Reducing the barriers for tacit knowledge: BTEC students’ progression to university Linking London Higher Education Collaborative Conference: Supporting Learner’s Progress to HE Content Data proves BTEC students’ progress to HE is on the rise What is Vocational? The future of Vocational Education NewVIc Barriers to success Discussion Data proves BTEC students’ progress to HE is on the rise Context BTEC are now the single biggest cohort of L3 progressors to HE from London colleges: BTEC (full-time): NVQ: Other vocational/PT: A-level/IB: Access: AS Level: Other vocational/FT: 23.6% 19.6% 19.5% 16.3% 9.6% 8.5% 2.9% (on basis of main level 3 qualification) Entry Rate English 18 year old entry rate by qualifications held 5.8 per cent of the 18 year old population entered holding BTECs, almost twice the rate in 2008 Acceptance Percentage Rate 25.5% of UK 18 year olds were accepted for entry in 2013 holding at least one A level 5.8% of UK 18 year olds were accepted for entry in 2013 holding BTECs, almost twice the rate of 2008 Half this increase has been for applicants holding BTECs in combination with A levels. The BTEC + A level entry rate is growing the fastest. This is likely to be driven by increasing numbers of students taking A level and BTEC combinations. Entry Rate for those holding BTECs The data would suggest there is little difference by background; increases to new highs for all groups in 2013 The entry rate for the English 18 year old population holding BTECs shows relatively little differentiation by background. Around 6 per cent of the 18 year old population in each background group were accepted for entry in 2013 holding BTECs, with the exception of the most advantaged areas English 18 year old entry rates by POLAR2 group (accepted applicants holding BTECs) Increasing Proportion of Acceptances In higher tariff institutions (=>375 pts), for every 100 acceptances holding A levels there are around three acceptances that hold BTECs. This ratio has been relatively constant since 2009. In medium tariff institutions (>260<375 pts) the ratio of acceptances holding BTECs to acceptances holding A levels has been increasing year-on-year to reach a new high in 2013 of 19 BTEC acceptances for every 100 A level acceptances. Lower tariff institutions (< 260 pts) accept the highest proportion of applicants holding BTECs relative to A levels, increasing from 35 BTEC acceptances per 100 A level acceptances in 2011 to 49 in 2013. Please note the tariff point banding is based on the tariff score of applicants, not the HEI entry requirement, and is used to produce a roughly even spread of institutions in each band. English 18 year old ratio of acceptances holding BTECs to acceptances holding A levels Acceptance rates increased for both A level and BTEC holders in 2013. Acceptance rates for those holding BTECs increased to highest ever recorded The acceptance rate for those who hold A levels is higher than the acceptance rate for those holding BTECs. However since 2010, the difference in the acceptance rate for those holding BTECs has reduced from 7% in recent years to only 5% in 2013. For those holding BTECs the acceptance rate in 2013 is 81%, the highest recorded. For those holding A levels the acceptance rate is 86%, 1% point lower than in 2008. Acceptance rates for English 18 year olds by type of qualification held What is Vocational? Identify the Vocational Careers DOCTOR HAIR DRESSER BARRISTER PLUMBER TEACHER SOCIAL WORKERS PETROLEUM ENGINEER PROGRAMMER NURSE What is Vocational Education? Enable people to consider what kind of lives they want to lead - ‘to become’ Make sense of the changing world Be empowered citizens A means to transform society - not simply serve the needs of the economy Forms of Vocational E&T College-based School-based Work-based Dual system Apprenticeship (model of learning) Internship - Work Experience Workplace Professional Formation and Development Vocational learning in everyday life Complex Pedagogy Collective as well as individual learning horizontally and vertically Develops codified, procedural, personal, cultural, and tacit knowledge Recontextualises, translates and applies disciplinary knowledge to form vocational curricula Gives a central role to practice and trial and error - forms of feedback vary True Vocational: Tacit Knowledge The skilled carpenter knows just how a given variety of wood must be handled, or what type of joint will best serve his purpose at a particular edge. To say that he ‘knows’ these things is not to claim that he could put his knowledge into words. That is never entirely possible...The practitioner’s knowledge of the medium is tacit. It is essentially a practiced skill. Powerful Knowledge ‘Practical