practice outside the 90 minutes 20-30 minute additional instruction Data Driven Decision Making (progress monitoring) Scientifically based practices District Adopted Intervention Materials Use data to make decisions Pull aside Tier 1: 3 TIERED MODEL Tier 3: Replacement “Core” Scientifically based practices Data Driven Decision Making (progress monitoring) Tier 2: Tier 1: RTI In an RTI/Intervention model, students do not stay in intervention groups forever. Every 4-6 weeks, use assessment to re-group. RTI is not for everyone, it’s for the kids who need it. The nature of the intervention changes at each tier, becoming more rigorous as the student moves through the tiers Students move up and down the tiers depending on need WHY WE’RE REALLY DOING THIS Students speak to us through their data. It is up to us to hear what they are telling us and do something about it! USING DIBELS TO HELP DETERMINE STUDENT NEEDS WHAT ARE THE SUBTESTS? Dibels Indicators 5 Essential Components Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Tied to Alphabetic Principle Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Phonemic Awareness Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Phonemic Awareness Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Phonics Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Fluency Retell Fluency Comprehension** WHAT DO THE SCORES MEAN? Reading fluently with comprehension is the ultimate goal. DIBELS uses early skills (LNF, PSF, NWF, ORF) to predict how likely it is a child will be a strong reader later. Students must achieve or exceed goals on time to be on track for successful reading. WHAT DO THE SCORES MEAN? When you see a DIBELS report, you will see a raw score for each student as well as: Intensive At Risk Deficit Strategic Some Risk Emerging Benchmark Low Risk Established A child’s score will determine if they are Intensive, Strategic, or Benchmark. DIBELS MARKINGS IN TACOMA DIBELS Scoring Cheat Sheet Timing Hesitation Prompt Discontinue Scoring Tips* Letter Naming Fluency (LNF) Start timing after saying “Begin” and stop at 1 minute. (]) After 3 seconds, provide the correct letter name and point to the next letter and say, “What letter?” (prompt may be repeated) “Remember to tell me the letter name and not the sound.” (One time only) No letters correct in the first row (10 letters). Draw a line through a skipped row and do not count in scoring. Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Start timing after question and stop when student responds. After 5 seconds, “Remember to tell score as 0 and present me the picture that next question. begins with the sound ___.” Score of 0 on first 5 questions. Record number of seconds and calculate the fluency score. Phoneme Segmentation Fluency Start timing when After 3 seconds, first word is provide next word. presented and stop at 1 minute. (]) (PSF) Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Start timing after saying “Begin” and stop at 1 minute. (]) After 3 seconds, score the sound/word as incorrect and provide the correct sound/word. If necessary, point to the next sound/word, and say, “What sound/word?”* Depends on whether student is reading “sound by sound” or “word by word”. DIBELS Oral Start timing after After 3 seconds, provide the next Reading Fluency student says first word and stop at 1 word. (DORF) minute. (]) “Remember to tell me the sounds in the word.” Marking t L s u 0 1 No correct sound If student repeats the /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 4/4 segments in first 5 entire word with no /k/ /a/ /t/ 2/3 words. segmentation, circle the word and do not give any /t/ /r/ /i/ /k/ 0/3 points. No correct sounds in first 5 words. No words read correct in first row. Draw a line through a skipped row and do not count in scoring. Three passages administered and median (middle) score recorded. tob 3/3 tob 3/3 tob 2/3 It was a live fish. 4/5 tt It was a live fish. 4/5 THE IMPORTANCE OF ACCURACY Accuracy is a piece/ one aspect used to determine instructional decisions. Why do we look at accuracy? Research and examples DIBELS ORF scores at the end of second grade. (Benchmark is 90 wcpm.) Billy reads 85 wcpm with no errors. Sally reads 112 wcpm with 8 errors. Which student is more likely to have strong comprehension? Which student is more likely to have decoding issues? ACCURACY PERCENTAGES 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd -5thGrade Winter Spring Fall Winter Spring Fall Winter Spring Frustration <75% <85% <87% <90% <90% <90% <90% <90% Instruction 75%-79% 85%-89% 87%-91% 90%-94% 90%-96% 90%-96% 90%-96% 90%-96% Independent 80%+ 90%+ 92%+ 95%+ 97%+ 97%+ 97%+ 97%+ WHAT DO SCREENING DATA TELL US? WCPM and accuracy scores below benchmark screening data indicate that a student may not be reading well enough to have strong comprehension. Screening data answer the question: Is the student reading with appropriate rate and accuracy to indicate