- Unit 4 - Reading Foundations Standards: Teaching Decoding

Report
Unit 2 Sections 3-4
Review Example Instructional Sequence for Phonics,
Word Analysis, and Spelling
Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences, Syllable Patterns, and
Morphemes in English Orthography
Expected by End of
Grade Level
Reading Spelling
A few transparent consonant blends: qu, st, sm, sn, -st, -ft, lp
K
1
Consonant digraphs sh, ch, wh, th, ng
1
1
Consonant trigraphs, with and without digraphs (splint; square)
2
2
Concept of closed syllable needing consonant guards to keep the vowel short 1–3
1–3
Concept of open syllable with no guards, allowing vowel to be long
1–3
1–3
Two or more spellings for certain sounds: /s/ = c, s /z/ = s, z
/k/ = k, c, -ck after a short vowel /j/ = j, g
Principle of hard and soft c and g (carry, cent; girl, gentle)
1
1
1–2
2–3
Identify base word and inflectional suffix on single-syllable base words with
no spelling change (help, helps, helped, helping)
VCe long vowel pattern in single syllable words (wage, theme, fine, doze,
cute/rude)
1
1
1
2
Review the Developmental Sequence
Grade One
Reading Objectives for Phonics and Word
Recognition
(RF.1.3a,b,c,g,h)
Typical Activities for
Phonics and Word Recognition
Stage One (Weeks 1-5)
Stage Two (Weeks 6-10)
With reference to sound-spelling cards
containing a keyword and major spellings for
each sound, learn sound-spelling
associations by means of a see/hear/say/and
write sequence: /m/, /ă/, /t/, /h/, /p/, /n/,
/k/ spelled c, /d/, /s/, /ĭ/, /b/. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Learn sound-spelling associations by means
of a see/hear/say/and write sequence: /r/,
/f/, /g/, /ŏ/, /ks/ spelled x, /ar/, /k/ spelled
-ck, /ŭ/, /z/, /l/, /ĕ/ spelled e and ea, /y/,
/w/, /hw/ spelled wh, /er/ spelled ir, ur, or
er. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Blend and read simple words containing the
taught sound-spellings, in isolation and in
connected text. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Blend and read simple words containing the
taught sound-spellings, in isolation and in
connected text. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Using a tracing, oral-spelling, and visual
imagery routine, learn approximately three
to five common irregular new words per
week. (Note: many of the most common
words in English do follow regular patterns
of phonics and are no longer “irregular”
once the patterns have been taught.)
(RF.1.3h)
Read regular plural nouns formed with “s”
and pronounced /s/ or /z/ (e.g., cats, dogs)
and explain the meaning of the plural.
(RF.1.3g)
(Note: Introduce about two new sounds per
week.) As each new sound-symbol card is
introduced, teach a simple story or rhyme
about the sound (e.g., “This is Leo the Lion;
he loves to lick lollipops…). With learned
associations, play “I’m thinking of…”(e.g.,
the letter that represents /h/; a sound that
letter c can represent; a vowel that begins
the word apple…). (RF.1.3a,b,c)
(Note: Introduce about two to three new
sounds per week.) Conduct daily quick drills
with learned sound-symbol associations: You
say the sound, students say the letter(s); you
say the letter(s), students say the sound; you
say the sound, students write the letter(s).
Automaticity is the goal. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Blend fifteen to thirty words per day with
sound-symbol associations that have been
taught; then read in phrases, sentences, and
books. Underline or color code the sight
words that don’t follow the learned patterns.
Stage Three (Weeks 11-15)
Learn sound-spelling associations by means
of a see/hear/say/and write sequence: /sh/
spelled sh, /th/, /ch/, /k/ spelled k, /ā/
spelled a and a_e, /j/ spelled j and -dge, /j/
spelled ge, gi, /ī/ spelled i, i_e, /s/ spelled ce,
ci, /ō/ spelled o, o_e, /z/ spelled s, /v/, /ū/
spelled u, u_e, /ē/ spelled e, e_e, /ē/ spelled
ee, ea, /kw/ spelled qu, long vowels + r, /ē/
spelled y, _ie_, /ā/ spelled ai, ay, /ī/ spelled
igh, /ī/ spelled y, ie, /ng/ spelled -ng
(RF.1.3a,b,c)
Apply associations to blending and reading
simple words in isolation and in connected
text. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Read plural nouns with -s and -es and verbs
with -ing. (RF.1.3g)
Blend fifteen to thirty words per day with
sound-symbol associations that have been
taught; then read in phrases, sentences, and
books. Include nouns with the non-syllabic
plural -s. (RF.1.3a,b,c,g)
To teach the VCe pattern for long vowels,
use letter tiles to show how “magic e”
changes words: mad-made, hop-hope, petPete, cut- cute, hid-hide. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Ask students to underline target letter
combinations before blending whole words
with a new letter pattern: close, cent, nice;
dodge; high. (RF.1.3a,b,c)
Grade 1 Phonics and
Word Recognition Standards
RF.1.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills
in decoding words.
a. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.
b. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
c. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long
vowel sounds.
d. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine
the number of syllables in a printed word.
e. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words
into syllables.
f. Read words with inflectional endings.
g. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.
Syllable Instruction
Students begin to read multisyllable words
and may need practice orally breaking words
into syllables.
Remember:
• Syllable types are all about the vowels!
• A syllable has one vowel sound that causes the
mouth to open.
• All vowels are voiced.
Student Activity 4.10:
Repeated Reading Procedure
Student Activity 4.15: The Three Sounds of -ed
Stage Six
The inflectional suffix -ed has meaning. It is added to verbs, and
can be pronounced three ways: /d/, /t/, and /ed/.
wiped
loved
printed walked billed fitted
/ed/
/t/
/d/
mended
picked
filled
Understanding High-Frequency Words
Some high-frequency words can be decoded and
others cannot.
• High-frequency words such as and, be, can, in, that, for, and
this can all be sounded out.
• High-frequency words that do not follow a decodable pattern
are irregular. Words such as of, does, have, and from cannot
be sounded out based on patterns or a rule.
We need a routine for learning irregular words. Accuracy,
fluency, and automaticity are the goal. We want students to
learn these words by heart so they do not spend time stumbling
over these words.
Student Activity 4.16:
Irregular Word Routine
Stages One Through Six
The irregular word routine should include these six steps:
1. Trace the word written on a page three times with their fingers, saying the word and
naming the letters as they trace.
2. Trace the word written on a page three times with their pencils, saying the word and
naming the letters as they trace.
3. Stand up and skywrite the word three times, saying the word and naming the letters
as they trace.
4. Fold their papers in half vertically.
5. Write the word from a model three times on the left side of the paper, saying the
word and naming the letters each time they write it.
6. Write the word from memory three times on the right side of the paper, saying the
word and naming the letters each time they write it.
A Definition for Reading Fluency
• In the CCSS, reading fluency is defined as “reading
with sufficient speed and accuracy to support
understanding.”
• Fluency results from accurate, automatic
decoding, and comprehension of the words’
meanings (SVR).
Why Is Fluency so Important?
Increased fluency leads to:
• More reading.
decoding
• More vocabulary.
• Stronger comprehension.
Lack of fluency leads to:
• Less reading.
• Smaller vocabulary.
• Limited comprehension.
fluency
comprehension
Student Activity: Fluency Detective
Work
Stage Four
Directions:
• Revisit a text that students have read once for some
“detective work.”
• Ask students to read a sentence or page to find words that
tell why something happened, who did something, how
something was done, and so on.
• When students have found those words in their books,
choral read that section with appropriate phrasing.
Student Activity: Daily
One-Minute Speed Drills
Stage Six
Directions: Put six to eight irregular words on a 5x8 grid in
random order. Challenge students to read them accurately at a
rate of 40–60 words per minute.
1. Touch and name the words in the first row. (Teacher only)
2. Touch the words in the first row as students say them.
3. Start again at the top. Touch words as quickly as possible,
working across and down the chart.
4. Time students for one minute and see how many times they
can read the chart.
Summary
• Learning the code in first grade is extremely
important because early decoding reliably
predicts reading comprehension in subsequent grades.
• Failure to teach the code in the most straightforward
manner (e.g., through good, explicit phonics instruction
coupled with reasonably constrained texts) would leave
many children without the key to unlock the printed
message.
• Children without this key cannot independently enter the
world of quality literature; some may learn to dislike
reading entirely.
(Beck & Juel, 1995)

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