Ebola facts

Report
Ebola – Facts, Myths, and Fiction
Dr M. Oladoyin Odubanjo
Executive Secretary, The Nigerian Academy of Science (NAS)
1st Vice Chair, Association of Public Health Physicians of Nigeria (APHPN), Lagps Chapter
Presentation at Public Lecture by WHARC, Benin, 22nd September 2014
Country
Cum. No
of cases
Cum. No
of deaths
Case
fatality
rate (%)
Cum. No.
Of lab
confirmed
cases
Guinea
Liberia
Sierra
Leone
Nigeria
Senegal
942
2,710
1,673
601
1,459
562
63.8
53.8
33.6
750
812
1,513
21
1
8
0
38.1
0
19
1
Totals
5,347
2,630
49.2
3,095
Ebola Virus
• Virus:
– Begins in animals
– Can also infect humans
– Human-to-human infection
(outbreak)
• Discovery in 1976
– Yambuku, Zaire along Ebola River
Ebola, Culture and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease, by Barrie S. and Bonnie L. Hewlett.
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/bulletin/1978/Vol56-No2/bulletin_1978_56(2)_271-293.pdf
Where Does it Come From?
• Not entirely clear, but likely bats
Where Does it Come From?
• Bats may infect other animals
Where Does it Come From?
• Any of these can infect humans
Where Does it Come From?
• Once a human is infected, human-to-human
transmission occurs
Human to Human Transmission
• Ebola is transmitted
through
– Touching body fluids
of a person who is
sick with or has died
from Ebola,
– Touching or using
objects
contaminated with
Ebola
Signs of Ebola Virus Disease
• Signs generally begin 2-21 days after contact
with a person who is sick with Ebola
– Most commonly 1-2 weeks
– People who do not show signs of disease cannot
spread the disease
Signs
of Ebola Virus Disease
• General:
– Fever, headache, chills, weakness,
tiredness
• Gastrointestinal symptoms:
– Vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
• Possible other symptoms:
– Sore throat, hiccups
Other signs of Ebola Virus Disease
• Redness in the whites of the eyes
• Rash on the trunk
• Bleeding in 45% of cases (historically)
– Mild: nose bleed, bruising
– Severe: Gastro Intestinal bleeding, shock
Ebola symptoms are the same as
many other diseases!
•
•
•
•
Malaria
Typhoid fever
Cholera
Other viral hemorrhagic fevers (e.g., Lassa)
• Most people sick with fever, vomiting, and
diarrhea do not have Ebola
People at risk from Ebola
• Family
members of
sick people
• Healthcare
workers
What to do?
Viruses are quite easily killed using
sodium hypochlorite solution, exposure
to sunlight and drying…
• Wash hands with
running water
• Teach everyone around
you to wash hands
• Limit contact with ill
people and dead bodies
• Be clean – in person, at
home and at work
Key messages
• People well enough to walk around… are NOT
contagious
• You CANNOT catch it doing normal daily activities
• You CANNOT catch it by sitting on a bus or plane
• Good hygiene and hand-washing practices WILL
protect you and your loved ones
• DO NOT PANIC or spread panic on social media
• Spread the message of hand washing and cleaner
personal habits
Care of Ebola Patients
• Not all patients with Ebola die
• Patients who seek early care have a
better chance of recovery
• Ebola treatment centres provide the best care
for patients with Ebola
• To prevent risk of infection, family members or
friends should not attempt to care for Ebola
patients on their own
Recovering patients
• Remain weak for a while
• May need nutritional, social support
• Once a doctor determines that a patient has
recovered, it is safe for the patient to go home
and return to work
• Recovered patients are not a risk to their
families or the community
Acknowledgement
•
•
•
•
•
NCDC
FMoH
WHO
CDC
APHPN
For questions, please contact
[email protected]
0800 EBOLA HELP (toll free)
0800 32652 4357

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