learning’, ‘Learning by doing’ dangerous terms Downplay ‘formal’ learning and knowledge – suggest many jobs are not ‘knowledge-based’ – English problem of not valuing ‘ordinary’ jobs German concept of ‘Beruf’ – every occupation has a corresponding body of vocational knowledge/theory – therefore – associated vocational pedagogy True empowerment comes through access to learning that takes individuals beyond current competence The Future of Vocational Education The Future of Vocational Education ‘Technical Level Qualifications’, which are vocational qualifications for students wishing to specialise their studies around a specific occupation (for example, Laboratory Technician) or occupational area (for example, Science, Engineering and Production Technicians). ‘Applied General Qualifications’, which are vocational qualifications for students who wish to continue their general education through applied learning and then progress to further learning, probably at university. The Future of Vocational Education: Tech Level qualifications Tech Levels are level 3 (advanced) qualifications for student wanting to specialise in a technical occupation or occupational group. These qualifications will: ◦ Support progression into recognised occupations, such as engineering, IT, accounting or professional cookery ◦ Be recognised by a relevant trade or professional body, or by at least five employers registered with Companies House that are representative of the relevant industry sector or occupation. ◦ Many higher education institutions have also given their support for Tech Level qualifications. The Future of Vocational Education: Applied General qualifications Applied General qualifications are level 3 (advanced) qualifications which provide broad study of a vocational area. These qualifications will be: ◦ Recognised by at least three Higher Education Institutions as fulfilling entry requirements to a range of HE courses, either in their own right or alongside other level 3 qualifications ◦ Supported by a range of employers and professional or trade bodies. Tech Vs Applied General Synoptic Assessment Required for both Technical Level and Applied General qualifications. External Assessment Required for both Technical Level and Applied General qualifications. Amount not specified in percentages and we are seeking further clarification. Grading Grading is required for both Technical Level and Applied General qualifications. Pass/Fail not enough, but Pass, Merit Distinction is OK. Employer Involvement Stipulated for Technical Level qualifications only. Progression Evidence of progression required for both Technical Level and Applied General qualifications within the first 2 years of a qualification being awarded. Tech Vs Applied General Tech: http://www.edexcel.com/notices/Docume nts/Pearson%20Tech%20Level%20Qualific ations%20%20updated%20April%202014.pdf Applied: http://www.edexcel.com/notices/Docume nts/Pearson%20Applied%20General%20Q ualifications%20%20updated%20April%202014.pdf NewVIc What NewVIc does? Different entry requirements for different courses Assignments are written which require long prose and academic writing Some areas set internal examinations Program teams review entry requirements for their subject degrees and make sure the students have the relevant entry reqs, such as an A level in Maths for Computer Science Barriers Barriers to Success Lack of academic writing skills Express through examples not theory Given all sources by teachers Low expectations by teachers and students Lack revision and exam technique Discussion Discussion Topics: How to best support your students to progress? What are the barriers that you see? What could universities do to support BTEC progressing students? “Sext” Horae Canonicae You need not see what someone is doing To know if it is his vocation, You only have to watch his eyes: A cook mixing his sauce, a surgeon making a primary incision, A clerk completing a bill of lading Wear the same rapt expression. Forgetting themselves in function, How beautiful it is, That eye-on-the-object look. W.H. Auden 1954 Sources Linking London - Progression of London College Level 3 Learners to HE, Hugh Joslin and Sharon Smith, University of Greenwich UCAS 2013 End of Cycle Report http://www.ucas.com/sites/default/files/ucas-2013-end-of-cycle-report.pdf Annex C – OFFA commissioned analysis from HEFCE on Trends in Young Participation by selectivity of institution http://www.offa.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Trends-in-young-participation-byselectivity-of-institution.pdf Unwin, L (2014), ‘Vocational Pedagogy’, paper presented at Newham Sixth Form College, April 30th 2014. 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