adequate comprehension? The ‘Pile Protocol’ allows us to determine which students need further diagnostic assessment PILE PROTOCOL Using DIBELS ORF scores and accuracy, you can make piles of student books based on the following criteria: Strong Readers Slow Rate Readers Readers w/ Mild Decoding Issues Readers w/ Moderate Decoding Issues Readers w/ Significant Decoding Issues Rate score > ___WCPM Rate score < ___WCPM Rate score > ___WCPM Rate score < __WCPM Rate score <__WCPM Accuracy score > 97% Accuracy score > 97% Accuracy score of 90-96% Accuracy score < 90% Accuracy score of 90-96% Strong Readers Rate score > ____WCPM + Accuracy score > 97% Student Rate Slow Rate Readers Rate score < ____WCPM + Accuracy score > 97% Acc Student Rate Readers w/ Mild Decoding Issues Rate score > ____WCPM + Accuracy score 90- 96% Acc Student Rate Acc Readers w/ Moderate Decoding Issues Rate score < ____WCPM + Accuracy score of 90-96% Student Rate Acc Readers w/ Significant Decoding Issues Rate score < ____WCPM + Accuracy score < 90% Student Rate Acc PILE PROTOCOL: PRACTICE Student Name ORF/Rate Score Accuracy Jenn 45 81% Leo 40 87% Juan 63 80% Donald 68 89% Vicki 56 90% Luella 78 90% Diego 82 95% Eric 85 96% Samantha 75 99% Juanita 76 98% Miguel 90 99% Significant/Severe decoding issues Moderate Decoding Issues Mild Decoding Issues Slow Rate Readers Strong Readers FURTHER DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT Students who meet both WCPM and accuracy percentage benchmarks on the Oral Reading Fluency screening assessment (Strong Readers): Do not need diagnostic assessment Do not need intervention Students who do not meet BOTH WCPM and accuracy percentage benchmarks (Moderate Decoding Issues and Significant/Severe Decoding Issues) should receive diagnostic assessment to pinpoint area(s) of weaknesses. Areas of weakness will guide instructional planning and instruction. DECODING IS ESSENTIAL FOR READING COMPREHENSION AT ALL AGES Assess decoding abilities first If students cannot decode well and easily, reading fluency and comprehension will be hindered even if the students have strong vocabularies and comprehension WHAT DO YOUR STUDENTS DO WHEN THEY DON’T KNOW HOW TO DECODE? Skip words Add words Misread vowels (bench for bunch) Guess based on context (mom for mother) Misread multi-syllabic words Misread or skip articles (in, of, the, to, etc.) These errors will lead to comprehension mistakes…not always, but sometimes. WHY STUDENTS IN HIGHER GRADES HAVE DECODING PROBLEMS Problems often don’t show up until higher grades because students guessed successfully in the early grades when words are easy to guess. Older students experience less and less success with guessing as text becomes more difficult. BEGIN DIAGNOSIS OF READING DIFFICULTIES BY ASSESSING DECODING ABILITIES Even with WCPM and Accuracy Percentage scores, we don’t know why students are having difficulties. Comprehension Vocabulary Decoding STUDENTS NEED TO READ WORDS IN ISOLATION IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY DECODING WEAKNESSES Reading carefully selected real and nonsense words in isolation is an efficient diagnostic assessment. Examine error patterns to determine the specific confusions and the depth of the weaknesses. CHECK IN Turn to your partner and tell them how you’ve met these learning targets so far: I say what RTI means. I can use the accuracy formula and pile protocol to find students that need extra instruction. ADMINISTERING THE DIAGNOSTIC DECODING SURVEY DIAGNOSTIC DECODING SURVEYS Your Diagnostic Decoding Surveys includes: Beginning and Advanced Decoding Surveys Summary Directions for Administration and Scoring Blank Recording Forms Student Pages BEGINNING DECODING SURVEY Beginning Decoding Skills Beginning decoding skills include the ability to read words with: Short vowels Digraphs Blends The Beginning Decoding Survey also includes high frequency words that do not have short vowels. Beginning Decoding Survey 50 Very Easy, One-Syllable Words Words and Sentences to Read Set 1 see one they you are •5 real words with short vowels & 3 letters rag lid dot hum bet •5 real words with short vowels & 4 letters rich shop tack quit moth dust step trip pond brag •5 high frequency words (digraphs) •5 real words with short vowels & 4 letters _____________________________________________________ Set 2 1. The cat hid in a box. (blends) 2. The fresh fish is still on the wet grass. •22 one-syllable words in sentences: short vowels & high frequency words 3. Six flat shells were in my bath. _____________________________________________________ Set 3 •8 nonsense words with short vowels •4 with 3 letters •4 with 4 letters (digraphs) vop yud zin keb Shap thid chut weck Words and Sentences to Read Administering and Scoring The Beginning Decoding Survey (Summary directions are available in your DDS) Administering the Survey: 1. Ask the student to read the words and sentences on the Student Page. 2. Use the Recording Form to record student’s responses: • Put a check by words the student reads correctly. • Write exactly what the student says when reading a word incorrectly. Recording Form Scoring the Survey: 1. Total the number of words read correctly. 