The Mongol Empire
0 The Mongols were a group of nomadic tribes from the
plains of Central Asia
0 In 1206, a Mongol leader, or a khan, managed to unite
the Mongol tribes into a powerful fighting force
0 His name was Temujin, or Genghis Khan (universal
0 Through force, created the largest empire in the world
The Mongol Empire
0 Factors that contributed Genghis Khan’s success:
0 Mongols were fierce warriors and excellent horsemen
0 Warriors were well trained and highly disciplined
0 Genghis was skilled military strategist
0 Brutal fighter, often left NO survivors after conquering
0 Died in 1227 C.E., power passed down to his son and
Mongol Rule
0 Little experience in governing because they were
0 Had their own legal system that forbade theft and
0 They allowed conquered peoples to maintain their
own customs and traditions
0 Practiced religious tolerance
0 Allowed people to practice any religion
Mongol Rule
0 Mongols expanded trade routes and built a courier
system to speed communication
0 Major trade route known as the Silk Road
0 Result: trade increased, economy prospered
0 Invented paper $$$$
0 Aside from goods, ideas and inventions also traveled
Map of the Silk Road
The Mongol Collapse
0 Empire lasted for around a century (100 years)
0 Reasons for collapse: political disunity, loss of warrior
0 Main reason: DISEASE (bubonic plague, Black Death)
0 Killed anywhere from 25-50% of the population in 20
0 Disease spread along the Silk Road
0 This allowed for invaders to conquer the Mongol
4.5 Expanding Networks of
0 Trade Networks:
0 Largest was the Silk Road
0 Connected Asia, Europe, Africa and the Mediterranean
0 Major sea routes also connected Afro-Eurasia
World Religions
0 Exchange networks and growth of empires also spread
religious beliefs across Afro-Eurasia
0 Hinduism spread throughout India and Southeast Asia
0 Buddhism spread throughout Asia
0 Christianity spread throughout Europe, Russia, Ethiopia and
0 Judaism spread throughout western Europe and Central Asia
0 Crusades: Series of wars between Christians and Muslims
over the Holy Land (Jerusalem)
0 Lasted between 1095-1250 C.E.
Exchanging Knowledge
0 Ideas and knowledge spread across the exchange
0 Discoveries in math, astronomy and medicine
0 Technologies in areas such as irrigation, navigation,
printing and papermaking
0 Arabic numerals allowed for development of modern
Environmental Factors
0 Populations suffered from devastating plagues that
were transmitted along trade routes
0 Such as smallpox, measles and the bubonic plague
0 Bubonic plague was the reason for the collapse of the
Han, Roman and Mongolian empires
0 As networks expanded, so did the danger of infectious
0 Deforestation lead to flooding of villages during rainy
0 Needed to cut down forests to make more room for

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