PDR Slides

Report
Preliminary Design Review
Team Remote Environmental Sensing Tram (REST)
October 16th, 2013
Team Members: Arsid Ferizi; Cameron Foss; Noah Pell; Michael Rizzo;
Advisor: Prof. Jackson
What is the Problem?
Forest Health Monitoring
• Lack of a “just right” method of
data collection
Too Hot (Expensive), Too Cold (Inefficient), Just Right (REST Solution)
http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/goldilocks-and-the-three-bears-christian-jackson.jpg
How significant is the problem?
•
The world depends on forests for food, water, recycling of carbon dioxide, and vital medicines [1]
•
Human activities such as oil extraction, logging, mining, fires, commercial agriculture, cattle ranching, hydroelectric
projects, pollution, hunting , and road construction retards forest functionality
•
Developing efficient monitoring methods is therefore paramount to forest survival
About 500 million people depend directly on forests for their livelihoods
[1] Nogueron, R. (2013, March 18). 5 Lessons for Sustaining Global Forests. Retrieved October 14, 2013,
from World Resource Institute Insights: http://insights.wri.org/news/2013/03/5-lessons-sustaining-global-forests
Forest Fires in the Sierra Nevada are both a cause and effect of global warming
http://sierra-alpinist.typepad.com/sierra_alpinist/2009/04/wildfires-both-cause-and-effect-of-global-warming-.html
Proposed Solution: Aerial Tram
• Subtle, reliable, moderately inexpensive and continuous on site data acquisition
Tram System Collecting Data in Harvard Forest
Photo Courtesy of Professor Siqueira
Proposed Solution: High Level Overview
Tram
•
•
Autonomously collects data from sensors
Transmits collected data to base station
Tower (Base Station)
•
•
•
Communicates with tram, to give commands and receive environmental data
Bridge between tram and the user
Has its own set of sensors to collect a range of environmental data
User Interface
•
•
Website for accessing recorded and real time data
Application provides control of tram
Requirements Analysis: Specifications
Tram
•
•
•
Autonomous
Accurately collect and transmit data to the base station wirelessly
Process commands sent from base station
Tower (Base Station)
•
•
•
Communicate with tram
Process data from own sensors
Send and receive data and commands to the UI over internet
User Interface
•
•
•
Receive data from base station
Tabulate data
Process user commands and transmit them to base station
Requirements Analysis: Input and Output
Input
•
•
•
•
Wireless control signals via internet connection
Vibrational data from the accelerometer
Environmental data (temperature, humidity, radiation…)
Internal clock
Output
•
•
Current environmental data
Database of environmental history
Solution: Block Diagram
UI and UI-Base Station Communication
User Interface
Requirements:
•
•
•
•
Allow users to change multiple settings on the aerial
tram
Allow users to send controls for aerial tram to execute
in real time
Deliver sensor data to users
Show real time video data from base station and tram
Implementation:
• Website
• Supports graphical representation of
environmental data
• Scripted input to direct operation of tram
• Real time video
This website is used by a company to display their data collected from remote sensors
http://mdw.srbc.net/remotewaterquality/data_viewer.aspx
TX/RX for UI-Base Station Communication
Requirements:
•
Send and receive data over the internet to the aerial tram
Photo Courtesy of Professor Siqueira
Implementation:
•
Landline to base station
Category 5 Cable
http://picclick.com/NEW-1-FOOT-PINK-CAT-5E-350
MHZ-UTP-ETHERNET-NETWORK-281140500650.html
Tram System – The “Base Station” is the shack located behind the blue structure
Communication (Base Station-TRAM)
Tx/Rx for Base Station-Tram Communication
Requirements:
• Wireless
•
•
•
Range of at least 50m
Adequate data rate
Reasonable power consumption
Implementation:
•
ZigBee RF Module Development Kit
• Outdoor/RF LOS Range = 120 m
• Data Rate = 1 Mbps
• Power = 1.25 mW, with sleep mode capability
• Kit comes with USB development boards
http://www.digiwireless-solutions.com/Bizit/store/product.php?id_product=187
Xbee ZB 2.4 GHz Development Kit
Control System (Base Station)
Control System (Base Station)
Requirements:
•
•
•
•
Non-technical
Perform data processing and storage at the base station
Process commands sent by the base station or web application
Manage autonomous tram operation