2. Complete the Error Grid by marking all columns that describe the student’s error when reading a word. You can complete the grid after the student reads the words and sentences. 3. Total the marks in each error column. Error Types - Error types are listed at the top and bottom of the columns on the Error Grid •No Try: Mark only when a student does not attempt to read a word. •Sight Word: Mark when a student misreads a sight word. •Sound Added or Omitted: Mark when a student attempts to read a word, but adds or omits a sound. This is a ‘guesser’ column because students only add or omit sounds when they are guessing. •Initial Consonant: Mark when a student misreads or omits the initial consonant. •Final Consonant: Mark when a student misreads or omits the final consonant. This is a ‘guesser’ column because students who are confused by the vowel often guess at the final consonant sounds. •Short Vowel: Mark when a student misreads a short vowel. •Consonant Digraph & qu: Mark when a student misreads or omits a digraph or qu. •Blend: Mark when a student misreads or omits reading any part of a blend. DIGRAPHS AND BLENDS REMINDERS Digraphs are two letters that spell one sound. Common consonant digraphs on the Surveys: sh – sh e ch – ch ap wh – wh ip th – th en OR th umb ck – ba ck Blends are two consonant letters together, each with its own sound. A few blends on the Surveys are: st – mu s t, s t op tr – t r ap nd – ba n d br – b r at SCORING RULES – SINGLE HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS •Check (√) words read correctly. •Write NT (for no try) if the student does not attempt the word. •Put ‘x’s in both the “No Try” and the “Sight Word” boxes on the grid. •If student misreads a word, write the response. •Put an ‘x’ in the “Sight Word” box on the grid, and do not put ‘x’s in any other boxes. •If the student responds twice, write both responses and put one ‘x’ in the “Sight Word” box on the grid. •Write ‘SC’ if the student self-corrects. •Self-corrections count as errors. •Put an ‘x’ in the “Sight Word” box on the grid. SCORING RULES – SINGLE DECODABLE WORDS •Check (√) words read correctly. •If students misread words, write all responses. •If the student responds twice, write both responses. •Put ‘x’s in Error Grid boxes for all errors in both words. •Write NT (for no try) if the students does not attempt the word. •Put an ‘x’ in the “No Try” box on the Error Grid. (No ‘x’ is in the Sound Added/Omitted box because that column is for Sounds Added/Omitted within a word.) •Put ‘x’s in all applicable boxes on the Error Grid. (These boxes have ‘x’s because the student did not read any part of the word. •Write SC if the student self-corrects. •Self-corrections count as errors when totaling number of Words Read Correctly. •Mark all errors in the misread words, even if the student self-corrects. SCORING RULES – PROMPT ONCE IF THE STUDENT DOES NOT ATTEMPT TO SAY THE WORD #1 •When a student does not attempt to read a word, prompt the student once to try to read the word. •If the student attempts to read the word, do not mark a NT and score as if that is the student’s first response. •If the student does not attempt to read “quit”, ask the student to try. If the student reads “quite”, write quite and mark the errors for quite. SCORING RULES – PROMPT ONCE IF THE STUDENT DOES NOT ATTEMPT TO SAY THE WORD #2 •When a student does not attempt to read a word, prompt the student once to try to read the word. •If the student still doesn’t read the word, mark NT and score as a no try. •If the student does not attempt to read ‘dust’, ask the student to try. If the student still makes no attempt, mark NT and core the errors for a No Try. SCORING RULES – PROMPT ONCE IF THE STUDENT DOES NOT ATTEMPT TO SAY THE WORD #2 •When a student does not attempt to read a word, prompt the student once to try to read the word. •If the student reads the word correctly after the prompt, mark the work as read correctly. •If the student does not attempt to read ‘step’, ask the student to try. If the student reads the word correctly, place a check next to the word and count it as correct. SCORING RULES – SENTENCES (DECODABLE WORDS) •Put a check (√) above words read correctly. •If the student misreads the word, put a slash through the word and write what the student says above the word. •If the student omits the word, put a slash through the word •Put an ‘x’ in the No Try box on the Error Grid. (no X goes in the Sounds Added/Omitted box because that column is for sounds added and/or omitted within a word.) •Put ‘x’s in all applicable boxes on the Error Grid. (These boxes have ‘x’s because the student did not read any part of the word.) SCORING