Addressing Disparities in Early Childhood Language and Literacy

Report
Introduction
a) Read to Succeed Act
b) early literacy paper
SC data on early literacy
Promotion of:
a) early language
b) literacy—shared book reading
A) language & literacy assessment
B) intervention for struggling readers
C) EC programs address language & literacy
D) community literacy promotion

Chapter 3:
Impact of Code-Focused Interventions on Early Literacy Skills
.....................................................................................
Chapter 4:
Impact of Shared-Reading Interventions on Early Literacy Skills
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Chapter 5:
Impact of Parent and Home Programs on Early Literacy Skills
.....................................................................................
Chapter 6:
Impact of Preschool & Kindergarten Programs on Early Literacy Skills
.....................................................................................
Chapter 7:
Impact of Language Enhancement Interventions on Early Literacy Skills
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Predictors of Reading Proficiency
Oral Language
Alphabet Knowledge
Concepts About Print
Phonological Awareness
Writing & Name-Writing
Invented Spelling
[Comprehension]
Source: National Early Literacy Panel
Below Basic in Reading
Grade 4 Grade 8
Poor
51%
38%
Not Poor
21%
14%
African American
57%
42%
Hispanic
40%
30%
White
28%
18%
Male
43%
33%
Female
35%
22%
Proficient in Reading
Grade 4 Grade 8
Poor
17%
17%
Not Poor
46%
44%
African American
13%
14%
Hispanic
21%
24%
White
39%
39%
Male
43%
33%
Female
35%
22%
Critical Competencies Built in Early Childhood
•
•
•
•
•
Language & literacy
Math
Behavioral & emotional well-being
Social skills
Learning & work habits:
inquiry, curiosity, persistence, teamwork
• Character traits:
responsibility, honesty, dependability
Child ages 0- 4: Waking Hours
Who are they with?
Caregiver
Under 185%
of Poverty
Over 185%
of Poverty
Not with
Mom
37.5%
46.5%
With Mom
62.5%
53.5%
Total
100%
100%
Source: DSS Childcare Survey.
Non-Maternal Hours Ages 0-4
Caregiver
Under
185%
Over
185%
Child Care
15.5%
22.5%
Relatives
12%
9%
Spousal Care
10%
15%
Total
37.5%
46.5%
Source: DSS Childcare Survey.
million
Language Experience
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source: Hart and Risley
45 mil
Professional
26 mil
Working Class
13 mil
Welfare Poor
Early Influences in
Professional vs Poor Families
Recorded Vocabulary of Parents
Recorded Vocabulary of Child
2.2:1
2.1:1
Different words used per hour- Parent
Different words used per hour- Child
2.3:1
2.0:1
Parent encouragements to discouragements
14:1
Entering Preschoolers’ DIAL Score (percentiles)
All
Below 25th
Mean
Mean
Language
30
12
Concepts
30
11
What Works??
High quality Perry Preschool program
•Serving poor, minority children
•Classes serving only 5-6 children
[1/2]
•Only teachers with bachelor’s degrees or higher
with certification in education (no aides)
[1/2]
•Service for 2 school years at ages 3 & 4
[1/2]
•Teachers visiting families at least every 2 weeks [ ?? ]
•High/Scope educational model or similar approach [ ?? ]
<
•Daily classes of 2 1/2 hours or more
[
]
•SC professional teacher interaction intensity
[1/8]
SC CDEPP Children’s Entering 4K and 5k Scores
(percentiles)
4K
5K
Mean
Mean
PPVT vocabulary
19
28
WJ Achievement
30
43
% Not Consistently Ready
In Kindergarten
Readiness Domain
Income
ELA
Math
Personal & Social
Development
Free Lunch
36
37
35
Reduced Lunch
26
26
27
Full Pay
16
16
18
Source: SCDE SCRA (2008) rated by teachers
% Not Consistently Ready
In Kindergarten
Readiness Domain
RACE/GENDER
ELA
Math
Personal & Social
Development
White Males
23
18
23
White Females
AA & other Males
14
39
12
12
31
34
AA & other Females
26
24
21
Source: SCDE SCRA (2008) rated by teachers
Below SC Academic Standards
Grade 3
Grade 5
Grade 8
Grade 8
ELA or Math
ELA or Math
ELA
Writing
White Female
13
17
20
13
Minority Male
40
54
57
50
F/R Lunch
35
47
50
42
Low educated mother
47
57
54
48
Any disability
42
51
52
48
Emotional-behavioral problem
47
57
58
55
Foster Care & CPS
44
54
57
51
Any 2 risk factors
55
64
64
63
 a)
verbal skills
 b)
vocabulary
 c)
verbal intelligence
 d)
education
 e)
fewer utterances
 f)
shorter utterances
 g)
less total language output
 h)
fewer labels
 i)
more directives
1)
dialogue facilitates comprehension
2)
ensure active child participation
3)
give praise
4)
provide corrective feedback
 5)
continue discussion on child-initiated topics by:
a) using extensions
b) asking clarifying questions
 6)
parents use open-ended & wh— questions
 7)
request the best answer the child can provide
 8)
repeat, expand, & recast the child’s speech often
 1)
active child literacy talk & play
 2)
greater use by mother of
 a) “talk with” rather than “talk to”
 b) scaffolding
 c) vocabulary
 3)
mothers responding with
a) more semantically contingent speech
b) building on child’s utterances
c) connecting print activities to daily life
Emergent literacy involves:
 1) re-readings of favorite books
 2) letter naming
 3) understanding syntax
 4) word choices appropriate to written
language
 5) phonemic awareness
 6) writing or scribbles
Emergent literacy includes all the precursors to
formal literacy.
Frequency of shared book reading is
related to:
 a) language skills
 b) emergent literacy
 c) reading achievement of
school-age children
 1. Questioning
(a)use open-ended & wh— questions
(b) allow children to talk beyond a
"yes" or "no" response)
 2. Scaffolding dialogue and response
 3. Offering praise or positive feedback
 4. Giving or extending information
 5. Clarifying information
 6.
Restating information

 7.
Directing discussion
 8.
Sharing personal reactions
 9.
Relating concepts to life experiences
 10. Sensitivity
to child’s ability & interests
 11. Defining
vocabulary words
12. Opportunities for the child to
use vocabulary from the books
 12. Varying voices, whispers & coos
13. Performing
 14. Listening actively
 15. Using story props
 16. Multiple readings of a book
17. Answering questions
1) making children listen quietly to the
written text being read
2) adults’ management of child’s body:
a) pushes
b) pulls
c) c)s
c) pinches child
3) Adults’ management of books:
 a) resists child turning pages
 b) becomes absorbed by book , ignores child
4)Adults’ response to child’s affective behavior:
 a) reprimands child
 b) comments negatively about child’s
participation
Child
 a)
learns from shared reading:
written language features
 b) written language is different from
oral language
 c) print material conveys meaning
 d) handle a book
 e) printed words on page have sounds
 Desire
to read,
 Deal with syntactic complexity,
 Vocabulary growth,
 Comprehension
 Independent practice reading.
 Initial decoding skills,
 Low
language development of children
 Low print awareness development of
children
 Large gaps in language & literacy
before entry into preschool
 Additional deficits/gaps in development
of phonological skills in 4K and 5K
 Center-based
interventions in late
preschool period may be too late to close
the oral language gap of low literacy
children
 Many
parents won’t do dialogic reading at
all or enough and not well
 a)
 b)
 c)
 d)
 e)
 f)
story narrative
concepts about print
inventive writing
phonological skills
decoding
reading comprehension

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