Implementation:
• Easily programmable connection to the network
• Labview or supported programming language
•
Matlab
• Autonomous data analysis
LGX AU140 Extended Temperature Intel Atom Computer Platform
http://www.logicsupply.com/media/manuals/LGX_AU140_Fanless_Computer_SpecSheet.pdf
Control System (Base Station)
Requirements:
•
Organize sensor data and commands into packets for
communication between base station and tram
Implementation:
•
CR1000 Data Logger
• 4MB of memory
• Analogue inputs: 16 single-ended
• Control/digital ports: 8
CR1000 Data Logger
http://www.campbellsci.com/cr1000
Control System (Base Station)
Data Logger Features:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Analog inputs
Digital pulse inputs
Digital serial inputs
Data storage
Communication hardware
Control ports
http://s.campbellsci.com/documents/us/manuals/cr1000.pdf
Sensors (Base Station)
Sensors (Base Station)
Requirements:
•
•
•
Capable of sensing wind speed and direction, temperature and humidity
Capable of observing surroundings
Reasonable power consumption and weight
Implementation:
•
Weather Meter
• Rain gauge – 0.2794 mm of rain = 1 count
•
Anemometer – 1.5 MPH wind speed = 1 switch close/sec
•
Wind vane – 16 different positions
https://www.sparkfun.com/products/8942
SEN-08942- Weather Meter
Sensors (Base Station)
Implementation:
•
•
Temperature and Humidity Probe
• Temperature
• Measurement Range: -80°C to +60°C
• ≈ +/- 0.15°C accuracy (Temperature dependent)
• Humidity
• Measurement Range: 0.8 to 100% RH
• ≈ +/- 1.3% RH accuracy (Relative Humidity dependent)
HMP35C- Temperature and Humidity Probe
IP Camera
• 640 X 480 resolution
• Microphone
• 26.2 ft. Night vision and Infrared
• Wireless connection along with 10/100 Mbps Ethernet LAN port
http://www.campbellsci.com/hmp155a
http://www.bhphotovideo.com/bnh/controller/home?O=&sku=841297&is=REG&Q=&A=details
Foscam FI8910W Wireless IP Camera
Motor Controls (Base Station)
Motor Controls (Base Station)
Requirements:
•
Move the TRAM at a consistent speed to indicated destination
Implementation:
•
Stepper Motor and Driver
• Low vibration
• 3 N∙m torque up to 150 rpm
AR66AKD-T10-3, AlphaStep Closed Loop Stepper
Motor and Drive with Built-in Controller
http://www.orientalmotor.com/products/stepper-motors/AR-series-stored-data-controller-dc.html
Sensors (TRAM)
Sensors (TRAM)
Requirements:
•
•
•
Capable of sensing radiation, motion or vibration and altitude
Capable of visually observing surroundings
Lightweight, reliable, reasonable power consumption
Implementation:
•
Four Channel Net Radiometer
• Pyranometer – SW 285-3,000 nm
• Pyrgeometer – LW 4,500-40,000 nm
•
Spectral Reflectance Sensor
• Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)
• 531±3 and 570±3 nm wavelengths
• Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)
• 630±5 and 800±5 nm wavelengths
http://www.hukseflux.com/product/nr01-net-radiometer?referrer=/product_group/pyranometer
http://www.hoskin.ca/catalog/index.php?main_page=product_info&products_id=2611
Four Channel Net Radiometer
Spectral Reflectance Sensor
A Closer Look at Net Radiation
Sharp dip at 531 nm indicates the activity of Xanthophyll pigments
• Depending on the type, density and health
of the vegetation the amount of absorbed
and reflected light will change
Absorption of light by Chlorophyll and β-Carotene
As PRI increases radiation-use efficiency
increases
http://hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov/downloads/2010_Symposium/09-Gamon-PRI.pdf
http:[email protected]=bv.view..showsection&rid=mcb.figgrp.d1e74629.htm
Sensors (TRAM)
Implementation:
•
Accelerometers
• Sensitivity – 300 mV/g (typical)
• Shock survival - 10,000 g (maximum)
• Power consumption - 350 μA (typical)
•
Ultrasonic sensor
• Distance 6-20 feet
• Within +/-0.1% accuracy over the entire distance range
• Power consumption – 25 mW
http://www.adafruit.com/products/163?gclid=CJ2B0t-mmroCFZKk4Aod9wkAZQ
http://pdf.directindustry.com/pdf/senscomp/cricket-ultrasonic-sensors/33754-419985.html
ADXL335 - triple-axis accelerometer
Cricket A-Ultrasonic sensor
Sensors (TRAM)
Implementation:
•
Webcam
• HD video – 1280 x 720 pixels
• Photos – Up to 3.0 megapixels
• Built – in microphone
Logitech HD Webcam C270
http://www.logitech.com/en-us/product/hd-webcam-c270
Control System (TRAM)
Control System (TRAM)
Requirements:
•
Organize sensor data and commands into packets for
communication between base station and tram.