RULES – SENTENCES (SIGHT WORDS) x NOTE –Sight Words are in italics on the Recording Form. •If the student misreads a Sight Word in italics, put a slash through the word and write what the student says. •Mark an ‘x’ in the Sight Word box on the Error Grid. •If the student omits a Sight Word, put a slash through the word. •Put ‘x’s in both the No Try and the Sight Word boxes on the Error Grid. OTHER SCORING RULES • • • • • • • Gray boxes (NA) on the grid are not applicable for scoring. If a student reads the word correctly, then reads it incorrectly, put a check (√) by the word, then write what the student says when he/she misreads. Mark errors in all words a student reads incorrectly. One error can cause more than one box on the grid to be marked. • brag read as rag warrants ‘x’s in 3 boxes: Sounds Added/Omitted, Initial Consonants, & Blends. Digraphs do not count as Initial or Final Consonants • A missed digraph is marked in the digraph column. When totaling the number correct, each word missed counts as one error –regardless of the number of times the student attempted the word. If students blend a word correctly, count it as one error for Words Read Correctly, but do not mark errors across the page. OBSERVATIONS •Certain characteristics that might be observed as the student reads are listed in the Observation section in the upper right hand corner of the Error Grid. •Check a box if you observe any of the characteristics. •For b/d or b/p errors, put a check every time you notice the error, which may indicate the severity of the issue. YOUR TURN Practice scoring Beginning Decoding Survey with presenter. With a partner, administer and score the Beginning Decoding Survey. Remember to make mistakes, so your partner can score. Each person should have a chance to be the scorer. Donald’s Beginning Decoding Survey Handout #1 What are Donald’s strengths & weaknesses? WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT DONALD? Strengths He reads beginning and ending consonants, blends, and digraphs well. He reads real words quite accurately. (Missed one vowel: read reach for rich.) Weaknesses Short vowels are his most basic difficulty. He guesses when he reads even very simple sentences. His lack of ability to read nonsense words tells us he does not understand basic letter-sound correspondences, especially with vowels. LOOKING AT READING DIFFICULTIES Look at the presenter’s Beginning Decoding Survey. What is your presenter’s reading difficulties? Look at your partner’s Beginning Decoding Survey. What is your partner’s reading difficulties? APPROPRIATE AGES FOR THE BEGINNING DECODING SURVEY Beginning Decoding Surveys are appropriate from the middle of first grade on. For all students, ALWAYS start with the Beginning Decoding Survey. Short vowels are a problem for many students of all ages who do not read proficiently. The Beginning Decoding Survey will identify almost all short vowel difficulties. ADVANCED DECODING SURVEY Survey K 1st 2nd 3rd-5th Beginning No Yes in the middle of year Yes Yes Advanced No No Yes in the middle of the year Yes CHANGE IN ADVANCED DECODING SURVEY COLUMN HEADERS •“Advanced Vowel” column added to mark when the student misreads an advanced vowel. •“Trigraphs” added to Digraphs column. •Multi-Syllable Words added: Real & Nonsense. TRIGRAPHS AND 3-SOUND BLENDS REMINDERS Trigraphs are three letters that spell one sound. Two consonant trigraphs on the Surveys: tch – m a tch dge – r i dge 3-sound blends are three consonant letters together, each with its own sound. The only 3-sound blend on the Survey: str – s t r eet SCORING THE ADVANCED DECODING SURVEY Single Syllable Words Mark just like the beginning decoding Survey. Multi-Syllable Words Do not analyze errors. Mark an ‘x’ in the box if the student did not read the word correctly. Advanced Decoding Survey 30 Harder Words •8 nonsense words with short vowels •12 nonsense words with advanced vowels •4 nonsense words with long vowels •5 nonsense words with other vowels •3 nonsense words with r-controlled vowels •10 multi-syllable words •5 nonsense multi-syllable words •5 real multi-syllable words WHEN TO USE THE ADVANCED DECODING SURVEY Administer the Advanced decoding Survey beginning in the middle of second grade. Always give every student the Beginning Decoding Survey before giving the Advanced Decoding Survey Looking at scores from both the Beginning and Advanced Decoding Survey will allow you to group students with similar needs for decoding instruction. Multi-Syllable Words No error analysis for multi-syllable words. Put an ‘x’ in the box if the word is read incorrectly or no attempt is made to read the word. JENNY – HANDOUT #3 PRACTICE SCORING THE ADVANCED DECODING SURVEY Jenny’s responses are filled in. You will: Total the number correct; Mark the errors on the Error Grid; Total the marks in each column. Together, we will check your answers. ADVANCED DECODING SURVEYS Students with scores lower