Implementation:
•
CR1000 Data Logger
• 4MB of memory
• Analogue inputs: 16 single-ended
• Control/digital ports: 8
CR1000 Data Logger
http://www.campbellsci.com/cr1000
Broader Impacts
Special Populations:
• Less data impedes trend recognition and early intervention
• Politicians can not make laws to help better the environment if
they do not have data showing the environment is in danger.
The Omnibus Public Lands Management Act sets aside more than 2 million acres
that protects land from California’s Sierra Nevada mountains to the Jefferson National Forest
http://www.sustainabilityninja.com/government-industry-sustainability/obama-signs-bill-to-protect-wilderness-28285/
Moral Obligation:
Problem:
•
Base Station, Tram and Human presence in the forest may disturb
the ecosystem
Solution:
•
Coordination with trained forest conservatives to mitigate the
Tram’s impact on wildlife
Hikers enjoying the beauty of nature
http://www.corbisimages.com/stock-photo/royalty-free/42-19758334/people-hiking-in-the-woods
Design Alternatives
Manual Data Collection
•
•
•
•
•
Travel to site and manually collect data.
Have to return home to analyze data.
Cheaper than aerial tram solution.
Easier to move and analyze more than one area.
Slower, physically demanding and not as precise as aerial tram.
Hyper Spectroscopic Imaging
•
•
•
•
Hyper spectral cubes are generated from airborne sensors
Image spectral bands over a continuous spectral range,
and produce the spectra of all pixels in the scene.
Used to monitor the development and health of plants.
More expensive than aerial tram
Manual Data Collection
http://perceval.bio.nau.edu/MPCER_OLD/images/Fish%20Sampling%20FC-NAU.jpg
Two-dimensional projection of
a hyper-spectral cube
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperspectral_imaging
NASA's Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer
http://aviris.jpl.nasa.gov/
Proposed MDR Deliverables
• Demonstration of data collection from environmental sensors
• Demonstration of tram and base station communication
• Demonstration of website and tram basic interaction
• Tram is able to send and receive test data
• Website displays test data, and is able to send text data to tram
Team REST’s Schedule
Task
Task Leader
Week of
October 7th
Week of
October 14th
Week of
October 21th
Week of
October 28th
Week of
November 4th
Week of
November 11th
Week of
November 18th
Week of
November
25th
Week of
December 2nd
Week of
December 9th
Phase 1: Preparation and
Design
Sensor and communication
system (TRAM)
Mike
x
User interface
Arsid
x
x
Sensor and Control System I Cameron
(Base Station)
Control System II and Data
Logger
Noah
Preliminary Design Review
Mike
x
Arsid
Mike
x
Phase 2: Development and
Test
Develop Subsystems
Integrate the Subsystems
Test the Prototype
Correct Errors
Noah
Cameron
Phase 3: Finalize Mid-Year
Product
Mid-Term Design Review
Arsid
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Phase 4: Report Findings
Mid-Term Draft Report
Mid-Term Final Report
Cameron
Noah
x
x
x
x
x
x
Questions….
Power (Base Station)
Load Description
Computer
Tower Data Logger
Tram Data Logger
Ethernet Switch
Fan
Net Radiometer Heater
Hyperspectral Imager
Breezeaccess Radio
Motor
IP Camer
Total
Total AC Power [W]
Total DC Power [W]
Total AC Power Consumption
[Wh/day]
Total DC Power Consumption
[Wh/day]
Weighted Operating Time [hr/day]
Average Daily DC Power
Consumption [Wh/day]
DC Loads
Power
Operating Time Power Consumption
Quantity
Rating (W)
(hr/day)
(Wh/day)
1
120
13
1560
1
0.46
12.94
5.98
1
0.46
8.25
3.81
1
5
24
120
1
18
6
108
1
1.6
8
12.8
1
7.5
24
180
1
25
13
325
1
91.2
1.33
121.6
1
6
13
78
10
275.22
123.52
2,515.20
0
275.22
0
2,515.20
7.08
2,515.20
Array Sizing (48 VDC)
Power Consumption [Wh/day]
DC System Voltage [V]
Critical Design Month Insolation [PSH/day]
Battery Charging Efficiency
Required Array Maximum Power Current [A]
Soiling Factor
Rated Array Maximum Power Current
Temperature Coefficient for Voltage
Maximum Expected Module Temperatrue [C]
Rating Reference Temperature [C]
Rated Array Maximum Power Voltage [VDC]
Module Rated Maximum Power Current [A]
Module Rated Maximum Power Voltage [VDC]
Module Rated Maximum Power [W]
Number of Modules in Series
Number of Module Strings in Parallel
Total Number of Modules
Actual Array Rated Capacity [W]
2,515.20
48
2.8
0.85
22.02
0.95
23.18
0.0045
50
25
64.08
7.9
29.8
235
3
2
6
1,410

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