than benchmark are likely to need intervention to become strong decoders USING SCREENING AND DIAGNOSTIC DATA TO GROUP STUDENTS BEN – CAN YOU PLAN INSTRUCTION BASED ON BEN’S SCORES? Without having access to Ben’s specific errors, work with a partner to identify Ben’s decoding weaknesses and determine what Ben’s intervention instruction will include. SLOW READERS DON’T ALWAYS NEED FLUENCY INSTRUCTION Slow readers can be accurate or inaccurate. Slow, inaccurate readers almost always have difficulty with decoding. Slow, but accurate, reading may be caused by: Taking time to figure out the word based on context because decoding skills are weak. Lack of vocabulary, which means the student has to sound out many words. Slow processing. STUDENTS ASSESSED WITH THE DIAGNOSTIC DECODING SURVEYS FALL INTO 6 INSTRUCTIONAL CATEGORIES 1. 2. Need help improving rate – read and decode accurately Need mild decoding help 3. Need moderate decoding help 4. groups of 6 maximum Have severe reading difficulties 6. groups of 8 maximum Need significant decoding help 5. groups of 12 maximum groups of 1-3 maximum Scores extremely low, need further diagnostic testing HOW TO GROUP STUDENTS AND DETERMINE INSTRUCTIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS? Look at similarities in decoding difficulties to form groups and develop instructional recommendations Form groups based on needs of students and staff resources FORMING GROUPS: A SCENARIO Mythical School’s 2nd grade team wants to start an intervention group. They have 2 classroom teachers ready to start. Ms. Sally’s class has 8 students who need short vowel decoding work (based on the DDS). Mr. Jones’ class has 7 students who need help with CVC and sight words. They decide to spend 25 minutes before lunch every day “walking to intervention”. Mr. Jones takes the 15 students who need decoding help and forms a small group. Ms. Sally takes her remaining students and Mr. Jones’ students and works on deeper comprehension and vocabulary skills using the Reading Street lessons she never gets to. FORMING GROUPS: A SCENARIO Storybook School’s 5th grade team consists of one classroom teacher, Ms. Blue. Ms. Blue’s class has 5 students who need advanced vowel decoding work (based on the DDS), 5 students who need work on multisyllabic words and the rest of her students are at benchmark. Ms. Blue asks one of her student’s grandma (who is a retired school bus driver) to come into class for 20 minutes every day. Grandma Green has the remaining 18 students read Advanced Leveled Reader books and discuss them using the Making Meaning format. During this time Ms. Blue pulls the 10 students to the back of the room and works on multisyllabic decoding, with an emphasis on the vowels in the multisyllabic words. GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Gather with your grade level team from your building. Discuss the following: What human-resources are available at your building to provide interventions? (Think of all of them: parents, volunteers, high school older brothers, grandparents, community members, lunch ladies, office staff with a “free” 20 minutes a day) What small bits of time do you have as a team if you wanted to “walk to intervention”? What small bits of time do you have if you need to do intervention on your own? What are some possible scenarios you can develop for your team? What needs to happen next at _________ in order for you to implement an RTI model that includes systematic Tier 2 instruction? INTERVENTION NEXT STEPS NOW THAT YOU HAVE SOME KNOWLEDGE, USE IT! Look at student’s scores and DIBELs booklets Use pile protocol Administer DDS diagnostic to those who need it Determine which areas your students need the most assistance. Vocabulary Makiing Meaning Strategies ELI Strategies and Reading Street ELI Strategies Reading Street Vocab Book Fluency Making Meaning strategies Skill Builders ELI Strategies and Reading Street Phonics 6 minute solution Templates Phonics for Reading ELI Strategies and Reading Street Syllaboards Phonemic Awareness SIPPS Road to the Code Templates ELI Strategies Road to the Code Phonemic Awareness in young Children SIPPS Beginning Template Reading Intervention Materials Training Matrix All Staff: Diagnosing and identifying Reading Problems Using the Diagnostic Tool/I've Dibeled Now What? Comprehension A FINAL THOUGHT… “You can have the results you say you want, or you can have the reasons why you can’t have them. But you can’t have both. Reasons or results. You get to choose.” -Susan Scott Fierce Conversations EXIT SLIP Please Reflect on the learning targets for tonight: I say what RTI means. I can use the pile protocol to find students that need extra instruction. I can administer and score the DDS diagnostic screener I know what to do with the DDS diagnostic screener after I have my student’s scores. I know what my next steps are for administering an intervention model in my classroom or building.